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MARCH, 1880. 


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Contractors to the Government of Victoria, Bendigo District Hospital, Geelong 
Infirmary, Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, &c., &c. 


SPECIAL WHOLESALE AGENTS FOE 


Dr. De Jongh’s Cod Liver Oil. 

Lundborg’s & Atkinson’s Per- 
fumery. 

Green’s August Flower, and 
Boschee’s German Syrup. 

Bidwell’s Brushware. 

Whitall, Tatum & Co.’s Ame- 
rican Glass Bottleware. 

Bowdler & Bickerdike’s Car- 
bolic Preparations. 

Sullivan’s Disinfectants. 


Southall Bros.’ <& Barclay’s 
Drugs, &c. 

Corbyn, Stacey & Co.’s Spe- 
cialities. 

Sander & ^ ’s Eucalypti 
Preparat 

Longmore’s 'ton Cough 
Remedy 
Chastillier’e 
Don’s Neuro 
Norris’s Ccndit i\ ■■ '6: >ice. 


Dunstone’s Preparations. 
Warwick’s Worm Powders. 
Little’s Soluble Phenyle. 
Morris’s Eye Ointment. 
Kendrick’s Dead Shot Worm 
Candy. 

W. R Warner & Co.’s Sugar 
Coated Pills. 

E. Houghton & Co.’s Cos- 
moline Preparations. 


The most elegantly put np Preparation the kind in the Market. 

ROCKE, 7 MRS ITT & CO., Proprietors. 

I & 53 Flindere j ar, Zest, Melbourne. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


HEUIONS, LAWS L CO. 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS, 

5 5 & 57 

RUSSELL STREET, 


MELBOURNE. 


f. SL, -no ■ <£6 : *3 -jo (Manz/i , /S8o) ■ 


March, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


83 


TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


INDEX 

PAGE 


Leader- 

Pharmacy in New Zealand 83 

The Month 83 

Meetings — 

The Pharmacy Board 84 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 84 

Scientific Summary 85 

Sandhurst 85 


PAGE 

Ballarat 86 

Notes and Abstracts 86 

Correspondence 87 

The “ Drugging of Animals Act” 87 

A Paying Hospital 87 

Rust in Wheat 88 

S ANITAS, A LATE ANTISEPTIC 88 

Miscellaneous Formula 88 


„ PAGE 

Simple Method of Preparing a Solution 
of the Double Iodide of Bismuth and 
POTTASIUM FOR USE AS AN ALKALOIDAL 


Reagent 88 

Making Fern Pictures S9 

Remedies for Chilblains 89 

Water and Fire Proof Paper 89 

Cork, Corks, and Corkscrews 89 


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NOTICE. 

In accordance with the resolution passed at the Annual 
Meeting, a Special Meeting of the Members of the Phar- 
maceutical Society will be held at the Mutual Provident 
Buildings, Collins-street, on Friday, the 7th May, at eight 
o’clock p.m., to receive the Report of the Council in 
reference to the proposed Alteration in the Constitution 
and Laws of the Society. 

HARRY SHILLINGLAW, 

Hon. Sec. 

14th April, 1880. 


BIRTH. 

Blackett.— O n the 25th March, at 126 Gertrude-street, Fitzroy, the wife of 
C. R. Blackett of a son. 

DEATH. 

Perkins.— On the 16th March, at his residence. Piper-street, Kyneton, 
Ebenezer Perkins, aged forty-nine years. 


PHARMACY IN NEW ZEALAND. 

A movement to form a Pharmaceutical Society of New 
Zealand, inaugurated at the commencement of last year, 
has, we are glad to learn, progressed very favourably, so 
that by the end of October the number of members who 
had joined, exclusive of associates and apprentices, was 
upwards of one hundred. The head-quarters of the new 
society have been fixed at Wellington, with local com- 
mittees in Auckland, Christchurch, and Dunedin, and its 
first president is Mr. Charles D. Barraud. 

Notwithstanding the success that has been attained, a 
large number of chemists and druggists in business, 
amounting to one-third, have not yet joined the society, 
and in the prospect of an attempt being made to obtain 
a Pharmacy Act for the colony a vigorous effort is being 
made to induce these to join the common cause. 


In anticipation of the meeting of the colonial Parlia- 
ment a bill has been drafted, based on the Victoria Phar- 
macy Act, which is said to work well, and which in its 
turn was founded on the Pharmacy Acts of Great Britain. 
The main provisions would render examinations compulsory 
in New Zealand and u introduce means for systematic 
technical education. ” There are strong hopes of passing 
this bill, since the Wellington committee has been as- 
sured that it will command the cordial support of the 
Legislature as a measure calculated to afford important 
protection to the community and as being in accord with 
the views of a commission at present sitting on high- 
class education . — Pharmaceutical Journal. 


^hc Jffimih. 


The Registrar-General has recently registered a number of 
trade marks as follows : — A representation of a crucible, with 
the word “ Salamander” on it, on behalf of the Patent 
Plumbago Crucible Company, of Battersea, in England. The 
Holman Liver Pad Company, of New York, are registered as 
the proprietors of two marks in respect of surgical pads — 
viz., the word “ Holman,” and the representation of the bust 
of a man wearing a pad upon the stomach, as shown in the 
large bills posted about the city ; and the representation of a 
man seated in a chair with his feet in a bath, in respect of 
preparations to be put in baths for curative or medicinal 
purposes. 


The tenders of Messrs. Rocke, Tompsitt and Co., for the 
supply of medicines, instruments, &c., and photo-lithographic 
chemicals, to the Government of Victoria for the year 1880-81 , 
has been accepted by the Tender Board. 


At a recent meeting of the committee of the Melbourne 
Hospital the chairman stated that the resolution recently 
passed by the committee prohibiting the patients using ale and 
porter bottles for carrying their medicine had caused a very 
serious inconvenience to some of the patients, who had been 
compelled to leave the institution without their medicine in 
consequence of not having proper bottles. He considered that 
the previous resolution should be rescinded. Mr. Garton also 
was of the opinion that the patients should not be put to such 
inconvenience, as many of them could not obtain proper 
bottles, and gave notice that he would move at the next 
meeting of the committee that the previous resolution be 
rescinded. 


The following name has been added to the list of legally 
qualified medical practitioners, registered under the provisions 
of the Medical Practitioners Statute, 1865 Henry Pelham 
Gordon, Penshurst, M.R.C.S. Eng., 1866. Additional qualifica- 
tion registered — J . G. Beaney, M.D. Univ. Melb., 1879., a.e.g. 

The produce of the Murray fisheries has greatly fallen off, 
owin ^ to the lowness of the rivers. Now most of the fish is 
caug/i/ in the Moira Lakes. Leeches are caught in abundance 
in tie la kes, and a local tradesman has taken a contract to 


84 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1880. 


supply Messrs. Felton, Grimwade and Co. with 250,000 leeches ; 
50 lbs. weight have already been sent down. 


A meeting of the creditors of Messrs. W. H. Ford and Co., 
of Swanston-street, Melbourne, was held at the office of 
Mr. J. Bickerton, Queen-street, on the 5th April ; Mr. Couche 
in the chair. Mr. Ford submitted a statement of his assets 
and liabilities, which showed a deficiency of over £3000. 
Mr. Grimwade proposed that Messrs. Couche and J. Iiemmons 
be appointed to investigate the estate, and to report at a 
future meeting to be called. The proposal was carried 
unanimously. 


There have been several business changes lately to note. 
Mr. John Ross is now carrying on, at No. 63 Collins-street, the 
business formerly conducted by Mr. Gibson; Mr. J. F. F. 
Grace has purchased the business of Mr. H. Bewley, at 
St. Arnaud ; Mr. R. B. Bridge, of Bright, has left that place 
for Euroa. 


Mr. C. R. Blackett (president of the Pharmaceutical Society) 
has been appointed a Royal Commissioner for the Melbourne 
International Exhibition. 


Sydney Exhibition Awards.— The following supplement- 
ary report has been published “Chemicals.— Victoria— Jos. 

Bosisto, Richmond, essential oil, first ; Cuming, Smith and 
Co., Melbourne, chemicals and mineral acids, first; Felton, 
Grimwade and Co., Melbourne, chemicals and mineral acids, 
first ; Apollo Stearine Candle Company, Melbourne, candles, 
&c., first; A. Borthwick, Melbourne, varnishes and paints, 
second. 


illcctings. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the board was held at the Royal 
Society’s Hall on the 10th March, 1880 ; present— Messrs. 
Bosisto, Brind, Bowen, Holdsworth, Kennedy, Kruse, and 
Lewis. 

The registrar produced the return made to him by the re- 
turning officer of the members elected on the 5th February, 
1880, in accordance with the seventh section of the regula- 
tions. 

On the motion of Mr. Lewis, Mr. H. Brind took the chair. 

Appointment of President.— The chairman proposed Mr. 
Joseph Bosisto, M.L. A., as president ; seconded by Mr. Bowen, 
and carried unanimously. 

The President then took the chair. 

Appointment of Treasurer. — Mr. Brind proposed that Mr. 
George Lewis be appointed treasurer, and referred in compli- 
mentary terms to the manner in which Mr. Lewis had per- 
formed the duty during the last three years. The motion was 
seconded by Mr. Kennedy, and carried unanimously. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were then read and 
confirmed. 

Applications for Registration.— The following were 
approved Alfred Richmond, Richmond ; Albert Charles 
Dunn, Nagambie (provisional certificate) ; Henry Simonds, 
Richmond (certificate from Pharmaceutical Society, Great 
Britain). 

Renewals of Certificates under the Sale and JJse of Poisons 
Act.— Tong On, Harrietville ; Hoy Ling, Vaughan ; Sun Lee 
On, Omeo ; Ho Lim Sin, Swift’s Creek ; Sun Hi 
land ; Morgan W. Edwards, Lubeck (new certifica 


Apprentices' Indentures Registered. — John Shrigley, 

Clunes ; Frank H. Cole, Fitzroy ; Edward H. Morrison, Sand- 
hurst ; Duncan Shaw, Collingwood. 

Appointment of Examiners. — The following were appointed 
examiners for the modified examination for the year 1880 
Mr. Joseph Bosisto, honorary examiner Materia Medica; 
Mr. C. R. Blackett, Pharmacy and Latin ; Mr. Wm. Johnson, 
Chemistry. 

Names Erased from the Register. — John Summers, Na- 
gambie ; George Page, Violet Town ; certificates of their 
deaths having been received from the deputy-registrar of 
births and deaths. 

Correspondence.— A letter was received from W. P. Green, 
of Geelong, stating that he had returned to the colony, and 
requesting that his name might be restored to the register. 
A similar communication was also received from R. D. 
Murray, Ararat. In these cases the applicants had left the 
colony; and,,in accordance with the provisions of the 13th 
section of the Act, letters had been written to them to their 
last known address, and no answer having been received, their 
names had been erased from the register. The board decided 
that they must comply with the provisions of the 13th section 
of the Act before their names could be restored to the register. 
The following communications were dealt with : — From the 
hon. secretary Medical Society of Victoria ; the police, Omeo 
and Harrietville ; Sun Lu On, Jane Summers, Mrs. Coates ; 
registrars School of Mines, Ballarat and Sandhurst ; from the 
police, Ballarat, Eganstown, Omeo, Warrnambool, and 
Smythesdale ; A. J. Owen, manager National Bank ; deputy- 
registrars Violet Town and Nagambie; R. B. Bridge, Arthur 
Power, M. Shanasy, Clemes and Bartleman; police, Benalla 
and Fitzroy ; secretary Medical Board. 

The Eighth Preliminary Examination. — The examiners for- 
warded their report of the candidates passed. 

Financial and routine business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The monthly meeting of the society was held at the Mutual 
Provident Building, Collins-street, on Friday, the 2nd April ; 
present— Messrs. Blackett, Lewis, Hooper, Bowen, Thomas, 
Huntsman, Macgowan, Baker, and Jones. 

Mr. G. Lewis moved that Mr. Thomas Huntsman take the 
chair. 

Appointment of Officebearers.— Mr. Lewis said he felt great 
pleasure^ in proposing that the retiring officers be re-elected. 
The year would be a most eventful one, as the Exhibition 
would no doubt attract many visitors to the colony. The 
following were unanimously elected :— Messrs. C. R. Blackett 
president ; William Bowen, vice-president ; Messrs. Henry 
Gamble, treasurer ; Harry Shillinglaw, honorary secretary. 

The president then took the chair, and briefly expressed his 
thanks for the honour conferred upon him. 

The vice-president also said he felt gratified at the honour 
done him by re-electing him vice-president. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were then read and 
confirmed. 

An apology was received from Mr. Gamble, who was unable 
to be present. 

Election of New Members. — The following new members, 
proposed at the last meeting, were duly elected Messrs*. 
F. E. : Sloper, Sydney ; P. J. Walsh, Hillston, N.S.W ; R. J. 
Poulton, Fitzroy; James Pendlebury, Emerald Hill; and 
David Clark, Warwick, Queensland. Mr. H. G. M ‘Burney, of 
Benalla, was also nominated as a member. 

Removal of Offices. — Mr. J. C. Jones said he desired to 
know why and by whose authority the offices of the society 
had been removed from the Royal Society’s Hall. 

The president explained that the society were sub-tenants 


On, nick- 


n, av 

>A 


March, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


85 


and that in consequence of the removal of the offices of the 
Pharmacy Board the society had also to remove. 

Mr. Jones complained that the Pharmacy Board had 
exercised an undue influence over the affairs of the society, 
and he moved that a committee be appointed to secure suit- 
able premises. He thought the society was not in a position 
to spend money in paying high rent for accommodation they 
did not want. The motion was not seconded. 

Mr. Bowen said that no proposition had yet been made to 
the society from the Pharmacy Board, who had taken the 
rooms, and if the society did not want the accommodation 
offered after the next meeting of the Pharmacy Board some 
definite proposition would be made, when it would be time 
enough to then consider the matter. 

Proposed Amendment of the Constitution and Lams . — 
A committee of the whole council considered the proposed 
alterations submitted by Mr. Brownscombe, and agreed upon 
certain amendments to be submitted to a general meeting of 
the society on the 7th May next. 

Alteration of Time of Meeting. — Mr. Macgowan gave notice 
that he would at the next meeting move that the meeting of 
the council be held at three o’clock p.m. in lieu of eight o’clock 
p.m. 

Finance. — In the absence of the hon. treasurer, the hon. 
secretary submitted a statement of the position of the 
society for the current year. The statement showed the 
financial position of the society to be in a very satisfactory 
condition. 

Correspondence . — Communications mere received from the 
folloming : — The Secretary Pharmaceutical Society , Great 
Britain, forwarding the calendar for 1880 ; A. Power , A. It. 
Dix, David Clark , Professor Maish , E. P. Jones , J. Henzen- 
roeder, Max Brown , R. G. Evans , George Wilson (Deniliguin ), 
Charles V. Florence , E. L. Marks , R. Hughes , S. H. Henshall , 
E. Beythein , A. B. Jefferson , J. De Castro , T. Phillips , 
E. H. Jackson , D. Lerew , C. A. Bundle , Warner and Scott , 
J. Whittle, P. J. Walsh , G. Wilson ( Portland ) , Max Pincus, 
E. Fyvie, W. H. Eager, F. Wheeler, J. Brownscombe, J. Holds - 
worth, G. F. Chamberlin, R. Cowl. 


Scientific Summary. 


From the Pharmaceutical and other journals this month we 
have very few matters of interest or novelty to report. 

To a limited number of persons, sneezing appears to be a 
pleasant operation, but those who find it excessively disagree- 
able will be glad to learn of a simple and cheap remedy, made 
known in the British Medical Journal by Mr. S. M. Bradley, 
surgeon to the Royal Infirmary at Manchester. It consists in 
placing a loose plug of cotton wool in the nostrils. In hay 
fever, in a dusty atmosphere, or in those stages of catarrh in 
which a cold atmosphere is irritating to the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, this simple application is said to give 
immediate relief. 

An Italian correspondent of the Lancet calls attention to 
an insidious and frightfully fatal disease called “pellaga,” of 
which no less than 97,000 Italians are said to be dying at the 
present time, the number of victims representing 3*62 per 1000 
of the whole population, and in the infected departments, 
especially in Lombardy and Venice, a higher proportion than 
ever occurred during the worst cholera epidemic in France. 
The disease usually runs a slow course, like consumption. Its 
cause is believed to be the exclusive consumption as food of 
maize in a deteriorated condition, and the unhealthy state of 
the hovels in which the rustics live. 

Under proper treatment it would seem that aconite is by 
no means one of the most fatal poisons. In the British 
Medical Journal for 27th December an account is given of 
recovery after taking a teaspoonful of linimentum aconiti, a 
quantity nearly equal in strength to an ounce of the B.P. 
tincture. It cannot be too widely known that after an emetic 
has been given, or the stomach-pump used, the antidotes to 


aconite poisoning which have been found most effectual are 
strong stimulants, such as ether, brandy, ammonia, &c. 

In New Remedies for this month a new suppository mould 
is described and figured, which has the advantage of com- 
pressing the suppositories while the mould is opened, and thus 
preventing their breakage when made of cacao butter or other 
material of a friable character. 

In a note upon vanillin, in the Chemiker-Zeitung (18th and 
25th December), by Messrs. Haarmann and Reimer, regret 
is expressed that consumers of vanilla have been so slow in 
adopting the use of the vanillin prepared artificially by the 
oxidation of coniferin. On more than one occasion, however, 
statements have been quoted in this journal which, if correct, 
would fully explain this, to the effect that the artificial 
vanillin does not truly represent all the aromatic principle 
of vanilla. Nevertheless, in the present article the authors 
maintain that the artificial vanillin is not to be distinguished 
from the natural principle for which vanilla is valued, it 
being identical in melting point, crystalline form, smell, taste, 
and chemical reactions, whilst it can be produced much more 
cheaply. The amount of vanillin in vanilla varies from \ to 
2 per cent., and it is estimated that the annual consumption 
of vanilla amounts to at least 50,000 kilograms yearly, at 
a cost of £150,000. This the authors claim would be 
fully represented by 1000 kilograms of vanillin, costing 
£70,000. 

At a recent meeting of the Chemical Society Dr. Pavy 
brought forward a modification in connection with the test 
for sugar by the reduction of cupric oxide, which promises 
to be of service where the test is only occasionally used. In 
order to obviate the inconveniences accompanying the keeping 
of the usual test solution for any considerable time, he has 
sought for a method of bringing a mixture of the dry ingre- 
dients into a coherent mass, so that they might be kept in 
solid form. This has now been effected under his directions 
by means of pressure, and the product is a sort of pellet, which, 
when placed in about 3 c.c. of water, and heat applied, yields 
the clear deep blue liquid constituting the ordinary cupric 
test solution. 

The death is announced of Dr. William Budd, formerly of 
Bristol, whose name will long be honourably remembered in 
association with the investigation of the nature of typhoid 
fever. 


SANDHURST. 


SCHOOL OF MINES AND INDUSTRIES, BENDIGO. 
At the late meetings of administrative council the reports 
from the various instructors were highly satisfactory, and 
showed that a steady progress was continued to be made. The 
new chemistry lecture class shows a roll of 27, and the other 
classes are equally promising. 

Tenders were opened for a partition in mathematical and 
mining class-room, and for fencing off the school’s ground. 
The lowest tender — that of J. Waugh — was accepted. The 
architect was further instructed to advertise for tenders for 
additional fencing, and for outhouses, together with library, 
shelving, and presses. 

The council resolved to prepare an exhibit for the Inter- 
national Melbourne Exhibition of cakes of gold, representing 
one year’s yield of the Bendigo mines. The proper representa- 
tion of the lines of reef was discussed, and various suggestions 
made. The method to be adopted was left for further con- 
sideration after inquiries were made respecting the practica- 
bility of each proposal. 

The purchase of Exhibition cases, of a student’s microscope, 
and other minor requirements were authorised. The micro- 
scope will be of special importance for the materia medic a 
students. 

Amongst the donations acknowledged with thanks were 
the Science Directories , from the Science and Art Department, 
South Kensington : the Chemistry of Agriculture, from R. W. 
E, MTvor. Esq., the author ; the Quarterly Journal of the 
Microscopical Society of Victoria ; and The Chemist and 
Druggist, with Australasian Supplement. 

Mr. Vapland’s motion with regard to the salary question 
having been brought forward, a sub-committee, consisting of 
Messrs. Mendell, Hosking, Yahland, Ross, and the president, 
weio appointed to bring up a report at the next meeting. 

Accounts having been passed for payment to the amount of 
£116 10s. 2d., the meeting closed. 


86 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1880. 


BALLARAT. 


BALLARAT DISTRICT CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION. 
The monthly general meeting of the association was held at 
Lester’s Hotel, Sturt-street, on Wednesday night, 17th March. 
There was a fair attendance of members ; Mr. J. T. Thomas, of 
Melbourne, a member of the Pharmaceutical Council, was 
present as a visitor. The President (Mr. T. P. Palmer) 
occupied the chair, and called upon the hon. sec. to read the 
minutes of the previous meeting, which were confirmed. 

Mr. Macgowan, hon. sec., then gave a resume of the business 
transacted at the annual meeting of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, held in Melbourne on 12th March ; and stated as it 
had happened there were for members of the Pharmaceutical 
Council six vacancies and six nominations, he had been elected 
a member without a contest. 

Mr. Towl introduced the subject of dispensing for Friendly 
Societies, and remarked upon the low prices at which chemists 
sometimes tendered for dispensing ; and gave notice of his 
intention to bring forward a motion at the next meeting for 
fixing a minimum price for all future tenders. 

Mr. Macgowan stated that in an interview which he had 
had with Mr. Shillinglaw, hon. sec. of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, that gentleman had very kindly offered to lend the 
association some of the leading English, American, and 
foreign periodicals and journals for perusal, the same to be 
returned in a month or six weeks. 

There being no further matters of business to bring forward, 
the meeting closed with the usual vote of thanks to the chair. 

The next meeting of the association will be held on Wednes- 
day, 21st April, at nine p.m. 

For the period of the year from 1st April to 31st October 
the chemists of Ballarat will close their establishments at nine 
p.m. 


flotcs ant Abstract*. 


Aniline Red in Wine. — B runner has given a new test for 
the presence of aniline red in wine. Digest the wine with a 
piece of stearin. After cooling, the latter will be found to be 
coloured violet. 

Protection of Iron Castings. — R ub I part of graphite to 
a powder, add 4 parts of sulphate of lead, 1 part of sulphate of 
zinc, and 16 parts of linseed oil varnish ; mix well and boil. 
This forms a varnish which no weather will wash off. 

Balsam of Peru in Pruritus.— D r. Auerbach, of Berlin, 
has for some time past treated pruritus by balsam of Peru 
with the greatest success. After the first rubbing into the 
part affected, great relief is obtained, and in a few days a cure 
results. 

Growth of Vines from Seed. — D r. A. Blankenhorn main- 
tains that the constitution of European vines is exhausted, 
owing to their continued propagation by layers and cuttings. 
He recommends propagation by seed as a defence against the 
phylloxera . 

Black Polish on Iron. — F or those who wish to obtain 
that beautiful deep black polish on iron or steel which is so 
much sought after, all that is required is to boil 1 part of 
sulphur in 10 parts of oil of turpentine, the product of which 
is a brown sulphuric oil of disagreeable smell. This should be 
put on the outside as lightly as possible, and heated till the 
required black polish is obtained. 

Disguising the Odour of Iodoform (see also Am. Jour. 
Pharm ., 1879, p. 190). — The addition of oil of peppermint was 
successfully resorted to by Vulpius. Dr. Lindemann prefers 
oil of cloves and balsam of Peru, and prescribes two parts of 
the balsam to one pint of iodoform. L loform ointment is 
prepared either with lard, glycerin, ointment, or soft naraffine ; 
and a liquid preparation is made with glycerine, alcohol, or 
collodion, as follows : — 

R Iodoform ... ... ... ... ... ... j.q 

Balsam of Peru ... ... ... 2*0 

Lard (or glycerine ointment or soft paraffine 8*0 

Or, R Iodoform j.q 

Balsam of Peru 3 .Q 

Alcohol (or glycerine or collodion) 12*0 

Mix, in both cases, the iodoform first with the balsam and 
then add the vehicle.— Pharm. Ztg ., 25th Oct., 1879. p 663 : 
Ally. Med. Central Ztg. 


New Method of Capsuling Bottles.— T he London 
Chemist and Druggist says : — A new system of capsuling 
bottles has come into fashion from France. It is much more 
rapid than the method of affixing lead capsules, and some may- 
think that it gives more elegant effects. The medium for 
forming the capsulage is a viscous volatile liquid, into which 
the top of the bottle is dipped, and immediately withdrawn 
with a slight rotatory motion. It leaves a transparent capsule, 
and the effect is better if a label bearing a monogram or trade- 
mark had been previously attached to the top of the bottle. 
We find the following formula for the liquid, given by M. 
Soulan, of St. Emilion : — 


Parts. 

Yellow resin 20 

Ether ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Collodion 60 

Fuchsine or other tint, q. s. 

Fucus Vesiculosus (Anti-Fat).— Now that this remedy is 
so universally used for the reduction of obesity, it may interest 
the profession to recall to mind another use found for it in 
1826. Laennec having observed that on the coast of Brittany, 
where the air is more humid, but at the same time milder and 
more equable than in the interior of France, the number of 
phthisical patients was comparatively small ; and having also 
seen that young men from Brittany became consumptive dur- 
ing their sojourn in large cities, and recovered on returning to 
their native province, came to the conclusion that the peculiar 
atmosphere of the sea coast had something to do in these 
results. He, therefore, tried to imitate it, in some measure, 
by placing near the beds of the patients certain fresh marine 
plants. He brought together, into two small wards, a number 
of phthisical patients, and surrounded their beds with the fucus 
vesiculosus , causing them to drink also an infusion of the same 
plant. None appeared to suffer from this mode of treatment, 
as long as the fresh fucus could be procured. The cough be- 
came less frequent, the breathing less confined, the expectora- 
tion less in quantity. In the greater number the hectic fever 
ceased, and the progress of emaciation was arrested. In 1826 
th q fucus caused fattening and arrest of emaciation ; now it 
produces emaciation, or rather it reduces bulk, according to 
testimony of many writers, who, perhaps, do not take into 
account the diet they adopt, or the hygiene they follow, as 
being a more important factor in the matter. We do not hear 
now of fucus in consumption. In fifty-three years’ time shall 
we hear of anti-fata. — Med. Press and Circ ., 'Dublin . 


Remarkable Explosions. — Attention was recently directed 
in the French Academy to a case of explosion of carbonic acid 
which occurred in July last in one of the coal pits of Roche- 
belle (Gard). The coal strata there are much dislocated, and 
the carbonic acid generated plentifully in the neighbourhood, 
and finding its way through natural passages, seems to have 
accumulated in certain parts with sufficient tension to explode 
with two loud detonations, driving a large quantity of fine 
coal into the galleries. Three men were asphyxiated, and two 
others were only able to throw themselves in a swooning state 
into the cage and be hauled up. That no flame was present 
(as in explosions of fire damp) is proved by the absence of 
burns on the bodies of the victims, the fact that blasting cart- 
ridges did not go off, &c. The gas is thought to have arisen 
from sulphuric acid (produced through oxidation of a stratified 
mass of pyrites) dissolving in subterranean waters, and finding 
its way down to triassic limestone. In the works of M. 
Kuhlmann lately an alembic of platina, about 90 centimetres 
diameter, used for producing daily some 6000 to 7000 kilo- 
grammes of concentrated sulphuric acid, was exploded, the 
component pieces being shattered and thrown out, with bricks 
of the fireplace, 20 to 30 metres in different directions. For- 
tunately a slight hissing was observed a few seconds pre- 
viously, so that the workmen had time to escape a terrible 
fate. The nature of the explosion M. Kuhlmann supposes to 
be as follows : — This platinum apparatus was being cleaned ; 
some 30 to 40 kilogrammes of concentrated sulphuric acid 
had been left in it ; on this some water had been admitted 
through the siphon, and the whole had been gently heated 
three or four hours. It is known that mixing sulphuric acid 
with water produces a good deal of heat ; in the present 
instance combination is thought to have taken place instan- 
taneously at a pretty high temperature, generating a large 
amount of vapour. From data furnished by Fabre and Silber- 
man, it appears that 40 kilogrammes of acid at 18 deg., with 
water, is capable of producing instantaneously 18 to 20 cubic 
metres of vapour, and this is sufficient to explode a platinum 


March, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


87 


vessel of about 300 litres capacity, and only 2 to 3 mm. thick- 
ness. As the combination occurred at about 100 deg., the 
force would be greater. M. Kuhlmann has repeated the 
explosion several times in laboratory experiments, and he 
finds that it always occurs with great violence where the 
quantity of water is at least ten equivalents for one of acid. 
In presence of the difficulty of mixing these two substances, 
which have a very great affinity, but the density of which is 
so different that they may remain several hours one on the 
other without mixture and consequent combination, the need 
of cautious management is obvious. 


(&0XXZ8$0XlbZXlCZ. 


TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

We have received a letter from Mr. W. J. Brownscombe ; but 
as at the last meeting of the council the proposed amended 
rules were discussed, and a decision arrived at, which will be 
reported to the special meeting summoned for 7th May, there 
is no necessity for its publication. — E d. 


of genius enough to teach something to our brother chemists 
over the sea, and raise the status of pharmacy by supplying 
these wants from among ourselves, and thereby relieve us 
from paying duties and percentages, profits here and there, on 
this flood of foreign productions ? Let our wholesale houses 
help us, and make the necessary bottles, &c., for putting up 
our own proprietary articles, and let us be a more independent 
colony in this matter. 

I would suggest, Mr. Editor, that the Pharmaceutical 
Society should allow samples of colonial preparations to be 
forwarded for their inspection, and that they publish their 
opinion on them, and endeavour to eradicate from our pre- 
scriptions— “ Chlorodyne” (Collis Brown’s), ‘‘Nepenthe” 
(Squire’s), “ Pill, Antib.” (Cockle’s) ; “ Try one bottle Eno’s 
Fruit Salt”; “Get a box of Kram’s Pills;” “Liq. Bismuthi” 
(Sch’s.) ; and others too numerous to mention in this catalogue. 

Having so far ventilated the subject, I trust someone else 
may be found ready to assist and relieve us from encumbering 
our shelves with expensive articles that ought to be the legiti- 
mate production of the pharmacist himself, and prevent the 
importation of the trash forced upon us through the adver- 
tising medium. — Yours truly, Emancipator. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — I will deem it a great favour if any of your corre- 
spondents can inform me of the best compound for coating 
pills. I have one of Cartner’s patent pill-coaters, but fail to 
turn out pills coated to my satisfaction. I have tried French 
chalk and liquid gum, sugar and ditto, a mixture of French 
chalk and sugar and ditto, also albumen and chalk and sugar, 
but cannot succeed. — Yours, & c. Ambition. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

SIR — My attention has just been called to a notice of the 
recent milk adulteration case in your issue of February. I 
am made to state that colonial milk “ was inferior in quality 
to that produced in England.” This I am sure I did not say ; 
and that I had “found that the percentage of water was from 
4)4 to 95.” What I desired to convey to the court was that, in 
my opinion, Wanklyn’s milk standard is too high ; judged 
by it several samples of genuine milk analysed in the museum 
laboratory showed only from 94 to 95 per cent, of pure milk — 
not water. 

Will you kindly correct the report in your next issue ? and 
oblige, yours very truly, J. Cosmo Newbery. 

Melbourne, 22nd March, 1880. 


MEDICAMENTA ARCANA. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — W ith your permission I wish to have a little talk with 
my fellow-pharmacists, trusting it will be for our mutual 
benefit ; and the subject of our conversation shall be the 
“ Proprietary Medicine Trade.” 

For years I have watched with regret the importation of 
this description of medicine from England, France, America, 
and elsewhere, not only as a loss of revenue to the druggist, 
but a tacit depreciation of his abilities. 

Many of us were in the business prior to our arrival here, 
and can look back with pleasure at the paucity of patent 
medicines sold in our time ; in fact, can remember that we 
had our own preparations, and always recommended them in 
place of “patents.” Why? Because on our own articles 
we could depend, and also that we made a better profit on 
their sale. But here I find pharmacists (?) lower themselves 
to tout the preparations of others instead of placing before 
their patients a remedy produced by their own knowledge of 
their profession, and, in most instances, better qualified to suit 
their case than the imported nostrums that inundate our 
colony. Are they so deficient in the knowledge of the drug 
they dispense that they consider it safer and better to recon. 
mend So-and-so’s essence, or What-d’ye-call-em’s syrup, 
&c. ? Why should we have chlorodyne, pectorals, pills, salts, 
See., forced on us for sale ? Surely the pharmacists of the 
present day are capable of producing articles as good and in 
many cases better than this imported legion of medicamenta. 
Let us, I ask, bestir ourselves. Have we not amongst us men 


THE “DRUGGING OF ANIMALS ACT.” 

At the annual meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, Mr. 
Graham Mitchell, F.R.C.Y.S., a member of the society, 
brought under notice the desirability of having some measure 
similar to “ Drugging of Animals Act,” now in force in England, 
pass during the next Parliament. For the information of our 
readers we publish the Act at present in operation in. 
England, and shall be glad of any suggestions, as no doubt 
this Act might be considerably improved on. The absence of 
qualified veterinary surgeons in many country districts makes 
it desirable to provide that medicines should be supplied by 
only qualified pharmacists. 

An Act to Prevent the Administration op Poisonous 

Drugs to Horses .and Other Animals. 1st June, 

1876. (39 Vict., Cap. 13.) 

Whereas it is expedient to make provision against the prac- 
tice of administering poisonous drugs to horses and other 
animals by disqualified persons, and without the knowledge 
and consent of the owners of such horses and animals : 

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, 
and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

]. If any person wilfully and unlawfully administers to or 
causes to be administered to or taken by any horse, cattle, or 
domestic animal any poisonous or injurious drug or substance, 
he shall (unless some reasonable cause or excuse is shown on 
his behalf) be liable, on summary conviction, to a penalty not 
exceeding five pounds, or, at the discretion of the court, to 
imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for any term not 
exceeding one month in the case of a first offence, or three 
months it the case of a second or any subsequent offence. 

2. Nothing in this Act shall extend to any person being 
owner or acting by authority of the owner of the horse, cattle, 
or other animal to which any drug or substance is adminis- 
tered. 

3. Nothing in this Act shall exempt a person from liability 
to any greater or other punishment under any other Act or 
law, so that he be not more than once punished for the same 
offence. 

4. Any offence against this Act may be prosecuted in the 
manner provided by the Summary Jurisdiction Acts before two 
justices of the peace. 

5. This Act shall not extend to Scotland or to Ireland. 

6. This Act may be cited as the “ Drugging of Animals Act, 
1876.” 


A PAYING HOSPITAL. 

W:': some time ago drew attention to this subject in the columns 
of this journal. In America we find “invalid hospitals” in 
healthy localities away from the centres of population, which 
have proved a great success, and are gradually increasing. 
This want has been long felt in Australia, where there is great 
difficulty for strangers and bachelors obtaining good nursing, 
without which doctoring is of very little use. Many casea 


88 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1880. 


have come under our observation lately where slight illnesses 
have culminated into serious and even fatal results, in conse- 
quence of patients not knowing where to find the comforts 
necessary for their recovery. We are aware that suitable 
premises have been offered in one suburb (St. Kilda) on 
favourable terms ; and we would suggest that a public meet- 
ing should be called with the view of forming a limited com- 
pany. We trust that no attempt to increase the Melbourne 
Hospital nuisance will meet with support. It has been hinted 
that a wing added to the hospital would be sufficient. To this 
we are utterly opposed. Without fresh air, thorough drain- 
age, and strict sanitary conditions, we may “ throw physic to 
the dogs.” We are glad to find the subject has been taken 
up with interest by several of our leading medical men. At a 
recent meeting of the Melbourne Hospital Dr. Gillbee moved 
the following resolution : — “ That in the opinion of this com- 
mittee a self-supporting hospital would be the means of 
meeting a serious want ; that it would be of great service in 
preventing much of the hospital abuse which at present exists ; 
that it would meet the case of many classes of people who at 
present when attacked by illness experience great difficulty in 
obtaining relief, and who will be able by the help of a paying 
hospital to procure for a payment within their means the 
medical attendance, skilled nursing, and home comforts which 
they may need ; and that this committee solicit for this scheme 
the support of the public and the medical profession.” 


EUST IN WHEAT. 

The Rochester Dxpress of 26th March writes : — “ Our atten- 
tion was called yesterday to a branch of native industry 
in the establishment of Mr. G. F. Chamberlin, our local 
chemist. It appears that for some time past Mr. Chamberlin 
has turned his attention to the discovery of a preventive 
for rust in wheat, and last year he succeeded in producing 
what he estimated would be successful. It was tested, 
and a crop sown with wheat dressed with Mr. Chamberlin’s 
carbolic preparation proved to be entirely free from that pest, 
whereas, outside the prepared lot, even in the same paddock, 
undressed grain was found to be full of it. The carbolic pre- 
ventive, he assures us, has been calculated with great care, the 
proportion being reduced to the capacity of one grain of 
wheat before he finally determined on the strength of the 
compound. The great difficulty Mr. Chamberlin had to con- 
tend with seems to have been the impregnation of the plant 
by the dressing of the grain, but in this he has succeeded 
beyond expectation, for the effects may be recognised in the 
parent germ even after the plant has been produced. Mr. 
Chamberlin has forwarded his carbolic preventive to Queens- 
land as a trial for the £1000 bonus to be given by the Govern- 
ment for a cheap remedy. He has also sent the result of last 
year’s experiments to Adelaide, at the request of that Govern- 
ment.” 


In presence of other organic matter I am inclined to think 
this reagent is more reliable as an indicator of the presence of 
an alkaloid than any of the solutions used for that purpose. 
It appears also to be applicable for volumetrically estimating 
the strengths of alkaloidal solutions, and the author is at pre- 
sent engaged in devising such a process. 


SANITAS, A LATE ANTISEPTIC. 

This is a London product. The composition and method of 
preparing it have been described in the London Chemist ancl 
Druggist as follows : — 

“ A number of medical and scientific gentlemen and others 
assembled at the works of the Sanitas Company (Limited) to 
see the process of manufacture of this interesting product and 
the perfected methods which have now been arrived at. Mr. 
C. T. Kingzett, F.C.S., explained the process of manufacture 
and the principles on which this is founded with all clearness. 
A continuous blast of hot air is forced through pipes carried 
through the building, and provided with sub-pipes conducting 
into 20 or 30 large earthenware carboys, each capable of hold- 
ing about 100 gallons. These carboys each contain about 80 
gallons of water, and 15 gallons of turpentine floating on its 
surface. The hot air is brought into the liquid at about the 
point where the water and the turpentine are in contact. The 
carboys stand in vats of hot water, which keeps their contents 
warm, and the air, as it is discharged, passes upwards through 
the turpentine, gradually oxidizing it, and throwing down 
into the water certain soluble products of the decomposition. 
There is an aperture at the top of the vessel for the escape of 
the air. After continued action of this kind for about 300 
hours, the water is fully charged, and becomes, after filtration, 
the liquid called by the inventor ‘ Sanitas.’ According to 
the experiments which Mr. Kingzett carried out for some 
years on the oxidation of turpentine and essential oils, sanitas 
would be mainly a solution of peroxide of hydrogen and cam- 
phoric acid. To these he considers it owes its antiseptic and 
disinfectant properties. 

“ Mr. Kingzett showed some striking experiments to prove 
the presence of peroxide of hydrogen in sanitas, and after- 
wards handed round specimens of fish, meat, and other articles 
of food, some of which had been preserved for months by 
sanitas ; and he also took a piece of putrid meat, and, 
immersing it in sanitas, passed it round to the company, who 
satisfied themselves that all disagreeable odour had been 
removed. Mr. Haviland, medical officer of health for North- 
amptonshire, and other gentlemen present, spoke highly of the 
advantages of sanitas ; and a letter was also read from the 
Duke of Manchester, who had promised to preside on the 
occasion, but was prevented by neuralgia, saying that he only 
accepted the position after he had satisfied himself by experi- 
ment of the value of the product.” 


SIMPLE METHOD OF PKEPAKING A SOLUTION OF 
THE DOUBLE IODIDE OF BISMUTH AND POTAS- 
SIUM FOE USE AS AN ALKALOIDAL EEAGENT. 

(By J. C. Thresh.) 

Although it has been long known that a solution of the 
iodide of bismuth and potassium forms an exceedingly deli- 
cate reagent for detection of alkaloids, yet, on account of the 
trouble involved in making such a solution, it is not frequently 
employed ; moreover, in the majority of text-books it is not 
even mentioned. 

Such a solution may almost instantly be prepared as 
follows : — 

Take of — 

Liq. bismuthi, B.P J j. 

Pot. iodid 3 iss. 

Acid, hydrochlor. ... 3^ ss * 

Mix. 

The resulting fluid is of a rich orange colour, and when 
added to cold solutions containing a ; alkaloid, produces 
immediately an orange red precipitate, which appears to be 
almost totally insoluble in cold water, though somewhat 
readily soluble therein when hot. In point of delicacy, it is 
at least equal to the solution of phosphomolybdic acid, which 
is both troublesome and difficult to properly prepare. One 
part of strychnia may be detected in 500,000 of water, and 
one of morphia in 20,000. All the other alkaloids examined 
fall between these extremes. 


MISCELLANEOUS FOEMULiE. 


GLYCERINE CREAM, 

Ceresin 

Oil sweet almonds 

Melt ; add 
Powdered soap 
Eose water 

Glycerine 

Oil of roses, sufficient. 


20 parts 


50 




10 

20 

20 


j* 

a 


LACQUER FOR SURGICAL STEEL INSTRUMENTS. 

Paraffine 10 parts 

Venice turpentine 1 part 

Coal tar benzine 50 parts 

TRANSPARENT POMATUM. 

Paraffine (or ceresin) 15 parts 

Castor oil ... ... 85 ~ „ 

Perfume ... q. s. 


WATERPROOFING OF LEATHER, 

1. Lubricating (paraffine) oil 

Eaw rapeseed oil 

Sperm oil 

White turpentine 

Nitrobenzol, sufficient to perfume. 

2. Paraffine oil ... 

Eapeseed oil 

Paraffine 

Suet 

Eesin ... 


ETC. 

.. 2000 parts 
.. 2000 „ 

.. 500 „ 

.. 250 „ 


.. 1000 parts 


.. 1000 
.. 500 

.. 500 
.. 500 


a 

if 

ff 


March, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


89 


Imitation White Wine Vinegar.— Filter ordinary vinegar 
through animal charcoal and paper. 

To Reclaim Spoiled Distilled Waters.— Add one grain 
each of alum and borax to every pint. 


MAKING FERN PICTURES. 

There are two ways — the mechanical and the photographi- 
cal. For the first, take a sheet of strong white paper, and 
with an atomizer pass over it a spray of very . diluted 
mucilage, so as to obtain a very thin and slightly sticking film, 
which will make the ferns adhere of which it is desired to 
make the picture. The ferns and leaves must have been first 
pressed in a book, and. after arranging them to suit your taste, 
cause them to lie as closely to the paper as possible ; fill an 
atomizer with very diluted India ink, and blow a spray over 
the ferns, more or less in proportion as you want a darker or 
lighter shade. It is well to do this with intermissions, letting 
it dry a little, so as to avoid excess of moisture and possibility 
of running the liquid into drops. When nearly dry, but still 
a little moist, remove the ferns, which may be used over again 
several times. For the photographic method, cover a sheet 
of paper with a weak solution of salt in water and some white 
of an egg, well beaten ; after it is dry, take it into a dark room, 
and with a tuft of cotton pass over it a solution of nitrate of 
silver (50 grains to an ounce of water) ; dry it in the dark, 
and the coat of chloride of silver formed on its surface will 
receive the impression. Then arrange your ferns between two 
plates of glass, and cut the paper to the same size as the glass 
plates; place it under them and expose to the sun, in the 
same way as a photographer prints a portrait. Watch it until 
dark enough, and before removing the paper from the glass 
take it into a dark room. Here place the picture in a 
solution of hyposulphite of soda, which will dissolve the 
chloride of silver, but leave the decomposed material (finely 
divided black silver) which forms the black back-ground, 
while the shadow of the leaves will be white. 


REMEDIES FOR CHILBLAINS. 

The following applications will be found quite useful to cure 
chilblains, or at least to greatly relieve the pain and itching. 
The first ones are for the unbroken, and the last for broken 


chilblains. 

The first is a liniment , made as follows : — 


Sulphuric acid 

1 drachm. 

Spirit of turpentine 

1 „ 

Olive oil 

3 drachms. 

Mix the oil and turpentine first, then gradually add the 

acid. To be rubbed in two or three times a day. 
The two others are ointments : — 

(1) Lard 

4 ounces. 

Turpentine 

1 ounce. 

Camphor 

2 drachms. 

Oil of rosemary 

... 15 minims. 

This ointment to be rubbed in with continued friction. 

(2) Yellow wax 

3 ounces. 

Olive oil... 

3 „ 

Camphorated oil 

3 „ 

Goulard extract 

1£ „ 

Melt the wax with the olive oil, 

then add the camphor oil 

and Goulard extract. 



WATER AND FIRE PROOF PAPER. 

A water and fire proof paper, lately patented, is made by 
putting a mixture of ordinary pulp and asbestos reduced to 
pulp, in the proportion of about two-thirds of the former to 
one-third of the latter, into a strong solution of common salt 
and alum. This mixture is put through the engine and then 
run oft through a Fourdrinier. The paper thus made is run 
through a bath of gum shellac, dissolved in alcohol or other 
suitable volatile solvent of that gum, and subsequently through 
ordinary calendar rolls, after which the paper is ready to be 
cut into such sized sheets as may be required for use. The 
effect of the strong solution of salt and alum upon the paper 
is to greatly strengthen it, and to increase its fire-resisting 
qualities. The shellac bath to which it is treated is said to 
cause the paper to become thoroughly permeated with the gum, 
so the paper becomes waterproof to such an extent that long 
boiling in water does not disintegrate it, and the presence of 
the gum in and upon the surface of the paper seems to present 
no obstacle to the proper and usual absorption of ink, either 


printing or writing. Thus, by the combination of the asbestos, 
salt, and alum in the paper, it is rendered so far fire-proof that 
a direct exposure to an intense fire does not burn up the sub- 
stance of the paper to an extent that interferes with safely 
handling it; and when exposed to great heat in books, or 
between metallic plates, a number of sheets together, it is 
much less injured by the fire. 

The addition of the gum shellac to the paper makes it, for 
all practical purposes, water-proof, so that if account books, 
valuable documents, bank bills, and other monetary papers for 
which this paper is used be subjected to the action of fire and 
water, either one or both, in a burning building, they will not 
be injured to such an extent as to destroy their value. — 
Scientific American. 


CORK, CORKS, AND CORKSCREWS. 

(By H. G. Glasspoole.) 

( Concluded.) 

The British import duty on unmanufactured cork was 
abolished in the year 1845, and in 1860 the duties on cork 
ready made and cork squared for rounding, which had been 
fixed in 1853 at 6d. per lb. and 8s. per cwt. respectively, were 
repealed. 

The imports of cork into the United Kingdom in 1876 
were : — 


Cork unmanufactured. 

Tons. 

Value. 

From Portugal 

... 6267 

£172,666 

From Spain 

... 395 

11.413 

From Algeria 

... 351 

7,045 

Other countries 

... 195 

6,391 

Total . . . 

... 7208 

£197,515 

Cork manufactured. 

Lbs. 

Value. 

From France 

3,174,431 

£267,624 

From Portugal ... 

2.537,175 

147,975 

From Spain 

927,793 

72,354 

Other countries ... 

21,804 

1,586 

Total 

6,661,203 

£489,539 


Ancient Use of Cor7is, fyc. — The cork tree, and the applica- 
tion of its bark to useful purposes, was well known to the 
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. The former used to construct 
their coffins of this material. Theophrastus, the Greek philo- 
sopher, who wrote on botany, &c., four centuries B.c., mentions 
this tree amongst the oaks, under the name of phellus , and 
says that it has a thick fleshy bark, which must be stripped off 
every three years to prevent it from perishing. He adds that 
it was so light as never to sink in water, and on that account 
might be used for many purposes. Pliny describes the tree 
under the name of suber , and relates everything said by 
Theophrastus of phellus. From his account we learn that the 
Roman fishermen used it as floats to their nets and fishing 
tackle, and as buoys to their anchors. The use of these buoys 
in saving life appears to have been well known to the ancients, 
for Lucian (Ejpist. 1, 17) mentions that when two men, one 
of whom had fallen into the sea, and another who jumped 
after to afford him assistance, both were saved by means of an 
anchor buoy. The use of this substance in assisting swimmers 
was not unknown to the Romans. By Plutarchus, in Vita 
Camilli, we are told that when the imperial city was besieged 
by the Gauls, Camillus sent a Roman to the Capitol, who to 
avoid the enemy swam the Tiber with corks under him, his 
clothes being bound upon his head, and was fortunate enough 
to succeed in the attempt. The use of cork for stoppers was 
not entirely unknown to the Romans, and instances of its being 
thus employed may be seen in Cato’s Be Re Rustled , cap. 
120 ; but its application to this purpose seems not to have been 
very common, or cork stoppers would have been oftener 
mentioned by authors who have written on agriculture and 
cookery, and also in the works of ancient poets. The convivial 
customs of those days had no connection with the bottle, glass 
bottles being of a much later invention. Instead of having 
dozens of sparkling champagne or hock, to be liberated from 
the bottle by the corkscrew, at their feasts, the guests filled 
their drinking cups of gold, silver, crystal, or beech wood from 
a two-handled amphora, a Kind of earthenware pitcher in 
which their choice wines used to be kept. The mouths of 
these vessels were stopped with wood, and covered with a 
mastic, composed of pitch, chalk, and oil, to prevent air 
spoiling the wine or evaporation taking p£ace. Columella, 
who wrote one of the earliest works on agriculture, gives 


90 


THE CHEMIST AND DBUGG1ST. 


March, 1880. 


directions for preparing this cement. Pliny, in describing 
the cork tree, says it is smaller than the oak, and its acorns 
are of the very worst quality. He tells us the cork tree 
did not grow throughout Italy, and in no part whatever 
of Gaul. At the present day it is abundant in France, and , 
Fee states that the acorns of Q. suber are of an agreeable 
flavour, and the hams of Bayonne are said to owe their high 
reputation from the pigs having fed on the acorns of the cork 
tree. Some ancient authors speak of the cork tree as the 
female of the holm oak ( Q. ilex ), and in countries where the 
holm does not grow they used to substitute the wood of the 
cork tree, more particularly in Cartwrights’ work in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lacedaemon, &c. 

The employment of corks for stoppers of bottles appears to 
have come into use about the seventeenth century, when glass 
bottles, of which no mention is made before the fifteenth 
century, began to be generally introduced. Before that period 
apothecaries used stoppers of wax, which were not only much 
more expensive, but far more troublesome. 

In 1553, when C. Stephanus wrote his Prcedium Rusticum, 
cork stoppers appear to have been very little known in France, 
for he states that this material was used principally for soles 
in that country. Another author, writing about the same time, 
tells us that thin glass flasks, covered with rushes and straw 
and with tin mouths, which could be stopped sufficiently close 
without a cork, were used by the higher classes of that period. 

W e do not know when cork and corks began to be generally 
used in this country, but I find in that very amusing and 
instructive diary of Mr. Samuel Pepys the following entry : — 
14th July, 1666, he states, after having written to the Duke of 
York for money for the fleet, he went down Thames-street, 
and there agreed for four or five tons of cork to be sent to the 
fleet, being a new device to make barricados with instead of 
junts (old cable) ; but he does not inform us how the device 
answered. In Evelyn’s time (1664) cork was much used by 
old persons for linings to the soles of their shoes, whence the 
German name for it, “ pantoff elholtz,” or slipper wood. The 
Yenetian dames, Evelyn says, used it for their choppings, or 
high-heeled shoes, to make them appear taller than nature 
intended they should be. The poor in Spain lay planks of 
cork by their bedside, to tread on instead of carpets. Some- 
times they line the inside of their houses, built with stone, 
with this bark, which renders them very warm, and corrects 
the moisture of the air. Loudon relates that in the celebrated 
convent at Cintra (Portugal) several articles of furniture are 
made of this tree, which strangers who visit the convent are 
requested to lift in order that surprise may be excited at their 
extraordinary lightness. The various uses for the common 
purposes of every-day life to which this substance is applied 
are well known. Burnt cork supplies our artists and colour- 
men with Spanish black. It is largely used for lifeboats, for 
stuffing life belts, mattresses, &c., to be used at sea in the 
preservation of life. 

Virgin cork, or the outer bark of this tree, is now very much 
used for window flower-boxes, grottoes, &c. Very thin sections 
of cork are employed in the manufactory of hats ; these 
sections are cut by steam machinery 50 to 120 plates to the 
inch. The shreds and parings of this substance are not wasted, 
but, being ground into powder and mixed with melted India- 
rubber, form the basis of many floor coverings, such as 
kamptulicon — the soft, unresounding material which covers 
the floor of the reading-room of the British Museum, the floors 
of the Houses of Parliament, and various other public and 
private institutions, to prevent the noise occasioned by foot- 
steps, &c. 

Cork was formerly employed in medicine even as far back as 
the time of Pliny, as he tells us that the bark of the cork tree, 
pulverised and taken in warm water, arrests haemorrhage at 
the mouth and nostrils, and the ashes of it taken in warm 
wine are highly extolled as a cure for spitting blood. (See 
Pliny’s Nat. Hist., b. 24.) In more modern time powdered 
cork has been applied as a styptic, and hung about the necks 
of nurses ; it was thought to possess the power of stopping the 
secretion of milk. Burnt cork mixed with sugar of lead and 
lard has been used as an application to piles. (See Pareira’s 
Materia Medica.) 

When rasped or powdered cork is subjected to chemical 
solvents, such as alcohol, &c., it leaves 70 per cent, of an 
insoluble substance, called suberine. This, treated with nitric 
acid, yields the following produces .-—White fibrous matter, 
0-18 ; resin, 14-72 ; oxalic acid, 16-00; suberic acid (peculiar 
acid of cork), 14-2*, in 100 parts. 


Cork contains tannic acid, which makes it an improper 
substance for closing vessels containing chalybeate liquids, as 
the iron is in part absorbed by the cork and blackens it by form- 
ing in its substance tannate of iron. The whole of the water 
may thus become discoloured. 

Cork is a nitrogenous substance which, next to cellulose, is the 
most important constituent of the cell wall. Cellulose, corky 
substance and fatty matters seem to be found in the same cell,, 
and when the cellulose has been absorbed, the corky substance 
alone remains. It forms the outermost part of the cell wall, and 
unites the cells together. (See Balfour’s Class-book of Botany.) 

The bark of many trees resembles cork. There is a variety 
of ZJlmus campestris suber osa, the cork-bark elm, which grows 
in our hedgerows, whose bark assumes something of the ex- 
ternal appearance of cork in its softness and elasticity, as well 
as in its chemical properties ; but as it does not grow to any 
great thickness, it is not of any value for economic purposes. 

The cork tree, Q. suber , and its varieties, are to be found 
growing in many of the botanical, horticultural, and private 
gardens of England. It was introduced in or before 1699 by 
the Duchess of Beaufort, and is readily propagated by acorns. 

In Notes and Queries , series 4, Yol. 5, it is stated that in 
some parts of Lincolnshire it is believed that cork has the 
power of keeping off cramp. It is placed between the bed and 
mattress, or even between the sheets. Cork garters are made 
by sewing together a series of thin disks of this material 
between two silk ribbons and worn for the same purpose. 

Where the bark of Quercus suber cannot be obtained, many 
substitutes have been found to supply its place among the 
spongy bark or wood substances of other trees. The wood of 
Anona Balustris, growing in the West Indies, called the 
alligator’s apple, is of such a soft nature that it is frequently 
used by the negroes, instead of corks, to stop their jugs and 
calabashes. 

The word cork is said to be derived from the Spanish corclio* 
from the Latin cortex . 

The Corkscrew. 

That useful instrument, the corkscrew, was unknown to our 
forefathers two hundred years ago, and was not in common use 
even at a later date. The mode of extracting a cork in those 
days was by winding a cloth or handkerchief tightly round it 
and with a peculiar jerk pulling the stopper out of the bottle. 
Other ways, no doubt, were also adopted— the teeth, for instance. 
There is no record that I can find as to who first invented this 
instrument. It came into use about the beginning of the last 
century, and was for many years called a “ bottlescrew.” The 
earliest mention of the corkscrew is in an amusing poem, 
entitled “The tale of the Bottlescrue,” in a collection of 
poems by Nicholas Amhurst, published in 1723 (vide Notes 
and Queries, 1856, p. 466), in which the poet gives the 
legendary origin of the invention. Bacchus is described in the 
poem, and among other things it is said of him — 

This hand a corkscrew did contain, 

And that a bottle of champagne. 

Yet the bottlescrew at that time appears to have been the 
common name of this useful article, for the poet concludes 
his tale with the following lines : — 

By me shall Birmingham become 
In future days more famed than Rome ; 

Shall owe to me her reputation 
And serve with bottlescrews the nation. 

Corkscrews, like corks, are to be found, in some shape or 
other, in all parts of the civilised world. 


Autumn Leaves. — Prof. Church has discovered the curious 
fact that autumn leaves — brown, red, &c. — may be restored to 
their original green tint by heating in water with zinc powder. 
— Arch. d. Ph. 

Removal of Silver-Nitrate Stains.— Instead of potas- 
sium cyanide, Dr. H. Kaetzer uses a solution of 10 grams am- 
monium chloride and 10 grams corrosive sublimate in 100 
grams distilled water, which must be kept in glass-stoppered 
bottles. It will readily remove the stains from the skin, linen, 
wool, and cotton, without injuring the fabric. — Pliarm. Ztg.> 
\0tli Dec., 1879, p. 767,/?-., Neueste Erf. u. Erfalir. 

Frosted Tin. — By dipping tinned iron , previously heated 
till the tin begins to melt, into a mixture of 16 parts by 
weight of muriatic acid, 8 of nitric acid, 24 of water, and I 
or 2 of bichromate of potassa, rinsing and treating with a 
solution of hyposulphite of soda, very beautiful chrystalline 
designs will be formed. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


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April, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


91 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

The Month 91 

Meeting — 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 92 

Scientific Summary 93 

Lectures, &c 93 


PAGE 


Ballarat 94 

My First Aquarium 95 

Legal and Magisterial 95 

Prosecution of an Unregistered Chemist 96 
Notes and Abstracts 96 


_ page 

Correspondence 97 

Manufacture of Olive Oil in Southern 

France 93 

Selling Poison to Children . . ” 98 


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Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non -members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

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No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
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the writer— not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


DEATHS. 

Jessop.— O n the 15th August, 1877, at his father’s residence, 57 Wellington- 
road, Rhyl, North Wales, Edmond James Jessop (formerly chemist, 
Prahran), aged twenty-five years, of phthisis. 

Longstaff.— On the 4th May, at Victoria-street, Ballarat, Joseph Long- 
staff, aged forty-five years. 

Proctor.— O n 21st April, at the Ballarat Hospital, John Cameron 
Proctor, aged fifty-five. 


Vlt£ Jffijttth. 


posed to have been drowned in the Yarra in 1875. He did 
not meet with that fate, however, but went clandestinely to 
the old country, where he died at his father’s residence, in 
North Wales, in 1877. His widow, who resides in Melbourne, 
did not receive intelligence of the death until the last English 
mail came in. 


The half-yearly meeting of the Australian Health Society 
was held at the Town Hall on the 21st April, the Mayor of 
Melbourne being in the chair. Among those present there were 
seven members of the medical profession. The mayor, in his 
introductory remarks, referred to the services the society had 
rendered to the community in the way of spreading a know- 
ledge of the laws of health. There was no report presented, 
this meeting being only intended to bring the members 
together, and to draw attention to the society and its opera- 
tions, and to afford an opportunity for submitting some 
questions for discussion. A paper was read by Mr. Thomas 
Brodribb on * ‘Trained Nurses,” in which he insisted specially 
on the need of a better class of nurses, and on the desirability 
of providing some means for the systematic training of those 
wishing to follow nursing as a profession. Several of those 
present, including medical men, spoke of the great want 
of good nurses in Melbourne, * Mrs. J. Webster then read 
a paper on ** The Smoke Nuisance in Melbourne, 5 ’ and in- 
sisted on action being taken before the citizens became so 
much accustomed to the annoyance that they would cease to 
recognise it, and before vested interests became powerful. 
Votes of thanks to those who had prepared papers, and to the 
mayor for taking the chair, closed the proceedings, the chair- 
man expressing the opinion that no society or institution in 
the city did more genuine work in proportion to its means 
than the Australian Health Society. 


The Governor-in- Council has appointed Mr. Bosisto, M.P., and 
Mr. C. R. Blackett as members of the commission for promot- 
ing technological and industrial education. The Hon. F. S. 
Dobson, LL.D., M.L.C., and Mr. W. C. Kernot, M.A., of the 
Melbourne University, have also been appointed. 


Mr. Joseph Bosisto, M.L.A., has been appointed a member 
of the council of the Ballarat School of Mines, vice Sir C. 
Gavan Duffy, resigned. 


At the meeting of the Victorian branch of the British 
Medical Association, held on the 1 6th April, a lengthy discus- 
sion took place with respect to the advisability of establishing 
paying hospitals in Melbourne. The chairman, Mr. Gillbee, 
strongly urged the desirability of providing such institutions, 
«,nd mentioned that a company was in course of formation 
which will carry out the project. Plans of a large hospital 
suitable for the purpose were submitted, and after a short dis- 
cussion the meeting unanimously passed a motion in favour of 
the project in question, which will probably be brought before 
the public in a more tangible form shortly. 


From the Argus of the 15th April we extract the following : 
— “ The announcement in our advertising columns of the 
death of Edmond James Jessop, formerly chemist, of Prahran, 
is one to which peculiar interest attaches. Jessop was sup- 


The Microscopical Society of Victoria held its monthly 
meeting on the 29th April. There was a fair attendance of 
members, and Mr. E. Bage was proposed as a new member. 
The president, Mr. T. S. Ralph, read translations of three 
interesting papers from the transactions of the Belgian Micro- 
scopical Society— viz., “ On Staining with Picric Acid,” “ On 
Preserving Infusoria by Means of Osmic Acid,” and “ On the 
Thallus of Diatoms.” The latter occasioned considerable dis- 
cussion, during which several points were raised of interest to 
microscopists. Mr. J. R. Y. Goldstein described and figured 
a new genus in the class Polyzoa, and named it Stirpsaria, in 
the family Bicellariadae ; also two new species of Serialaria— 
viz., S. immensa and S. intermedia. A collection of diatoma- 
ceous deposits, being a donation from Dr. Hector, of New 
Zealand, was then distributed amongst the members, and a 
pleasant conversazione terminated the proceedings. 


The general public is, perhaps, more interested than it has 
yet realised in the decision given recently by the Court of 
Appeal in the action brought by the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Great Britain against the London and Provincial Supply 
Association. The suit was instituted in order to try the right 
of the defendant company to keep a store for the sale of drugs, 
in spite of its not being registered for that purpose, as required 
by the statute known as the Pharmacy Act. The court has 
decided— subject, of course, to an appeal to the House of 


92 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


Lords — in favour of the right of the association to act as 
sellers of drugs and poisons, apparently on the one ground 
that the Pharmacy Act requires all “ persons” intending to 
carry on the business of druggists to be duly registered, and 
that a company is not a person. It is hardly worth while to 
inquire into the correctness or incorrectness of the law thus 
laid down by the three Judges of Appeal, as the case will, in 
all probability, be taken to a higher tribunal ; but, if such is 
the present state of the law, there can be very little doubt that 
it calls for immediate alteration. Nothing can be more unfair 
than that a number of persons should be able to club together 
for the sale of certain articles of commerce, and, by simply 
calling themselves an “association,” escape the burdens and 
duties laid on the shoulders of the private trader. The case 
becomes even stronger when it is remembered that it is not 
everybody who is qualified to be a dispenser of poisonous 
drugs. The Pharmacy Act was intended to protect purchasers, 
and if it is found that, by a mere legal technicality, the public 
is deprived of the security of having duly qualified dealers in 
drugs, there is little doubt that the attention of Parliament 
should be directed to the matter. — London Daily Telegraph, 
19th March, 1880. 


There have been a considerable number of business changes 
lately. Mr. H. A. Glyde, formerly of Beaufort, has purchased 
the business of Mr. John Reed, St. Arnaud ; Mr. Albert 
Andrews continuing Mr. Glyde’s business on his own account 
at Beaufort. Mr. J. J. Cunningham, formerly of Wodonga, 
succeeds Mr. R. B. Bridge, of Bright, in the business lately 
carried on by him at that place ; Mr. Bridge goes to Euroa. 
Mr. J. M. Paul is acting as manager for the widow of the 
late Mr. J. Summers, of Nagambie. Mrs. Stillings, the 
widow of the late Mr. J. Stillings, Taradale, has disposed 
of the business to Mr. W. W. Caught, by whom it will be con- 
tinued. Mr. C. R. Soppet notifies that he has taken the bu siness 
formerly carried on by Mr. W. H. Ford, at Robe-street, St. Kilda. 
Mr. W. J. Marshal], formerly of Kyneton, has removed to 
119 Brunswick-street, Fitzroy, where he is managing for Mrs. 
A. T. Ewing. Mr. G. C. Powell, at one time dispenser of the 
Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, succeeds Mr. Jas. F. Donaldson 
in the business formerly carried on bx Mr. Donaldson at 
Footscray. 


Mzztmqs. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The monthly meeting of the Council was held at the rooms, 
100 Collins-street, on Friday, 7th May, 1880. Present — 
Messrs. Blackett, Gamble, Ogg, Huntsman, Jones, Baker, 
Bowen, Shillinglaw, Macgowan, Hooper, and Norris ; the 
president, Mr. C. R. Blacket, in the chair. 

Election of New Menibers. — Messrs. W. H. Eager, of Rae- 
street, North Fitzroy, and Henry G. M‘Burney, Benalla, were 
elected members. 

Removal of Offices. — The president read a communication he 
had received from the secretary to the Pharmacy Board, stating 
that the board were willing to give the society the use of the 
rooms, and all the advantages heretofore enjoyed by the society, 
for the sum of £25 per annum and 7s. 6d. per month to the 
caretaker. The president said he felt sorry at the removal 
from the Royal Society Hall, and he thought the action had 
not been so well considered as it might have been. He was 
not now a member of the Pharmacy Board, and did not know, 
therefore, what had induced them to take the step they had 
under the circumstances. However, he saw nothing but to 
accept the offer. 


April, 1880. 


Mr. J. C. Jones said he considered the amount too much. 
He thought that the accommodation was not wanted ; and he 
moved that the sum of £20 be offered to the Pharmacy Board. 

Mr. Norris seconded the motion, remarking that in his 
opinion all the room they required might be obtained for £5 
a year. He had no doubt that a place to meet in might be 
obtained at the Clarence or some other hotel. 

Mr. Bowen said the remarks of the last speaker were paying 
a very poor compliment to those gentlemen who had taken an 
active part in the society, and brought it to its present satis- 
factory condition. It might appear to Mr. Norris a small 
matter, but to the president, the treasurer, and himself, who 
knew what a large amount of work was done every month,, 
the proposition of Mr. Norris was quite out of place. 

Mr. Hooper felt that the society was in a position to have 
the accommodation required. It would be a mistake not to have 
comfortable rooms. Many visitors would be coming to the 
colony during the Exhibition, who would no doubt like to avail 
themselves of the rooms. He therefore moved that the offer 
made by the Pharmacy Board be accepted. This was seconded 
by Mr. Ogg, and carried, all but Messrs. Jones and Norris 
voting for the proposition. 

Alteration of Time of Meeting .—Mr. J. T. Macgowan, in 
accordance with the notice given by him at the last meeting, 
moved that the meetings of the Council shall for the future be 
held at 3 p.m., instead of 8 p.m. After considerable discus- 
sion on the subject, it was decided for the present to make no 
alteration. 

Donation . — Mr. T. H. Walton, Fitzroy, forwarded a dona- 
tion The Lancet for 1879, and Vol. 8 of the Pharma- 
ceutical Journal , 1848. A vote of thanks was awarded him. 

Deputation to the Minister of Lands.— It was resolved 
that further action be taken in reference to the piece of 
land promised to the Society by the late Government, and a 
deputation consisting of the president, vice-president, trea- 
surer, honorary secretary, Messrs. Bosisto, Ogg, and Bowen ; 
and Messrs. Zox, Harris, and Carter, M.L.A.’s, should have an 
interview with the Minister. 

Exhibits. — Mr. Montague Brown, of Emerald Hill, phar- 
maceutical chemist, forwarded a sample of medicated orano-e 
wine, made entirely from fruit. Upon examination it was 
found to be a well-made and palatable article. 

Mr. Graham Mitchell, F.R.C.V.S., also forwarded two samples 
of darnel ( [Lolium temulentum.') 

Financial and routine business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


At the conclusion of the council meeting an adjourned 
general meeting of the members was held, to receive the report 
of a committee appointed at the annual meeting to consider 
certain proposed alterations in the constitution and laws of 
the society. 

The report of the committee was then read; and it was 
moved by Mr. Bowen, and seconded by Mr. Baker, and carried, 
that it be received. 

Mr. Norris moved that the consideration of the report be 
postponed for one month, and that a copy be forwarded to 
every member of the society by post or otherwise. The motion 
was seconded by Mr. D. E. Morison. Mr. Norris stated that 
many members were unaware of the meeting ; and he thought, 
if they had known of it, there would have been a better 
attendance. 

Mr. Gamble said he saw no good in following Mr. Norris’s 
suggestion. The meeting was an adjourned one from the 
annual meeting, had been well advertised both in The Chemist 
and Druggist and the daily papers, and to comply with Mr. 
Norris’s motion would entail considerable expense and labour. 


April, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


93 


After some remarks from Messrs. Macgowan, Jones, and 
Morison, Mr. Wm. Bowen moved that the report of the com- 
mittee be adopted, which was seconded by Mr. Gamble, and 
carried unanimously. 

A vote of thanks to the chairman, Mr. C. R. Blackett, 
brought the meeting to a close. 


Scientific Summary. 


From the Pharmaceutical and other journals we make the 
following excerpts : — 

The present and final number of Medicinal Plants contains 
figures and descriptions of the following plants : — Canarium 
commune , Conium macula turn, Coriandrum sativum, Curcur - 
bita Pepo , Crinum asiaticum , Strychnos Ignatii , Pinus Abies, 
Avena sativa , and Hordeum vulgare . A correct reprint of 
Pinus Picea is also added, a transposition in the text having 
occurred in that already published in part 38. A systematic 
list of the contents of the work, an alphabetical index, a list 
of errata, and the preface, complete the work. Of the 
immense amount of labour involved in a work of this kind, 
only those who have to bring a work up to date can have any 
idea. The vast amount of foreign literature scattered 
in various publications that has to be consulted, and the 
balancing or reconciling of contradictory or conflicting state- 
ments, render the production of a work like the present, one 
of considerable labour. No other publication can be said to 
give so complete and yet succinct an account of the medicinal 
plants of Great Britain, India, and the United States, and of 
their products, as this one. It includes no less than eighty-nine 
natural orders, two hundred and thirty- three genera, and three 
hundred and six species, the information concerning which is 
brought up to the present time. The plan adopted, by means 
of which the whole can be arranged in consecutive systematic 
order by simply paying attention to the number attached to 
each species, is a most excellent one, and now that the work 
can be bound, it will be found that the four handsome volumes 
which it is intended to make will have their contents arranged 
in the most convenient manner possible. No pharmaceutical 
or medical library will be complete without Bentley and 
Trimen’s Medicinal Plants. 

A note in the Chemical News , by Mr. ft. H. Ridout (13th 
February, p. 73), on the products of the slow oxidation of 
phosphorus, is not without an application to a common form 
of specialty terminology that reveals anything but the real 
nature of the preparation. Four or five years since a country 
ractitioner having in consultation with a London specialist 
een recommended to use an injection of “ozonised water,” 
unsuccessfully tried in various places to obtain a supply. Mr. 
Ridout being applied to, although aware of the general im- 
pression that ozone is insoluble in water, made an experiment 
by aspirating a current of air over moist phosphorus. An 
abundant evolution of an oxidising body was thus produced, 
which was passed through caustic soda to free it from phos- 
phorous vapour, and then through recently distilled water ; 
but after this action had been continued for six hours the 
water was found to contain not a trace of any oxidising 
agent. After this evidence of the insolubility of ozofie in 
water, an application was made to the specialists for a sample, 
which proved to be a solution of potassium permanganate. 

Dr. Vasowicz, in La Ruche Pharmaceutigue , has detailed 
some experiments made with a view to ascertain the correctness 
of the statements of Dr. Jehn that oil of peppermint is 
coloured red by hydrate of chloral. He shows that in those 
cases in which the oil was of ascertained purity no colouration 
took place ; in those in which it was not possible to ascertain 
the exact purity a yellow colouration occurred. 

Ammoniacal glycyrrhizin appears to be steadily making its 
way upon the Continent. According to the Journal de Phar- 
macie , the French Minister of War has just ordered its definite 
introduction into the military hospitals, where a preparation 
containing four decigrammes of glycyrrhizin in a litre of 
water is to take the place of the old tisane de reglisse. 

Baron Miieller and L. Rummel describe, in the Zeitschrift 
Oest. Ajp. Ver. f a new glucoside obtained from Gastrolobium 
bilobum , an Australian plant, which possesses poisonous pro- 
erties. It is called “ gastrolobin,” and is described as a 
lackish, brittle hygroscopic substance, with an odour and 
taste resembling that of sassafras, soluble in hot water and 


alcohol, and precipitated by a watery solution of acetate of lead* 
It is easily decomposed by mineral acids and partly by organic 
acids, and is soluble in ammonia with an intense yellow, 
colour. It is not, however, as yet certain that the glucoside is 
the principle to which the poisonous properties of the plant are 
due. A poisonous principle has been found also in other 
species of this genus, and of the allied genera, Oxylobium and 
Gompholobiuni , and also in Isotropis striata, Benth. 

Another veteran German pharmacist has passed away, in 
Dr. August Wiggers, Professor of Pharmacy in the University 
of Gottingen. The deceased was in his seventy-seventh year, 
and his jubilee was celebrated about two years since. From 
France, too, the death is reported of M. Baudrimont, Professor 
of Chemistry to the Faculty of Sciences, Bordeaux, at the age 
of seventy-four years. 

The revived interest in the subject of the artificial produc- 
tion of the diamond, provoked by Mr. Mactear’s experiment, 
has been intensified by the communication made by Mr. 
Hannay to the Royal Society, at its last meeting in February. 
Mr. Hannay, continuing his researches in respect to the solu- 
bility of solids in gases, made numerous experiments with dif- 
ferent forms of carbon in vapours that he thought most probable 
to act as solvents, in the hope that from one of them the carbon 
might be redeposited in a crystalline form. These experi- 
ments, Mr. Hannay says, were unsuccessful ; but it was 
noticed that, when a gas containing carbon and hydrogen 
was heated under pressure in presence of certain metals, its 
hydrogen was attracted by the metal and the carbon was set 
free. Ultimately, the operation was conducted in the presence 
of a “stable nitrogen compound,” and, under these conditions, 
Mr. Hannay says that, “ when the whole is near a red heat, 
and under very high pressure, the carbon is so acted upon by 
the nitrogen compound that it is obtained in the clear, trans- 
parent form of the diamond.” At any rate, there seems to be 
no doubt that some minute crystalline fragments submitted 
with the paper as the product of such an operation were 
really identical with the natural diamond. The stable 
nitrogen compound used was not specified, but Professor 
Dewar pointed out the analogy between such a reaction and 
the production of graphite by heating a cyanide in caustic 
soda to a low red heat. These statements, so interesting to 
scientific men, are probably not altogether comfortable to 
diamond owners, but it will be somewhat reassuring to 
them to learn that the cost of producing diamonds arti- 
ficially still far exceeds the market value of the product. 

How to effect the dissociation of the “elements” — and 
especially of the metalloids — is a problem still occupying the 
attention of scientific men. According to Nature (11th 
March), M. Pictet, who two years since liquefied oxygen, 
starting with the fact that none of the metalloids, with the 
exception, perhaps, of oxygen, has yet been detected in the 
sun, infers that their absence is due to dissociation, and pro- 
poses to attempt to reproduce the conditions under which 
this takes place. This he would do by means of an enormous 
parabolic mirror, in the focus of which the sun’s rays should 
be concentrated upon the metalloids which it is sought to 
decompose. Some of the data for working out this problem 
are known, and assuming that to dissociate bromine would 
require “ a hundred times as much heat (at the temperature 
of its dissociation point) as water vapour requires (at its 
dissociation point) to split it up,” M. Pictet calculates that a 
gram of bromine would need 350 calorics to resolve it into its 
elements, and that to dissociate one gram per minute would 
require that the solar rays should be concentrated by a mirror 
of at least thirty-five square metres of surface. 


lectures, &t. 


At a meeting of sections B, C, and D, held at the Royal Society’s 
Hall, on the 3rd May, Mr. Blackett read a short paper on “A 
method of purifying water for domestic and manufacturing 
purposes.” The method is due to Mr. Birkmyre, of South 
Yarra, and consists of the use of tersulphate of alumina as a 
precipitant of all organic and earthy matters. It is readily 
soluble in water, and of a harmless nature, requiring but a 
small quantity to purify the water, 1 oz being ample for 400 
gals, of water, the precipitate formed completely subsiding in 
twenty-four hours, leaving the water as colourless as if dis- 
tilled. The alumina combines with the organic matters, and 
carries down mechanically all earthy matter that may be in 


94 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


April, 1880. 


suspension. It appears to entirely remove all traces of 
albuminoid ammonia, which is such a fertile cause of fevers 
of the typhoid type, and blood disorders, if it exists in any 
quantity in the water, and which is a substance very apt to 
contaminate rain-water if the roofs be not clean or the drain- 
age of the premises imperfect. The paper was illustrated by 
means of experiments, which demonstrated very conclusively 
the value of the alumina tersulphate as a purifier, and which, 
although of considerable commercial value in England, is as 
yet unknown in colonial commerce. 


With the view of increasing the utility of the collections in 
the Technological Museum the superintendent, Mr. Cosmo 
Newbery, has, with the sanction of the trustees, arranged 
that special explanations will be given on each Saturday at 
eleven o’clock. On Saturday, 17th April, Mr. Newbery com- 
menced his course of explanatory lectures on the collection in 
the Technological Museum. He devoted his remarks to the 
collections of cereals, Victorian minerals, and ceramic work, 
explaining the contents of each case in a lucid and interesting 
manner. His audience was small, but appreciative. The 
second lecture was delivered on the 24th April. There was 
a good attendance of ladies and gentlemen, and considerable 
interest was manifested by those present. Mr. Newbery 
described the metallurgical section of the museum, commencing 
with a description of the varieties of minerals with which the 
metallurgist meets. He showed the way in which the various 
metals could be recognised, and their physical properties 
ascertained. Afterwards an adjournment was made to the 
Library, where several practical experiments were carried out 
to illustrate the theories expounded. The lecture was the 
second of a series, which is to be continued weekly, 
and it seems that the privilege of attending them is 
highly appreciated judging from the appearance and character 
of the audience. 


The first of a course of three lectures on agricultural chemistry 
was commenced on the 21st April by Mr. R. W. Emerson 
Mac Ivor, F.C.S., in the Industrial and Technological Museum. 
There was a good attendance. “ The soil” was the subject of 
the lecture, and after explaining its constituents, Mr. Maclvor 
pointed out that to procure thorough fertility the soil must 
contain a portion of the thirteen substances which enter into 
the composition of a plant, and that if one is missing the plant 
cannot grow. The soil, also, must not be too retentive or too 
open. In a moist district the farmer will make more profit 
out of a comparatively open soil than out of a heavy one ; but 
in a dry country like Victoria a loamy or heavy soil is pre- 
ferable, as it retains sufficient water to meet the requirements 
of plants in dry weather. The colour of the soil is also 
important, a dark one absorbing the sun’s rays, and being 
invariably warmer than a light one, which reflects the rays. 
The warmth of the soil not only accelerates the growth of the 
plant, but acts beneficially at the early stage of germination. 
Referring next to drainage, the lecturer pointed out the 
importance of farmers in this country draining their land in 
order to open its pores, and allow of an absorption of any rain 
which may fall. The evaporating power of the Victorian 
atmosphere is 42 in. per annum, whereas the average rainfall 
is only 26 in., so that it was manifestly to the advantage of 
the farmer to drain his land. After describing the composition 
of subsoils, Mr. Maclvor concluded by a reference to ploughing, 
advocating thorough and occasionally deep ploughing. The 
more strictly chemical portion of the lecture was illustrated 
by various experiments. 


BALLARAT. 


THE BALLARAT DISTRICT CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION. 
The monthly meeting of the association was held at Lester’s 
Hotel, on Wednesday, 21st April ; there was a good attend- 
ance. The president, Mr. T. P. Palmer, took the chair at 
twenty minutes past nine p.m. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and confirmed. 

A letter was read from Mr. Holdsworth, of Sandhurst, sug- 
gesting the idea of enlarging the number of members of the 
Pharmacy Council by the appointment of a member thereat 
from each of the large towns of the colony, such members to 


be honorary members ; and asking the association to inaugu- 
rate the matter. In reply, the hon. secretary was instructed 
to write to Mr. Holdsworth, and recommend that the 
chemists of Sandhurst and other large towns should do as 
Ballarat had done, and form themselves into associations, 
and seek representation on the council by election instead of 
hon. membership. 

Mr. Towl reported the death in the hospital, after a long 
illness, of Mr. J. C. Proctor, an old Ballarat chemist, who 
carried on business for many years in Armstrong-street. 

According to notice, Mr. Towl brought forward his motion 
re dispensing for Friendly Societies. The matter was post- 
poned till next meeting, in order to obtain information rela- 
tive to the working of the Friendly Societies’ dispensaries in 
Melbourne and suburbs. 

The hon. secretary stated that he had attended the meeting 
of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society on 2nd April, and 
when the discussion on the alteration of laws and regulations 
was proceeding had introduced the request of the association re 
alteration in the method of voting for members of the council — 
viz., that it should be conducted by ballot instead of proxy 
papers; but it was not carried, on account of the expense 
attending the ballot method. Also, to save time and expense 
to country members, he had given notice of motion to the 
effect that the council meetings in future be held at three p.m., 
in lieu of eight p.m. 

The subject of the infringement of the price list by mem- 
bers of the association was brought up, and the president 
and secretary were deputed to wait upon one of the members 
respecting it. Considerable discussion then took place about 
the price of several articles not in the price list. The price of 
trusses was agreed upon as follows Single, 6s.; double, 
8s. 6d.; patent single, 8s. 6d.; double, 12s. 6d. Higginson’s 
enemas— common, 6s. 6d.; screw, 7s. 6d.; super., 10s. Guard’s 
hair dye, 4s. Members were requested to note any articles 
they thought it necessary to add to the list by next meeting ; 
after which fresh lists will be printed. 

Mr. Whittle again brought forward the question of altering 
the method of voting for members of the Council of the Phar- 
maceutical Society, and urged upon the hon. secretary to in- 
troduce the subject again at the general meeting on 7th May. 

Mr. Whittle also gave notice of motion to alter some of the 
rules of the association. 

Mr. H. Rocke, of Melbourne, was present for a short time. 

The customary vote of thanks to the chair brought the 
meeting to a close. 


We regret to record the death of Mr. Joseph Longstaff 
chemist, which took place on the 4th of May, at his residence^ 
Victoria-street. ^ The deceased gentleman arrived in Ballarat 
in the year 1857, and founded the business in Bridge-street 
now being carried on by his cousin, Mr. T. Longstaff ; but a 
few years since he purchased the business of Mr. Keogh, whole- 
sale chemist, in Melbourne. The troublesome legal proceed- 
ings which arose out of this transaction, coupled with a serious 
illness, undermined his previous comparatively strong con- 
stitution. He returned to Ballarat about three weeks since 
with a premonition of his early death, and with a desire to end 
his days where he had spent such a considerable portion of his 
life, and where he had earned for himself the respect and 
esteem of all with whom he had come in contact. Mr. Long- 
staff leaves a widow and five children, who, we are sure, will 
receive the condolence and sympathy of a very wide circle of 
friends . — Ballarat Star. 

We regret to record the death of Mr. J. C. Proctor, at the 
Ballarat Hospital, on the 1st April, where deceased had been 
for some weeks, under treatment for tumor. Mr. Proctor was 
fifty-five years of age, and brother-in-law to Dr. Stewart 
whose dispensary in Armstrong-street the deceased managed 
for some time. He was also with Mr. Cowl, of Sturt-street 
as an assistant intermittently, for some years. The deceased 
had resided in Ballarat for twenty-seven years, and bore the 
reputation of being an excellent chemist. 


The unpleasant and offensive odour of iodoform is easily 
overcome by E. Biermann by the addition of from 5 to 8 drops 
of volatile oil of fennel to 1 gram of iodoform. Its efficacy is 
really surprising, and far exceeds that of oil of peppermint 
(see Amer Jour. Pharm April, 1879, p. 190) and of balsam of 
Peru, — Pharm. Ztg . 


April, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


95 


MY FIRST AQUARIUM. 

The following interesting letter addressed to the Australasian 
on “ My First Aquarium,” by Mr. C. A. Atkin, will repay 
perusal : — 

I had hoped, from what I have seen recently in the columns 
of your contemporaries, that the weakness to which I plead 
guilty, under the above heading, was about to assume some 
public and practical form in the land of my adoption. The 
pre-occupations of business, and the political excitement of 
the period, as well as the ephemeral attractions of older 
established sources of amusement, are, doubtless, amongst the 
causes which have retarded the progress here of an institution 
of such rapid growth and permanent interest as the “ Aqua- 
rium” has proved at home. Be that as it may, however, I 
have found time, during the recent holidays, to indulge to a 
greater extent than usual in the weakness alluded to, and if I 
felt that I had been guilty of an extravagance, or that you 
were likely to incur loss by publishing the fact, I should point 
to the noble institutions which are being rapidly reared for the 
same object, under the title of “Aquaria,” in every part of the 
civilised world excepting Australia. 

“ One of the greatest beauties of the study of Nature is 
generally considered to reside in the brotherly feeling it estab- 
lishes between men of all nations, of all ages, of all ranks” — 
are the words I find recorded in the works of a distinguished 
naturalist who has just passed away from us (the late Count 
de Castelnau), and few would gainsay that assertion. 

But to proceed with my narrative. Some eighteen years ago, 
after seven spent in this country, I determined to revisit dear 
old England, and amonst the many lovely spots which invited 
my attention, Tiverton, in Devonshire, engrossed a special 

share. There I made the acquaintance of Mr. D ; and in 

one of the recesses formed by the bay windows of his draw- 
ingroom I saw, for the first time, an aquarium. 

It was, of course, a miniature one, and occupied a neatly- 
designed stand, advantageously placed for the reception of 
the sun’s rays, on which so much of the vitality of its inmates 
depended. The latter, I found, consisted of gold and silver 
fish, dace, minnows, &c., which disported themselves amongst 
numerous aquatic plants evidently thoroughly acclimatised, as 
some of them were in flower, although my friend assured me 
the water had not been changed for many months, nor would 
such a precautionary measure be requisite for some length of 
time to come, unless an accident occurred. 

On the chimneypiece of the room we occupied there were 
several upright vases, containing distinct varieties of water 
beetles, and in each vase was a specimen of the Vallisneria 
spiralis growing in full vigour ; so that, taken altogether, the 
scene, to which I had before been a complete stranger, was 
replete with objects of beauty and interest, so much so, that I 
at once determined to become the proprietor of a like attrac- 
tive collection, to take back with me and show to my friends 
in Australia. 

Innocently enough, therefore, I asked my friend where such 
a collection could be purchased. “ Oh !” said he, “ it is home- 
made ; I and my two boys caught most of the specimens of 
fish and beetles, and we also gathered the water plants from 
the brooks running through the fields you see around us !” 

From that date my enthusiasm (which some, no doubt, 
regarded as a mild form of mania) in the matter of the 
aquarium took its departure. I dreamt and talked about what 
I had seen at my friend’s house, and determined, if possible, 
to construct and possess a similar collection on my return to 
Australia. 

The following brief resume of my subsequent proceedings 
will show how far I succeeded ; and I will only add, for the 
encouragement of others, that it has proved a cheap and 
never-failing source of instruction and amusement both to 
myself and friends. 

My first ambition was to purchase some goldfish to bring 
back with me to this country, for the date I speak of was, if I 
mistake not, antecedent to Mr. Geo. Coppin’s notion of accli- 
matising these golden household pets in Australia ; at any 
rate, I was not aware of their existence here. On addressing 
myself, however, to one of the dealers in goldfish in London 
he so disheartened me as to my chances of being able to land 
them alive that I abandoned the idea and resolved to trust to 
the. River Yarra and the Melbourne swamp for the stock of my 
projected aquarium. 

My Devonshire friend had impressed upon me the importance 
of first establishing the growth of plants before putting the 
fish into the aquarium, and I afterwards discovered the im- 


portance of this, both as regards fresh and salt water col- 
lections. 

Soon after my return to Melbourne I commenced operations 
by paying a visit to the Royal Park, where, at that time, there 
existed two or three large water-holes, close to the side of the 
“ camel-house,” which was erected on that memorable occa- 
sion in the history of Australia when the Burke and Wills 
exploration expedition left Melbourne, and succeeded in 
crossing the continent as far as Cooper’s Creek. 

I found all I wanted for a start in one of these water-holes — 
aquatic plants, beetles, tadpoles, and water-snails. 

First, I brought home the plants, then procured some sand, 
which I well washed, afterwards cleared all the soil from the 
roots of the plants, and bedded them firmly into the sand ; 
then, having filled my tank three parts full with water, I 
allowed it to remain quiescent for a week or two in order that 
the plants might become established in their new home. 

I next made a small hand-net of muslin and cane, and soon 
caught sufficient specimens to stock my first acquarium. 

The tadpoles proved very interesting objects indeed. They 
had been in my possession some weeks, when first one and 
then another of them began to develop into the frog. This 
wonderful transformation scene may be thus described. First, 
the two fore feet were visible, then the hind ones, and, last of 
all, the tail, which, after a time, became absorbed, as it were, 
into the body, when the transformation was complete. At 
this stage they should be taken out of the acquarium, or a 
piece of cork or wood, to serve as a raft, should be put into the 
tank for them to rest upon, otherwise they will drown. 

It was remarkable how few of my friends had ever seen a 
tadpole before, much less noticed the creature when in this 
transition state, and their undisguised astonishment quite 
repaid me for all the trouble I had taken up to this time. It 
also stimulated my desire to show them something more 
indicative of the obligation under which my Devonshire 
friend’s kindness had placed me, and encouraged me to prose- 
cute my studies in this direction with fresh vigour and enter- 
prise. 

About this time I discovered that a feud existed between 
the beetles and the tadpoles, to such an extent that I was 
obliged to separate them, or the voracity of the former 
creatures would soon have exterminated the tadpoles. My 
next ambition was directed towards obtaining a supply of fish 
and a larger aquarium. With the simple appliances of a 
hand-net and fish kettle, I strolled out towards the Melbourne 
Swamp, where I was amply rewarded for my trouble by a 
variety of fish, and an amelioration in the class of plants, 
larvae, &c. 

( To be continued . ) 


|EegaI anb Jftagisterial. 


An attempt to commit suicide by poisoning was made on 
16th April by a young girl of Italian parentage, named 
Clementina Alessio, only seventeen years of age, residing at 
42 Queen sberry-street, Carlton. It appears that she asked a 
lad to buy some laudanum, of which she took, it is thought, 
about an ounce. She was brought to the Melbourne Hospital 
in an insensible state, and upon the necessary remedies being 
employed for about an hour by Mr. Newman, resident 
physician, consciousness returned, and she was progressing 
favourably. It is supposed that disappointment in a love 
affair was the cause of the attempt. 

What would appear to be an attempt to commit suicide in a 
determined manner was made on the 16th April by a man 
named Alfred Sayers, aged forty-five years, a resident of 
Station-street, Richmond. It appears that he deliberately 
swallowed nearly an ounce of nitric acid, as he states, by 
mistake, under the impression that he was taking a cooling 
drink, but as his friends surmise, with the intention of taking 
his life. He was promptly removed to the Melbourne 
Hospital, where he was, although in a very precarious condi- 
tion, progressing favourably towards recovery. 

A most determined attempt to commit suicide was made on 
the evening of the 14th April by a married woman named 
Ann Kelly, aged thirty years, a resident of Princes-street, 
Fitzroy. For some reason which could not be ascertained she 
swallowed nearly an ounce of laudanum, and was almost in 
articulo mortis when the police, having been summoned, 
arrived at her house, and hurried her off to the hospital. 


96 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


April, 1880. 


Messrs. Woinarski and Newman, the resident surgeons, were 
promptly in attendance, and at once took steps to counteract 
the effects of the poison. The stomach pump was called into 
requisition, and the galvanic battery and the administration 
of antidotes were persevered with for nearly six hours without 
any symptoms of the patient’s return to consciousness. At 
length the pupils of the eyes became sensible to light, and 
there was every prospect of a successful result from the treat- 
ment adopted. The woman has not yet sufficiently recovered 
to give any reason for attempting her own life, but it is 
believed that domestic infelicity and an over-indulgence in 
intoxicating liquors are the primary causes. 

A young woman, twenty-one years of age, named Hattie 
Burt, attempted to commit suicide on the 26th April, by 
swallowing a quantity of laudanum. She was, however, 
fortunately discovered, and being promptly removed to the 
Melbourne Hospital, the requisite antidotes were applied by 
Dr. Armstrong, one of the resident surgeons, successfully. 

A man named Francis Conway was brought to the Mel- 
bourne Hospital, on the 3rd May, suffering from the effects of 
poisoning by strychnine, which it is believed he took with the 
intention of committing suicide. Under treatment by Dr. 
Armstrong, resident surgeon, he slightly improved, and hopes 
are entertained of his recovery. Conway was at one time in 
the police force, but he retired about three years ago on a 
pension. It is believed that drink was the cause of the 
suicidal act. 

“ Baunscheiditism” Again. — Mr. Samuel Fischer, who 
professes to cure all complaints by means of what he calls 
“ baunscheiditism,” summoned W. Dudgeon at the City Police 
Court for £ 1 , as work and labour done. Mr. Cohen appeared 
for the plaintiff, and Mr. Hornbuckle for the defence. The 
latter raised a preliminary objection that the plaintiff was not 
a registered medical practitioner, but Mr. Webster, P.M., over- 
ruled this objection. The plaintiff stated in his evidence that 
he had agreed to charge 10s. for each application of the 
instrument to the defendant’s child; and, in reply to Mr. 
Hornbuckle, said “ the operation was quite a mechanical one.” 
Mr. Hornbuckle inquired if the plaintiff did not use the 
instrument to make insertions in the skin, and then rub oil on. 
Plaintiff — “ Yes, that is what I do, so that we shall not be 
mere slaves to doctors.” He proceeded to say that the child 
was suffering from scrofula, and had been poisoned by vaccina- 
tion. Mrs. Dudgeon was called, and said Fischer promised 
to cure the child for £2. After the first application he was 
paid 10s., and the second time was given an I.O.U. for a like 
amount, which was afterwards paid. The plaintiff, she said, 
used the instrument to her child after applying it to a man 
with yellow jaundice, who had since died. He injected oil 
into the temples of the child, and also into the glands of the 
neck. After this the child became nearly blind, and she had 
to place it under other treatment. Mr. Webster said the case 
was not borne out by the evidence, and he would dismiss it. 
He believed that Fischer had a perfect right to sue, and the 
case was only dismissed on its merits . — Bendigo Advertiser . 


PROSECUTION OF AN UNREGISTERED CHEMIST. 
At the St. Kilda Police Court, on the 7th May, Robert Soppet, 
carrying on business in Robe-street, was summoned by the 
police under the 25th section of the Pharmacy Act. Mr. 
Soppet produced his certificate of qualification from the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and pleaded that he 
was ignorant that he had committed any offence. On his 
arrival in this colony he forwarded his application for regis- 
tration to the secretary of the Pharmacy Board, but he had 
not until the 6th of May finally completed the requisite forms, 
although he had been in the colony eight months. He asked 
the bench to deal leniently with him ; what he had done 
was in ignorance, and since the summons had been taken out 
he had completed his registration. The police, therefore, 
did not wish to press the charge, and the bench fined the 
defendant 15s. costs. 


flotcs attb Abstracts, 


Salicylic Acid Tampons. — A s employed in the German 
army, they consist of pieces of soft gauze of about 13 or 16 
square centimeters, which are loosely tied around 1 or 2 grams 
of cotton, so as to be readily formed into any desired shape 


by pressure. One kilo of these tampons is impregnated with 
a solution of 110 grams of salicylic acid and 10 grams of castor 
oil in 3£ or 4 litres of 95 per cent, alcohol. They are after- 
wards dried in a well- ventilated room, and are intended to be 
used in applying a temporary bandage until the services of a 
surgeon may be procured. Bernbeck suggests the use of 
glycerine in place of the castor oil, considering it far preferable. 
— Pharm. Ztg. 9 1879. 

Extemporaneous Preparation of Syrup of Licorice. 
— Juehling prepares a syrup, equal in strength to that of the 
German Pharmacopoeia, by mixing : — 

Essentia liquiritias ... 10*0 

Syrupi simplicis ... ... ... 180*0 

Mellis depurati 120*0 M. 

Essentia liguiritice is made by extracting twice 1000 grams 
of licorice root with 3000 grams of water, evaporating the 
infusion to 500 grams, adding 500 grams of alcohol, filtering 
and evaporating to 333 grams (consistence of honey). — Pharm . 
Ztg. % 1879. 

Ferric Hydrates.— The trihydrate, Fe 2 (0H) 6 , has never 
been prepared thus far, according to Tommasi, who mentions 
the existence of two isomeric, respectively red and yellow, 
monohydrates, Fe 2 0 2 (0H) 2 , and bihydrates, Fe 2 0(0H) 4 , and 
publishes the following distinctions : — The red bihydrate 
remains unaltered up to 50° C. and the yellow to 105° C.; the 
red monohydrate to 92°, and the yellow to 150° C. The red 
hydrates, when dehydrated, leave as a residue a brown oxide, 
having the density 5*1, while the yellow hydrates leave a red 
or reddish-yellow oxide, having the density 3*95. The red 
hydrates dissolve even in dilute acids, while the yellow are 
scarcely soluble in concentrated acids. The red hydrates are 
readily dissolved by ferric chloride solution, and this solution 
yields, on the addition of sodium sulphate or sulphuric acid, 
a precipitate of hydrated oxide ; the yellow hydrates are 
insoluble in ferric chloride. The red hydrates are entirely 
dehydrated by boiling, while the yellow are only reduced to 
monohydrates. Tommasi considers the combinations of ferric 
hydrates with ferric salts mere mechanical mixtures, and not 
chemical compounds.— Ber. d. JDeutsch . Chem. Ges., 1879. 

Inorganic Chemistry.— The Chemical Cause of the 
Poisonous Nature of Arsenic . — The old theory proposed 
by Liebig that arsenous acid, like corrosive sublimate, formed 
an insoluble compound with albumen, and hence decomposes 
the animal tissues, has been given up since it has been found 
experimentally that these supposed albuminates are not formed 
by the action of arsenous acid or its salts. Binz and Schulz 
find that arsenic acid, digested with egg- albumen and fibrin of 
warm-blooded animals, at the temperature of the body, is 
reduced. They find that the mucous membrane of the 
stomach, the liver, and the undecomposed protoplasm of plants 
reduce arsenic acid and also oxidise arsenous to arsenic acid. 
The authors find in this alternate oxidation and reduction, 
which the two arsenic acids undergo when in contact with 
the albumen molecules, the reason for the decomposing effect 
which arsenic in its several forms exerts upon the tissue, or, 
in other words, for its poisonous character. They draw an 
analogy with the poisonous effects of nitrogen dioxide, which 
is also a carrier of oxygen, passing into nitrogen tetroxide, and 
then, in the presence of water, regenerating nitrogen dioxide. 
Phosphorus and antimony they consider as showing similar 
characters.— -iter, der Chem. Ges. 

Benzoate of Soda in Diphtheria.— Dr. Letzerich has 
successfully treated, with benzoate of soda, twenty-seven cases 
of diphtheria which came under his care during an epidemic 
of the disease in Berlin. Of these cases eight were severe, 
accompanied by high fever, delirium, retention of the urine 
and faeces, existing often before the extensive local affection 
had made its appearance. In the blood there were found 
numerous bacteria and plasma corpuscles from which, by culti- 
vation in veal broth, very large colonies of micrococci became 
developed. The dose of sodium benzoate for children and 
adults is to be regulated by the weight of the body. The 
formula for infants under one year old is 

R Sodas benzoat. pur 5*0 or Sodas benzoat. pur, 3 j. 

Aquae distillat. Aquas distillat. 

Aquas menth. ppt, aa 40*0 Aquas menth, ppt. aa Jj. 

Syrup cort. aurant. 10 Syrup cort. aurant. 3 ij. M. 

Half a tablespoonful every hour. 

The dose for children between one and three years of ao-e is 
given at 7-8 grams (two drachms) dissolved in three and a- 
half ounces of the vehicle, the whole amount being given in 
the course of the day, in half to one tablespoonful doses. 


April, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


97 


For children between three and seven years of age, 8-10 grams 
(2-2£ drachms), given in the same way. Those over seven 
years old take 10-15 grams (2^-4 drachms), and for adults the 
dose is 15-25 grams (2^-6 drachms) daily in 4£ ounces of the 
vehicle. An unpleasant after-effect has never been observed 
even in young infants. The diphtheritic membrane was 
treated with benzoate of soda in powder, being sprinkled on 
or applied through a glass tube or quill. There is no slough 
formed, and thereby the danger is averted of its acting as a 
firm covering under which an energetic development and 
growth of the organisms can take place. The insufflation 
was made every three hours in severe cases, in the middle 
forms two or three times daily. With older children a 
simple solution of the salt (ten to two hundred) was used as a 
gargle. The author also recommends this remedy in gastric 
or intestinal catarrh, particularly of infants, and states that at 
times the results are surprising in these latter cases. He 
recommends it likewise in mycotic catarrh of the bladder, 
and firmly believes in the statement of Klebs that it is to be 
recommended in all diseases which originate by infection. 
— The Boston Med. and Surg. Jonrn ., 17th July, 1879 ; from 
Berlin Klini, Wosch. , 17th February, 1879. 


<2Tor ttsftmbztttt. 


COATING PILLS. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — One of your correspondents, signing himself “ Ambition,” 
writes asking for the best method of coating pills. Had he 
placed his name and address (which I would respectfully say 
by so doing I do not think there would have been any disgrace 
when seeking information), I would have communicated with 
him direct. I may say that I have tried chalk, gum, starch, 
isinglass, sugar, French chalk, gelatine, mucilage, glue, simple 
syrup, albumen, and arrowroot. In some instances I have 
used the above separately, and in others combined them, but 
obtain the best result as follows: — Dissolve one drachm 
isinglass in one and a-half ounces simple syrup. Pour a small 
quantity whilst warm upon some pills that have been made, 
say, a few weeks, and become hard. After shaking them 
about for a short time, sprinkle over some French chalk. 
Place them in a fiat-bottom tin, and apply a gentle heat. 
Keep them continually rotating, adding more chalk, if neces- 
sary, until dry. I find that the coating neither cracks, nor 
does it peel off. I had no guide in my first attempt to sugar- 
coat pills, and if any correspondent is in possession of a better 
method, maybe he will kindly enlighten his brethren. By 
following the foregoing, you can turn out a pill that is smooth 
and glossy. — I remain, sir, &c., CHARLES CROSS. 

Gawler, Adelaide, S.A., 7th May, 1880. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — Your correspondent “Ambition” will find the following 
process answer very well for coating pills, viz. : — 

Make a solution of tolu in ether, nearly saturated (the 
refuse from making syrup of tolu answers equally well, and is 
more economical). Put the pills into a jar, and moisten 
thoroughly with the solution ; then throw them into French 
chalk contained in the pill-coater, and after rotating in the 
usual manner, expose for a short time to allow the coating to 
dry ; then coat twice in succession as follows : — Mix equal 
parts of fresh mucilage of acacia and water, add two drops 
of this to each dozen pills, and throw them into French chalk 
as before ; finally remove all the chalk from the coater, and 
polish the pills by rotating them for some time in the coater. 

The object in first coating with the solution of tolu is to 
prevent the discolouration of the coating, which invariably 
follows if this is omitted. 

During an experience of thirteen years, I have never found 
the least objection to the use of tolu. 

French chalk, or lycopodium, will be found the best for 
dusting the pills when rolling, as liquorice, and such-like 
powders, adhere to the pills, increasing their size, and otherwise 
interfering with coating them satisfactorily.— Yours, &c., 

PlLULA. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — We have had our attention called to an insertion of a 
statement in your paper, or journal, purporting to come from 
the Bendigo Independent , in the which a preparation, of which 
we are owners — viz., Reuter’s Life Syrup — is grossly misrepre- 
sented as having poisoned an old man in Sandhurst, when the 
facts in the case pointed conclusively to his having died from 
excessive purging,” the result of taking the Syrup for 
diarrhoea, from which he was suffering, and for which the 
Syrup was not recommended or calculated. 

We call your attention to the retraction contained in same 
Bendigo Independent of Wednesday, 17th December, which 
speaks for itself, and must now ask that, in justice to us, you 
give this retraction as prominent a place as you did the 
accusation in your issue for November, 1879. 

Our representatives are Messrs. P. Falk and Co., Melbourne. 
— We remain, very respectfully, Barclay and Co. 

New York, 6th March, 1880. 

[We have not seen the retraction referred to, and therefore 
publish the above letter. — E d. Aust. Sup . C. fy D .] 


LOLIUM TEMULENTUM (DRAKE WEED). 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — As large quantities of drake are now being disposed of, 
and also found largely mixed with cereals, I think that pub- 
licity should be given to the fact that darnel seed is highly 
injurious and poisonous to stock. It is high time that distil- 
lers and others should be prevented purchasing the same by 
auction and in open market. The following reports will, no 
doubt, be interesting to your readers, through whom the public 
might be informed of the danger of using darnel for feeding 
purposes. The recent mortality amongst fowls and other 
animals may, to a certain extent, have been caused by the 
admixture of this poison in their food. — Yours truly, 

Graham Mitchell, F.R.C.Y.S. 


“ Melbourne, 4th May, 1875. 

“ F. B. Clapp, Esq. 

“ Sir — I herewith enclose report of Baron von Mueller, and 
progress report of Mr. Cosmo Newbery, on the sample of 
horse-feed you handed to me. 

“ I have no doubt that the darnel ( Lolium temulentum ) 
which it contains was the cause of the death and loss of con- 
dition which occurred amongst the ’Bus Company’s horses. — 
I have the honour to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

“Graham Mitchell.” 


“ 4th May, 1875. 

“ Graham Mitchell, Esq. 

“ Dear Sir — I have been unable to detect any mineral or 
organic poison in the portion of the horse’s stomach or in the 
fluid received from you. The partly-crushed grain used as 
horse-feed contains a very large quantity of darnel ( Lolium 
temulentum ), which is noted by most authors as highly poison- 
ous to horses. I think it would be well to institute some 
experiments with the food, as the matter is of great import- 
ance, darnel being a very common weed here. — Yours truly, 

“ J. Cosmo Newbery.” 


“Melbourne, 3rd May, 1875. 

“To Graham Mitchell, Esq., Government Veterinary Sur- 
geon. 

“ Sir — In reply to your letter of the 26th April, I have the 
honour to inform you that the sample of horse-feed submitted 
to my inspection consists mainly of a mixture of partly- 
crushed wheat, barley, and oats, but contains also a consider- 
able portion of darnel (seed of Lolium temulentum ), a grain 
well known to be poisonous as well to man as to pastural 
animals. — I have the honour to be, sir, your obedient servant, 
“Feed, yon Mueller, Government Botanist.” 


“Darnel (Lolium temulentum). — A pernicious, deleterious, 
annual gramineous weed of the rye-grass genus. It infests the 
wheat fields of Britain and of other countries of Europe. Its 
seeds are about the same size as those of wheat, and are gathered 
with them in harvesting, and cannot, without much difficulty, be 
separated from them in the operation of the farm j and when they 
are numerous and find their way with the wheat into bread-flour, 


98 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


April, 1880. 


they prove highly noxious to man, injuring his health, and 
sometimes producing delirium, stupefaction, and other symp- 
toms of poisoning. The plant has ceased to be plentiful in all 
good agricultural districts in Britain, and has almost disap- 
peared in some, but it continues to be dismally prevalent in 
some parts of the Continent, and fearfully deteriorates many 
an imported sample of foreign wheat.” — Wilson's Rural 
Cyclopcedia . 

“ Lolium temulentum. — This grass is found principally in 
cultivated fields, especially among corn, where it is a noxious 
weed. The seeds, it is said, when eaten, produce vomiting, 
purging, violent colic, and death ; and Linseus states that the 
seeds, when mixed with bread, produce but little effect unless 
when eaten hot, but if malted with barley the ale soon occa- 
sions intoxication.” — Parnell . 

“ Lolium temulentum is remarkable as the only species of 
the family (of grasses) known to possess poisonous properties. 
. . . The seeds of this grass are extremely deleterious, 

acting as a narcotic poison, and if taken in small quantities 
for a long period together, causing a peculiar disease called 
dry gangrene, resembling that occasioned by the ergot of rye. 
Some years ago there was reason to suppose it was used by 
fraudulent brewers to increase the intoxicating effect of their 
liquor, but its dangerous properties are now too well known to 
admit of such application being made with impunity, and men- 
tion is made of it here only to call attention to the extreme 
danger of allowing it to grow among corn. Many accidents have 
occurred from the use of wheat and other grains mingled with 
darnel, and especially among the peasantry. Christims relates 
that the whole of the inmates of the Sheffield Workhouse, 
about forty years ago, were seized with dangerous illness, 
attributed to the accidental use of corn mixed with darnel 
seeds, and more recent instances are not wanting. ” — Johnson's 
Useful Plants of Great Britain . 


MANUFACTURE OF OLIVE OIL IN SOUTHERN 
FRANCE. 

{Translated from “ Phar. Handelsbl.,” 14th January, 
by Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G.) 

In the establishment of E. Jourdan de Jauffret et Fils, at 
Salon in the Provence, the manufacture of olive oil neces- 
sarily always begins in the first half of November, because the 
olives become ripe in this season in the Provence, and, when 
begun, it must be continued night and day for three or four 
months, the length of the season, of course, depending on the 
duration of the harvest. 

De Jauffret and Son employ eighteen labourers, who are 
divided into two divisions, working respectively during the 
day and during the night, and producing daily 1200 kilo- 
grammes of the best oil from 1000 decalitres of olives. The 
facilities of the establishment are such that the largest har- 
vests of olives can be handled quickly, so as not to necessitate 
a prolonged storing of olives, which would cause them to fer- 
ment, when they yield an inferior oil. 

Nevertheless, there are some manufacturers who believe in 
this fermentation, claiming that it increases the yield, because 
it assists the separation of the oil from the cellular tissue of 
the olives. But experience has shown that this increase in 
yield can only be obtained at the expense of the quality of 
the oil, and that the larger yield never makes up for the 
inferiority of the oil. 

In the establishment of Jourdan de Jauffret this is avoided. 
Nevertheless, their manner of preparing the oil is such that 
fully as much, if not more, is obtained by them as by those 
allowing the olives to ferment. Before the olives enter the 
mills they are carefully spread over the floor of the well- venti- 
lated storeroom, where they are allowed to remain for three 
days, if the wind is from the south, and four or five days, if 
from the north. The first stage of the manufacture consists 
in grinding the olives between revolving granite stones ; 
then the mass, enclosed in baskets, is exposed to a slight pres- 
sure in an iron press, and yields the so-called virgin oil (huile 
merge J, which has gained the good reputation for the oil of 
the Provence. The mass in the baskets is then exposed to a 
stronger pressure, and yields the well-known good oil usually 
found in commerce. After this second operation the mass is 
taken from the basket-work, and is again placed into the mills, 
where it is thoroughly ground up, when it is again packed into 
baskets and is exposed to the pressure of hydraulic presses. 

During this operation the effect of fermentation is made use 
of by treating the mass with boiling water, in order to facili- 


tate the separation of the oil from the cells, which still retain 
it. Thus, a larger yield is obtained from the olives without 
interfering with the quality of the greater portion of the oil, 
since only the last yield is exposed to heat. This oil is always 
better than the oil obtained from fermented olives, because 
frequently a rotten odour is produced by fermentation, which 
is imparted even to the oil expressed first. 

The oil expressed with the aid of hot water is known in 
commerce as fine table-oil. The greatest precautions must be 
used . in the manufacture. Columelle even forbids the 
kindling of fires in the mills during the manufacture, claiming 
that, the smoke of a single lamp may prove injurious to the 
quality of the oil. This caution is necessary in the older mills. 
Even at the present time, most mills are underground, and of 
such a construction that air and light can scarcely penetrate 
into them, and that foul odours, &c., can scarcely escape from 
them ; besides, most of the mills are revolved by mules, which 
adds to their uncleanliness. 

The olive oil must be preserved with great care, since Th. de 
Saussure has shown that the absorption of atmospheric oxygen, 
which is favoured by heat, has a tendency to turn it rancid. 
The expressed oil is filtered, and immediately transferred into 
large cooled stoneware jugs, in which it gets cold very soon, 
and will keep unaltered for two years. 

“ Waste-oil” ('huile d'enfer) is the name given to all oil in 
the Provence which is collected on the surface of the pits. It 
is treated with caustic soda and with hot water, in order to 
remove the fatty acids, and then enters commerce as lubricat- 
ing machine-oil. It is greatly valued for oiling machinery, 
and also for wool. 


SELLING POISON TO CHILDREN. 

A married woman, named Agnes Fulcknor, thirty-eight years 
of age, was admitted into the Melbourne Hospital, suffering 
from poison. It appeared that one of her sons returned to his 
home, Alfred-street, Emerald Hill, at five o’clock in the even- 
ing, and noticed that there was something wrong with his 
mother. On making inquiries he found that she had sent a 
little girl, seven years of age, to an adjacent chemist’s shop for 
sixpence worth of laudanum. The poison was supplied, and 
the woman swallowed it. A policeman was called in, and the 
woman was taken to the hospital, where she was treated. It 
is not known what caused Mrs. Fulcknor to take the poison. 
Her husband states that when he last saw his wife she was in 
cheerful spirits. This is the second case made public lately 
in which it has been alleged that chemists have supplied 
poison to children. The matter is, therefore, one which should 
be noticed by the authorities. 

[As the law stands at present, there is nothing to prevent the 
sale of poisons included in the second part of schedule 1 ; but 
it is very improper for any one to sell poisons to young 
children.— Ed. Aust. Sup . C. % DJ] 


Pharmacy Board of Victoria Notices. 


THE NINTH PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 
x of Apprentices will be held at this office on THURS- 
DAY, the 3rd day of JUNE, 1880, at Eleven a.m. 
The attention of apprentices is directed to Clause 43 of the 
Regulations to the Act, which obliges indentures to be 
registered within twelve months of their being executed. 

Harry Shillinglaw, Secretary and Registrar. 

Office of the Pharmacy Board, Mutual Provident 
Buildings, Collins-street West, Melbourne. 


THE TWELFTH MODIFIED EXAMINATION of 
**• Candidates for Registration under the Pharmacy 
Act will be held at this office on MONDAY, the 7th 
JUNE, 1880, at Ten o’clock a.m. Candidates must 
give to the Secretary notice of their intention to present 
themselves for examination, together with their indentures 
of apprenticeship and the fee of three guineas, ten days 
prior to the day. 

Harry Shillinglaw, Secretary and Registrar. 

Office of the Pharmacy Board, Mutual Provident 
Buildings, Collins-street West, Melbourne. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


MARTIN & CO., 

WHOLESALE 

Homeopathic Chemists, 

85 COLLINS STREET EAST, 
MELBOURNE. 

HOMEOPATHIC GOODS of EVER? DESCRIPTION 
SUPPLIED AT ENGLISH QUOTATIONS. 


MARTIN d CO.’S Homoeopathic Preparations can be obtained from] any of [the 
Melbourne Wholesale Drug Houses. 


Price List, Show Cards, Illustrated List of Chests, Order Sheets, See., forwarded free on application. 


WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS, 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO., s 



MELBOURNE. 


manufacturers of sulphuric and muriatic acids. bisulphide carbon. & 





osy 


[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] 



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9 K i Published on the 15th > 

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MAY, 1880, 


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Contractors to the Government of Victoria, Bendigo District Hospital, Geelong 
Infirmary, Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, &c., &c. 


SPECIAL 'WHOLESALE AGENTS 

Dr. De Jongh’s Cod Liver Oil. 

Lundborg’s & Atkinson’s Per- 
fumery. 


Green’s August Flower, and 
Boschee’s German Syrup. 
Bidwell’s Brushware. 

Whitall, Tatum & Co.’s Ame- 
rican Glass Bottle ware. 
Bowdler & Bickerdike’s Car- 
bolic Preparations. 
Sullivan’s Disinfectants. 



Southall Bros.’ & Barclay’s 
Drugs, &c. 

Corby n, Stacey & Co.’s Spe- 
cialities. 

Sander & Son’s Eucalypti 
Preparations. 

Longmore’s Everton Cough 
Remedy. 

Chastillier’s Hair Restorer. 
Don’s Neurotic Powder. 
Norris’s Condition Spice. 


FOE 

Dunstone’s Preparations. 
Warwick’s Worm Powders. 
Little’s Soluble Phenyle. 
Morris’s Eye Ointment. 
Kendrick’s Dead Shot Worm 
Candy. 

W. R. Warner & Co.’s Sugar 
Coated Pills. 

E. F. Houghton & Co.’s Cos- 
moline Preparations. 



The most elegantly put np Preparation of the kind in the Market. 

ROCKE, rOMPSIT'T &_CO<, Proprietors 



Printed and Published by Mason, Firth & M‘Cutcheon, 51 & 53 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne. 



THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


HEMMONS, LAWS L GO. 

WHOLESALE DRUCCISTS, 

5 5 & 57 

RUSSELL STREET, 

MELBOURNE. 


May, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


1 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 


Leading Article 1 

The Month 1 

Meetings — 

Tiie Pharmacy Board of Victoria 2 


The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 2 


PAGE 


Modified Examination 3 

Preliminary Examination 3 

Veterinary Medical Association 3 

Legal and Magisterial 4 

Ballarat 5 


page 


Modified Examinations 5 

My First Aquarium 6 

Correspondence 7 

Prussian Blue Photographs 8 


Cfte €fjenmt atttr Urugtjtst. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards ..200 

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Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer — not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


MARRIAGES. 

Lewis— Balderson.— O n the 5th May, at Trinity Church, Balaclava, by 
the Rev. Dr. Torrance, Arthur C., second son of Mr. George Lewis, J.P., 
of Windsor, to Lydia J., third daughter of Mr. R. Balderson, mayor of 
St. Kilda. 

MASON— Jackson.— On the 15th May, at St. John’s Church, by the Rev. 
J. II. L. ZillmanD, George Stephen Mason, of Mason and Son, hatters, 
Coll ins-street, to Mary Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Mr. John 
Jackson, chemist, Jeffcott-street, West Melbourne. 

DEATH. 

Wood.— O n the 6th inst., at his residence, Cunningham-street, Northcote, 
Mr. W. B. Wood, aged fifty-two. 


LIBRARY.— SPECIAL NOTICE . 

The following Periodicals are missing from the 
Library : — The “ Practitioner ,” January , 1879; 

<( Journal of Science” November and December , 1879, 
Nos.; “ Nature f March and December, 1879, Nos. 

Members are invited to examine their Libraries , and 
if any of the above-mentioned worJcs be found therein, to 
forivard such work or works to the Librarian of the 
Society . 

NOTICE. 

Subscriptions for the year 1880 are now due, and 
members are respectfully reguested to remit the same . 


The most important topic of scientific discussion during 
the past month has been upon the state of the Yan Yean 
water. For some time the attention of the public has 
been unpleasantly drawn to this vexed question. The 
water has been so turbid and disgustingly muddy that a 
large number, perhaps the greater proportion, of con- 
sumers felt reluctant to drink it even after filtration — 
which, as usually conducted, is of little avail — notwith- 
standing the assurances we have received from some high 
scientific authorities that to purify this water is almost 


wrong, certainly wasteful, as it is argued that the vege- 
table and suspended organic and mineral matter is very 
“nourishing . 1 De gustibus non est disputandum is an old 
proverb ; but verily there are some whose sense of taste 
is so vitiated that they are quite willing to forego the loss 
of “ vegetables,” as contained in the Yan Yean pea-soup, 
preferring clear, bright, “pure” water. “Dirt,” Lord 
Palmerston once said, “is only matter in the wrong 
place ;” and an increase of six or seven grains of dirt and 
mud in our potable water would indicate that a great deal 
of “ matter in the wrong place” has got into the reservoir. 
Whether this result is due to unskilfulness on the part of 
those who have charge of the works — as Mr. Johnson’s 
letter would seem to show — or not, we think that 
it is the duty of the Government to make speedy 
efforts to effect a complete change in the methods 
in use, or adopt, as is done in Europe and America, 
some mode of purification. We know that this 
is easy enough to talk about, and that the purification 
by precipitation by alum or lime can be carried out per- 
fectly on a small scale. Even filtration, when conducted 
properly by means of a “ dripstone” or piece of Omaru 
freestone, as recommended by Mr. Foord, is quite 
effective. Yet it is said that the economical and engineer- 
ing difficulties are a serious, if not insuperable, difficulty. 
But when we know that cities much larger than Mel- 
bourne are supplied with water purified by means of 
lime and filtration, &c., surely the difficulties which have 
hitherto staggered us might be overcome. As to the 
objections urged at the Medical Association meeting, we 
look upon them as, if not puerile, at least based upon an 
imperfect conception of the methods proposed to be 
adopted. We think that our medical friends might assist 
instead of damping the efforts of water reformers. Drs. 
Brande and Taylor twenty years ago told us that the Yan 
Yean water was, in its then state, 66 unfit for the use of a 
population.” It contained at that time of total solids 11*4 
per gallon ; now we find 15*4 grains per gallon as the 
minimum. Mr. Ellery has, he says, employed lime, in 
the proportion of 3 grains to a gallon, for many years with 
perfect success, and with every confidence in its safety ; 
and how, even if lime is left in solution, anything but 
benefit could result to the drinker of water thus treated, 
we, not being believers in the action of infinitesimal doses, 
treat as a problem beyond our powers. It is, as Mr. 
Johnson says, to be hoped that as the subject is now 
being ventilated it will result in good. 

^he ittonth. 


Mr. Cosmo Newbery delivered another of his interesting 
lectures on practical chemistry at the Industrial and Techno- 
logical Museum, on the 22nd May, to a large audience. He 
dealt briefly with the subject of the methods of extraction of 
silver by the wet processes, and also continued his descriptions 
of the collections in the museum. Mr. Rule also continued his 
description of Tasmanian minerals. 


2 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


May, 1880. 


A return moved for by Mr. Bosisto in November last in 
regard to paying patients in the lunatic asylums of the colony, 
has been presented to Parliament. It appears that the number 
of paying patients in all the asylums on the 1st January, 1879, 
was 207 ; the number contributing sums equivalent to or in 
excess of the average weekly cost of maintenance of lunatic 
patients, 59 ; and the total amount paid into the Treasury to 
the master in lunacy for the year 1879, £4594. 


The adjourned meeting of those interested in the formation 
of a Field Naturalists’ Club was held on the 17th May, at the 
Athenaeum. Dr. Lucas was voted to the chair. There was a 
large attendance, and the name decided on was the “ Field 
Naturalists’ Club of Victoria.” Office-bearers were then elected 
as follows : — President, Professor M‘Coy ; vice-presidents, Dr. 
Lucas and the Kev. J. J. Halley ; treasurer, Mr. E. Howitt ; 
secretary, Mr. D. Best ; committee, Messrs. F. L. Leith, C. 
French, J. R. Y. Goldstein, W. J. Kendall, J. Wing, and J. G. 
Luehmann. The following gentlemen were elected as hon. 
corresponding members, viz : — The Hon. W. Macleay, of 
Sydney ; Mr. G. Ramsay, director of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney ; Mr. F. G. Waterhouse, director of the Adelaide 
Museum ; the Rev. J. Tenison Woods, Sydney ; Mr. A. Howitt, 
F.G.S., Gippsland. The first field-day was arranged to be 
held in Studley Park, on Saturday, the 19th June, members to 
meet at Johnston-street bridge at half-past one p.m. 


Mr. Molesworth, at the Assize Court, in the case of Edward 
Mortensen, tried for manslaughter, suggested that the pro- 
visions of the Act for Regulating the Sale of Poisons in Victoria 
should be so extended as to cause chemists to keep poisonous 
drugs under lock and key, only dealers in poisons being re- 
quired to do so at present. 


We regret to announce the death of Mr. W. B. Wood, of 
Bourke-street. The deceased was an old member of the Phar- 
maceutical Society. 


The next quarterly meeting of the members of the society 
will be held at the rooms on Friday evening, the 2nd July, at 
half-past eight p.m., at which Mr. J. W. Norris will read a 
paper on some “ Curious Prescriptions.” 


The British Medical Journal is not generally humorous, but 
this week it has a charming story. In provincial France, it 
seems, pens and ink are not so common as in Paris, and a 
doctor of Chalons going to see a country patient could find no 
materials for his prescription. He wrote, therefore, in char- 
coal on a barn door. The relations of the sick man being, 
however, unable to read, far less to transcribe it, were obliged 
to take the door off its hinges, and cart it off to the chemist. 
His establishment was too small for the barn door, so it was 
propped up on the pavement while he read the formula, which 
he entered with particular care in his book, lest, should the 
medicine require repetition, he need not have to refer to 
the original prescription. 


A deputation from the Pharmaceutical Society again waited 
on the Minister of Lands on the 26th May in reference to the 
piece of land promised some time since. Messrs. Zox and 
Murray Smith, introduced the deputation. The plans of the 
proposed building were again laid before the Minister, and, 
after some discussion, Mr. Duffy said it would be well to see 
the Commissioner of Public Works (Mr. Bent), and if no oppo- 
sition was offered by him to the site applied for, he would 


favourably consider the matter. The deputation then inter- 
viewed Mr. Bent, and he promised to personally inspect the 
land applied for, and give his decision as soon as possible. 


Mr. Arthur Cooper Lewis has been admitted as a partner in 
the well-known and old-established firm of Messrs. George 
Lewis and Son, chemists and druggists, Collins-street, Mel- 
bourne. The firm will, from the 1st May, be “ George Lewis 
and Sons.” 


itlectmgs. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting was held on the 12th May ; 
present — Messrs. Brind, Bowen, Holdsworth, Lewis, and 
Kruse. Mr. Henry Brind was in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Permission to carry on business under the 23rd section of 
the Act was granted to Mrs. Jane Summers, Nagambie; 
Mrs. Page, Violet Town, and Mrs. Stillings, Taradale, were 
informed that the Board have no power to allow them to 
carry on, unless the business was conducted by a registered 
chemist. 

Applications for Registration,— The following applications 
were passed Charles Finch, Collingwood ; William W. 
Caught, Taradale ; Francis George Chamberlin, Sandridge, 
and Alfred Dickinson, Fitzroy. The applications of T. M. 
Cryer, Kyneton, Robert Soppet, St. Kilda, and Charles A. 
Kerans being postponed, and that of Edwin Hall, Smith- 
street, Collingwood, refused. 

Name Erased from the Register.— A certificate of the death 
of Mr. E. Perkins, of Kyneton, having been received, his name 
was erased from the register. 

Apprentices ’ Indentures Registered . — The following were 
registered in accordance with the provisions of the 43rd section 
of the regulations R. M ‘Mullen, Stawell ; C. A. Graves, 
Deniliquin ; Thos. J. Woodfull, Prahran ; Edward Towl, 
Benalla (transferred) ; and John G. Wilson, Hotham. 

The registrar was instructed to write to the Adelaide Uni- 
versity in reference to the nature of the lectures on chemistry 
and botany at that University. 

A communication was received from the Pharmaceutical 
Society, accepting the terms for use of offices. 

Correspondence.— Letters were received and dealt with from 
the following persons A. Power, Mrs. Page, Mrs. Stillings ; 
the Police, Brunswick, Melbourne, Nathalia, Yarrawonga, 
Cowes, Cranbourne, Yandoit ; F. G. Chamberlin, J. P. H. 
TannerJ; Schooi;of Mines, Ballarat ; John Davis, Henry Francis, 
G. J. Newton, deputy-registrar, Ballarat; D. Robertson, J.’ 
M. Paul, J. J. Cunningham, H. A. Geyar, the Adelaide Uni- 
versity. 

The meeting then adjourned. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The ordinary meeting of the council was held at the rooms, 
Collins-street, Melbourne, on Friday evening, the 4th June ; 
present— Messrs. Bowen, Gamble, Baker, Norris, Jones, 
Huntsman, Macgowan, and Shillinglaw. The vice-president 
(Mr. Wm. Bowen), in the absence of the president (Mr. C. R. 
Blackett), who was unable to be present, took the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Election of New Member.— Mr. C. Bock, of 50 Rundle- 
street, Adelaide, was duly elected a member. The following 
were also nominated Messrs. J. Porter, 152 Bundle-street, 
Adelaide ; J. Davidson Stanthorpe, Queensland ; Alfred 


May, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


3 


Bradley, Melbourne (major certificate from Pharmaceutical 
Society, Great Britain); Wm. J. Main, 9 Hindlay-street, 
Adelaide. 

j Deputation to Minister of Lands— The honorary secretary 
reported the result of the interview with the Minister of 
Lands, and stated that the application now rested with the 
Commissioner of Public Works, who was in the occupation of 
the ground applied for. Should the Public Works Department 
offer no objection, the site asked for would be granted. 

Correspondence.— A letter was read from Mr. Holdsworth, 
of Sandhurst, suggesting the idea of enlarging the number of 
members of the council by the appointment of a member 
thereat from each of the large towns of the colony, such mem- 
bers to be honorary members. After some discussion, the hon. 
secretary was instructed to write to Mr. Holdsworth, and 
recommend that the chemists of Sandhurst and other large 
towns should do as Ballarat had done, and form themselves 
into associations, and seek representation on the council by 
election instead of hon. membership. 

Alteration of the Time of Meeting. — The motion on this 
subject standing in Mr. Macgowan’s name was withdrawn. 

Members of Council Absent.— The honorary secretary was 
instructed to call the attention of those members of council 
who did not attend to Buie XI. 

POISONING BY SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION OF MORPHIA. 

The following paper was read by Mr. W. Bowen : — “ I beg to 
submit for the information of the Pharmaceutical Society the 
following epitome of a remarkable case of poisoning by sub- 
cutaneous injection of morphia, which I have gleaned from The 
Times of India , resulting in the death of the Italian Consul in 
Bombay, Chevalier Charles Grondona. The deceased gentle- 
man, while on a visit at a friend’s house, complained of a pain 
in his knee. A physician, Dr. Lorigiola, who was a personal 
friend of the deceased, was likewise on a visit at the same 
house, applied a liniment containing arnica and chloroform. 
This application not proving effectual, the physician determined 
to apply a subcutaneous injection, and accordingly wrote a 
prescription for a solution of morphia, which was forwarded to 
the establishment of Messrs. D. S. Kemp and Co., and dispensed 
by the assistant, Mr. Bristed. A portion of this solution — 10 
minims — was injected into the skin of the inner side of the 
deceased’s right knee, in the presence of another physician, 
Dr. Barbavara. Immediately afterwards, on examining the 
phial containing the solution, a white deposit was observed 
around the stopper, which aroused the suspicion of the 
medical men, who then proceeded to make inquiry from the 
dispenser as to the cause of such deposit. The prescription, as 
intended by the physician was written thus : — 

Morphias hydrochlor., grana ij 
Aq. destillat, scrupula x 
Solve. 

But instead of this, the word grana, illegibly written, was misread 
for gramme ij, or 30 grains, being fifteen times the intended 
strength. The ten minims injected, supposing the whole 
quantity of the morphia had been in solution, would contain 
one grain and a half ; but as a portion remained undissolved, 
it was estimated that a grain and one- third had been ad- 
ministered. In justice to the dispenser it should be stated 
that he had previously dispensed the prescriptions of 
Dr. Lorigiola, and it is well known that European-Con- 
tinental practitioners frequently adopt the French system of 
weights and measures, and likewise that out of several skilled 
witnesses examined at the inquest, one only could be found 
who would read the word for grana , others read it as gramme, 
the remaining number could not decipher the word at all. 
But I cannot exonerate the dispenser from all blame, as I con- 
sider it is the duty of every one having the responsibility of 
dispensing medicines, not only to be careful and precise as 
regards weights and measures, but likewise to examine the 
doses ordered of any important drug, and to satisfy himself 
that they are in accordance with usual practice. Besides, he 
should know that the solubility of hydrochlorate of morphia, 
in accordance with the estimate of one of the highest 
authorities — Mr. Squire — is 1 grain in 20 of cold water, hot 
water will dissolve a larger quantity, but that excess would 
be deposited on cooling ; accordingly, 200 minims would only 
dissolve 10 grains, and that a hypodermic injection should 


always be a complete solution. In bringing this case before the 
notice of the Pharmaceutical Society, I trust the importance 
of its character will be deemed a sufficient apology.” 

Communications have been received from the following per- 
sons — F. W. Reay , J. Brinsmead, H. C. M l Burney , W, H. 
Eager , F. II. Nerotli. 


MODIFIED EXAMINATION. 

The twelfth modified examination of candidates eligible to 
pass and be registered under the Pharmacy Act was held 
on the 7th of June, at the Mutual Provident Buildings, 100 
Collins-street, before the board of examiners, Messrs. Bosisto 
(materia medica ), Blackett (pharmacy and Latin), and John- 
son (chemistry, of the pharmacopoeia). The following were 
the candidates who passed : — 

Frederick J. Bartlett, Hotham. 

Edward Tunnercliffe, Melbourne. 

Alexander A. Morison, East Melbourne. 

Hugh Marwick, Collingwood. 

Alfred Beeve, Carlton. 

Samuel Park, Sandhurst. 


PBELIMINABY EXAMINATION. 

The ninth preliminary examination was held on the 3rd 
of Jane. The following are the candidates who passed 
Bobert M ‘Mullen, Stawell. 

Cuthbert B. Blackett, jun.,Williamstown. 

Joseph Barnes, jun., Queensberry-street, Hotham. 


YETEBINABY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

A meeting of veterinary surgeons took place on the 1st June 
at Menzie’s Hotel for the purpose of forming a veterinary 
association for Australia ; Mr. Graham Mitchell, F.B.C.Y.S., 
presided. The chairman stated that this movement had been 
started by Mr. Kendall, and read a letter written by that 
gentleman, which appeared in the Leader a few weeks ago, 
pointing out the unsatisfactory state of veterinary science 
in these colonies. He then went on to show that the profes- 
sion had met with so little encouragement either from the 
Government or the public that many good scientific men had 
left the ranks of the profession to follow occupations of a more 
thankful nature. The prevailing diseases of stock were then 
briefly alluded to, and it was stated that the regulations of the 
stock department, as at present existing, were totally unfit to 
cope with the spread of disease. Mr. Mitchell also observed 
that tuberculosis (consumption) was a very serious disease in 
cattle, as instances had been known of the disease being pro- 
duced in children by drinking the milk from affected cattle. 
The hydatid disease in sheep is now very prevalent, and as 
numbers of sheep are pasturing on the watersheds supplying 
the Yan Yean, the water may possibly become impregnated 
with the larvae of these entozana, which in the adult 
form become developed into tape worms in the human 
subject and the dog. Many other diseases were men- 
tioned, which it will be the duty of the association 
to inquire into. The chief objects will be to pro- 
mote veterinary science by encouraging the united action 
of members of the profession throughout these colonies 
in the investigation of diseases of animals and the important 
effects they have upon the health of the community ; to draw 
the attention of stockowners to the necessity of rendering all 
the assistance they can in these investigations by describing 
outbreaks of disease and noting their progress, and by forward- 
ing whenever opportunities occur, morbid specimens for 
examination, Sec.; to watch the general interests of the pro- 
fession, and to protect it against the frauds and impositions of 
unqualified persons. To facilitate these objects it is intended 
to hold monthly or quarterly meetings, at which papers will 
be read, pathological specimens exhibited, and subjects 
brought forward for discussion. Several letters were then 
read from members of the profession in different parts of the 
country, regretting their inability to attend, and expressing 
their sympathy with and approval of the movement. It was 
then proposed by Mr. Kendall, and seconded by Mr. T. C. 
Dobson, that a Veterinary Medical Association for Australia 
be formed, which was carried unanimously. Mr. Kendall was 
then elected hon, sec. pro tern., and the following gentlemen 
appointed as a provisional committee to draw up rules for the 


4 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


May, 1880. 


working of the association, to be submitted at the next meet- 
ing to be held at Menzie’s Hotel on the 1st July next: — Messrs. 
J. P. Vincent, G. Mitchell, T. C. Dobson and W. T. Kendall. 


I mb Jftagisteml. 


BALLARAT ASSIZE COURT. 

Monday, 25th May. 

(Before His Honour Mr. Justice Stephen.) 

MANSLAUGHTER. 

Edward Mortensen, on bail, pleaded not guilty to the charge 
of having, on 9th October last, feloniously killed one Ellen 
Harrington. Mr. Finlayson, who held the brief for the 
Crown, prosecuted ; and Mr. Molesworth, instructed by Mr. 
Watson, appeared for the defence. 

Catherine Harrington, a little girl aged thirteen years, and 
daughter of the deceased, gave evidence showing that on 9th 
October last, after she came home from school, her mamma 
sent her to Mr. Mortensen’s shop between six and seven o’clock, 
and when she got there she saw the boy, and subsequently Mr. 
Mortensen. The latter asked her what she wanted, and she 
said two worm powders for an adult. Prisoner said, “All 
right,” and got a mortar, and put in it some brown stuff and 
some white stuff like sugar, and mixed them up, and, after 
putting a little more white stuff into the mortar, put the stuff 
into two pieces of paper, which he then put into an envelope 
and labelled. Witness took the powders home, and gave them 
to her mother, who was sitting in the kitchen, in the presence 
of Mr. Ewins and the other children, who were in the house. 
Witness shortly afterwards went out of the house, and returned 
in five or ten minutes. Nobody but witness herself handled 
the packet from the time the prisoner gave it to her till she 
gave it to her mother. About five or ten minutes after witness 
returned her mother “ took bad.” Her mother put her hands 
to her head, and, saying she was giddy, lay down on the sofa. 
She turned quite yellow, and in a short time was unable to 
move. Witness then went and called a neighbour, Mrs. 
Savage. Cross-examined — Her mother was never very well ; 
generally had headaches. 

Adolphus Mortensen, son of the prisoner, gave evidence 
showing that he knew of an accident in his father’s shop, 
some time in May, he thought. It was caused by an inside 
door slamming, three or four bottles being thereby knocked 
off the shelf. One bottle was broken, but he did not 
know whether the stoppers came out of other bottles. Wit- 
ness collected the contents that were spilled, and put 
them in a bottle, and wrote “santonine” on it. That 
word had been written on the broken bottle. Witness 
placed the newly-labelled bottle on the shelf. His father 
was away at the time, but returned in half an hour. Wit- 
ness did not tell his father of the accident till several days 
afterwards; then said that the slamming of the door had 
knocked down the “ santonine ” bottle, and that he had 
replaced it. After Mrs. Harrington’s death the prisoner asked 
witness whether any other bottle had been thrown down ; and 
on his replying in the affirmative, prisoner asked him to point 
out the bottles ; but so long a time had then elapsed that wit- 
ness had not a distinct recollection of the bottles in question. 
Witness did not remember if a bottle labelled “ Strychnine” 
was amongst those which fell down. Cross-examined — Did 
not know the difference between strychnine and santonine. 
There were some bottles marked “ Poison” in his father’s shop. 
These bottles were kept in a shelf behind larger bottles. Wit- 
ness fancied that the santonine was put on the same shelf as 
the bottles labelled “ Poison.” Witness replaced all the bottles 
that fell, but did not recollect whether any of them were 
marked “ Poison.” The bottle in which he placed the santo- 
nine was quite clear, and was like the bottle two inches by one 
inch produced. All the poison bottles he had seen in his 
father’s shop were sealed. 

The court here adjourned for an hour. 

On the court resuming, Thomas Ewins, miner, gave evidence 
showing that at the time of the death of Mrs. Harrington he 
was boarding with the deceased. Remembered the little girl 
bringing in the papers of powders referred to. Witness saw 
the deceased take a powder out of the paper the little girl 
brought in, and mix it in an eggcup with a knitting-pin, and 
sip a little of it, saying it was bitter. She handed the eggcup 
to witness and the two children. Witness refused to take it, 
and the deceased then offered it to the children, who tasted it. 


The deceased then drank it off. Witness went away and 
returned in about three-quarters of an hour, and the deceased was 
then dead. He gave the packet to Senior-constable Crowley. 

Edward Stubbs, a boy twelve years of age, who was living 
at the house of the deceased at the time of her death, deposed 
that the deceased gave him the mixture in question to taste, 
and it was bitter. 

A Mrs. Savage, who had been called to see the deceased, 
described the condition in which witness found her. The 
deceased was apparently in great pain, and her face was dis- 
torted. The deceased lived only for half an hour afterwards. 
She was dead before the doctor arrived. 

Ellen Gartside, Errard-street, deposed that when she went 
to the deceased’s place she saw a powder on the table ; gave it 
to Mr. Ewins. 

Senior-constable Crowley gave evidence showing that when 
he went to the deceased’s house on the night in question the 
deceased was dead. He received the packet and envelope now 
produced from Mr. Ewins. Showed the packet to Dr. Bunce, 
who took one-fourth of the powder. Witness gave the rest of 
the powder to the Government analytical chemist. At the 
post-mortem examination witness received the stomach of the 
deceased from Dr. Radcliffe, and took it to the Government 
analytical chemist. 

Dr. Radcliffe gave evidence showing that when he arrived 
at the residence of the deceased on the evening of her death 
he found the body warm. He tasted the powder given to him ; 
it was very bitter. Witness here gave a description of the 
appearance of the deceased at the time the post-mortem exami- 
nation was made, showing that all the indications denoted 
that the deceased had died from poisoning by strychnine. He 
also said that he put the stomach of the deceased into a pre- 
pared jar, and gave it to Senior-constable Crowley. His 
opinion was that death was caused through poisoning by 
strychnine. The ordinary dose of santonine for an adult was 
from 2 to 5 or 6 grains ; 8 grains should not be given in less 
than two days. After the death of the deceased the prisoner 
came to witness to consult him as to the proper quantity of 
santonine to be given for a dose. Witness referred him to the 
authorities on the subject. Prisoner said he had taken a 
drachm of santonine and mixed it with jalap, and gave it in 
two powders. Witness thought the prisoner said a drachm, 
not half a drachm. Witness said it was a large dose. Subse- 
quently to this witness saw the prisoner at his own house. 
Asked the prisoner how the occurrence could have taken place, 
and he said he had given santonine. Asked the prisoner if he 
had strychnine at the shop, and he showed witness a small 
bottle which was sealed with red sealing-wax. Asked where 
the! santonine was, and the prisoner brought from the same 
shelf a paper with santonine, and broken glass in it. Witness 
said that could not be what was in the powder shown to him. 
Prisoner accounted for the appearance of the santonine by an 
accident which had occurred in the shop when he was away. 
Half a grain of strychnine taken at once had been known to 
kill. Cross-examined — The prisoner might have said half a 
drachm of santonine ; at this distance of time witness could 
not be certain. 

Dr. Bunce, who assisted at the post-mortem examination, 
gave corroborating evidence as to the appearance of the 
deceased’s body, and went on to say that the prisoner had 
called at his place and asked to be allowed to be present at the 
post-mortem examination, and witness said it was not usual 
for a person to be present under such circumstances. The 
cause of death was obviously poisoning from strychnine. 
Cross-examined — Never used santonine. 

Wm. Johnson, Government analytical chemist, gave evidence 
as to his receiving the powder and the jar referred to. 
Examined the powder first with a microscope, and detected a 
number of crystals, and tested them chemically, and they 
proved to be strychnine. He proceeded to weigh the entire 
powder ; it weighed nearly 15 grains. Witness weighed out 
10 grains, and separated the strychnine and weighed it. The 
result was grains of strychnine. The 2£ grains not 
accounted for had the general appearance of jalap. Santonine, 
when pure, was white. The brown powder could not have 
been santonine. Next examined the stomach by Stas’s process, 
and extracted the strychnine now produced in the glass. 
Estimated roughly the weight at 2 grains. Half a grain would 
generally produce death. The twentieth part of a grain was a 
dose for an adult. Santonine was an old remedy. It was not 
considered a poison in the ordinary sense by Taylor . San- 
tonine had the appearance of strychnine. 


May, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


5 


The statement of the prisoner at the inquest was then read 
over. 

Mr. Johnson, recalled by His Honour, said if there had been 
any santonine in the powder it must have been a very minute 
quantity. 

Adolphus Mortensen, recalled, said he brushed up the 
medicine on the floor with a feather, and put it in a paper, 
and put paper and all in the bottle. 

His Honour pointed out that the prisoner, in his account of 
the matter, said that he found the paper on the shelf, and put 
all into the bottle. 

Mr. Finlay son then addressed the jury on behalf of the 
Crown, putting all the points of the case very lucidly. 

Mr. Molesworth then addressed the jury for the defence in 
an eloquent and able speech of forty minutes’ duration. He 
quoted the cases of Regina v. Webb, v. Noakes, v. Spencer, to 
show that the death of Mrs. Harrington was a misadventure 
only, and the prisoner was entitled to an acquittal, as had been 
got in the cases referred to. 

His Honour then summed up, pointing out that it was 
necessary, in the interests of the community, for the jury to 
take a firm view of the case. There was no doubt that this 
poor woman was poisoned by strychnine. She took one of the 
powders, and the other remained. The only defence was 
misadventure. It was not a question of admixture ; it was a 
question of substitution. There was no doubt, however it 
happened, this dose was made up half jalap, half strychnine, 
instead of half jalap and half santonine. How was it that 
such a thing could happen as a chemist sending out a poison 
for a drug ? Who of us could be sure that he would not be 
poisoned if we had chemists amongst us who substituted one 
drug for another. His Honour proceeded to condemn the 
unclean way in which the drugs had been gathered off the 
floor, and said that in a chemist’s shop it was reasonably 
expected that everything should be in good ordqr, and the 
drugs kept separate. He also deprecatingly adverted to the 
circumstance of a person being allowed to mix up drugs 
without having had a prescription. He further said that he 
did not see how the jury could acquit the prisoner of unpardon- 
able negligence. He did not wish to appear to press the case 
against the prisoner ; but for the safety of the public it was 
necessary that if it was proved that the deceased was killed 
by want of ordinary care the prisoner should be punished. 
If they considered that this death was caused by the want of 
reasonable skill, they could not acquit the prisoner. In this 
community, where medical skill and advice could not be 
always obtained, it was necessary, in the interest of the safety 
of the public, that all reasonable precaution should be used by 
those to whom the people looked for treatment. 

The jury then retired, and after an absence of about an hour 
and a half returned with a verdict of guilty, with a strong recom- 
mendation to mercy, on the ground that no previous charge 
had been brought against him, and also on account of his age. 

The prisoner, in answer to the usual question as to whether 
he had anything to say, replied that he had two things to say. 
Referring to the proportion of chemicals, he said that it was 
very difficult to decide in analysis the respective quantities of 
two alkaloids such as strychnine and santonine. He could 
not feel himself that he had done any harm through careless- 
ness, and he could not explain how it occurred. He could not 
explain how the strychnine got into the bottle, but it was 
through no mistake of his. He was satisfied His Honour would 
deal fairly with him. 

His Honour, addressing the prisoner, said he was very sorry 
to see him in that position. He had had the advantage of a 
temperate trial. He had been ably defended by superior 
counsel. The case had been mercifully put by the gentleman 
who prosecuted on behalf of the Crown ; the medical gentle- 
men and the Government analytical chemist had given their 
evidence with great clearness ; and the jury had given great 
consideration to the case. It seemed to him that the prisoner 
had substituted one drug for another, or one poison for 
another drug. The prisoner had been many years in business, 
and, perhaps, his eyes were not so good as they had been. 
Nobody thought the prisoner did it wilfully ; but the law held 
negligence to be criminal. The jury were justified in assum- 
ing that this was his first offence. There was no evidence 
that the prisoner had made any mistakes before. But he 
(His Honour) must mark his sense of the gravity of the offence. 
We might all be poisoned unless special care were exercised. 
After a most careful consideration of the whole case he (His 
Honour) sentenced him to one year’s imprisonment. 


The prisoner on hearing his sentence fell down on the floor 
of the dock. He was lifted by the police and removed. 

The court then adjourned sine die. 


BALLARAT. 


THE BALLARAT DISTRICT CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION. 
The monthly meeting of the association was held on Wednes- 
day evening, 21st May, at Lester’s Hotel, There was a fair 
attendance of members. Mr. T. P. Palmer, president, took 
the chair at twenty minutes past nine p.m. The minutes of 
the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

A letter was read from Mr. D. M. A. Gray, manager of the 
Melbourne Friendly Societies’ Dispensary, in reply to one to 
him from the hon. secretary, relative to the cost of maintaining 
the dispensaries. It was resolved that the minimum price for 
all future tenders for dispensing for friendly societies be 7s. 6d. 
per member per annum. 

The President referred in feeling terms to the death of the 
late Mr. Joseph Longstaff, whom all had known so long and 
so agreeably. It was resolved that a letter of condolence, 
signed by the officers of the association, be sent to Mrs. Long- 
staff. 

The hon. secretary stated that he had attended the meeting 
of the Pharmaceutical Council, on 7th May, as also the 
adjourned general meeting that was held afterwards ; had 
voted for the new offices, considering that they were much 
needed, were central, suitable, and commodious ; had 
endeavoured to re-introduce the motion of Mr. Whittle with 
respect to voting for members of council by ballot instead of 
proxy ; but the subject was considered as having been finally 
closed at the last meeting. The adjourned general meeting 
was not largely attended, the sitting of the council being 
rather long, and several members of the society who had come 
early went away before the meeting commenced. The asso- 
ciation endorsed the hon, secretary’s action in voting for the 
new offices. 

Addition of articles, with prices agreed upon, for new list 
as follows Glass syringes, 3ij and J oz., Is.,* 1 oz., Is. 6d.; 
2 ozs., 2s. Pancreatic emulsion, 4s. and 7s.; Walton’s cake 
annatto, Is. 6d.; Fulwood’s do. — 1 oz., 6d. ; 2 ozs., Is. 6d.; 4 ozs., 
Is. 6d. (two for 2s. 6d.). Walton’s liquid — 4 ozs., Is.; 6 ozs., 
Is. 6d.; 8 ozs., 2s. 6d.; pint, 3s. 6d,; quart, 6s. Revalenta — 
h oz., 2s. 6d.; 1 oz., 4s. 6d. Extract of meat, 2s. and 3s. 6d. 

The president stated that he and the hon. secretary had 
waited upon one of the members of the association with 
respect to the infringement of the price-list, and that the 
matter had been explained. 

Some accounts were passed for payment, and the meeting 
closed, as usual, with a vote of thanks to the chair. 


The remains of the late Dr. Nicholson were conveyed to 
the New Cemetery on the 7th June, the funeral cortege 
leaving the deceased’s late residence, Albert-street, at two 
o’clock. Although in accordance with the wishes of immediate 
friends the funeral was a private one, still the late doctor was 
held in such general estimation that a very large number of 
persons were anxious to pay the last tribute of respect to his 
memory, and the consequence was that the funeral procession 
was a long one. The pall-bearers were Drs. Owen, Radcliffe, 
J akins, and Hudson, and Messrs. A. Anderson and W. Little. 
The funeral was conducted in strict accordance with the rules 
of the Ballarat Funeral Reform Association, and was divested 
of all the ‘ ‘ trappings of woe” which usually characterises such 
sad ceremonials. The Rev. H. E. Cooper officiated at the 
grave. 


MODIFIED EXAMINATIONS. 

In order to afford intending candidates some idea of the 
character of the examination before the Pharmacy Board, we 
publish the last examination papers : — 

The Twelfth Modified Examination.— 7th June, 1880. 

Questions in Materia, Medica . 

Time allowed, one hour.— Examiner, J. Bosisto. 

1. Name the tree from which mastich is obtained, and state 
in what way the characters of mastich differ from those of 
sandarach. 

2. Name the active principles of the following plants 
Belladonna, gentian, ipecacuanha, nux vomica. 


6 


THE f CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


May, 1880. 


3. Give some of the constituents of plants under the follow- 
ing heads : — (1.) Organic matter. (2.) Inorganic matter. 

4. How would you distinguish the stigmas of Croci sativus 
from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius , the latter being often 
employed as an adulterant of the former ? 

5. Linum usitatissimum What part is officinal? State 
the preparations. 

6. Give the natural order of matico. 

Note. — 3 and 4 well answered will receive special marks. 

Questions in Practical Pharmacy. 

Time allowed, one hour. — Examiner, C. E. Blackett. 

1. What is specific gravity ? What is the use of the hydro- 
meter ? Name the principal scales in use. 

2. What is the actual value in avoirdupois weight of the 
gramme ? 

3. Give the official names of the liquid preparations of 
opium, and the dose of each. 

4. State the official process for preparing morphia. 

5. How is hydrocyanic acid prepared ? State the official 
test for its strength. 

6. How is official belladonna plaster prepared ? 


MY FIKST AQUARIUM.— (By Mr. C. A. Atkin.) 

( Continued from page 95.) 

My first afternoon’s haul consisted of small Yarra trout, 
perch, or, in more vulgar parlance, mud-fish (who, by-the- 
way, is a very inquisitive, interesting little fellow), shrimps, 
water scorpions, large aquatic beetles, singing beetles, dyticus 
marginalis, caddis worms, &c. Indeed, I now thought I was 
getting on swimmingly, and the daily increasing curiosity of 
my friends went far to confirm me in that opinion. 

About this time, my esteemed fellow-townsman, the late 
Dr. Howitt, called. He was, like myself, an amateur naturalist, 
and probably possessed the largest collection of land and 
water beetles in the colony. The worthy doctor at once took 
a lively interest in my collection, told me the scientific names 
of each specimen, their habits, &c. ; and on the occasion of his 
next visit brought me a valuable aquatic plant. 

Another friend, the late Rev. J D , was scarcely less 

useful to me in this particular aquarium, and I cannot help 
relating an incident which goes far to support such a state- 
ment. One week-night, rather late, he dropped in, and 
almost his first inquiry was, “Well, how is the aquarium 
getting on !” My reply was satisfactory, and without more 
ado he said — “ I have brought you an interesting contribution. 
While on my way to preach at Footscray I passed a man who, 
whilst digging a post-hole, had come upon a lot of small eels, 
which he showed me. I at once thought of you, but the 
difficulty was, how could I convey them? After searching 
for some time, we managed to find a jam tin, and putting 
them in my coat-pocket, I continued my journey, and con- 
ducted the service with the eels in my pocket. Here they are, 
and I trust you will find them all right.” Sure enough they 
were. The ball-shape in which they were coiled up contained 
about two dozen of them, from 2 in. to 4 in. long, and after a 
week’s stay in the aquarium they became the objects of 
unflagging interest, not only to my reverend friend but to 
many others. 

My next addition to the aquarium was an inverted propa- 
gating glass, placed on a wooden stand. This receptacle only 
held about a gallon of water, but it was amply large enough 
for the experiment I intended it for — viz., to ascertain how 
long I could keep the fish alive without changing the water. 
The result of this case showed about eighteen months, during 
which time very few of the fish died. 

The whole theory may be explained in a few words. Living 
animals absorb oxygen gas, and exhale or throw off carbonic 
acid gas. By a like continuous process plants separate the 
carbonic acid gas into its constituent elements, carbon and 
oxygen. The plants absorb the carbon, which is converted 
into their vegetable tissue, and in their turn throw off the 
free oxygen for the animals to breathe. In this way animal 
and vegetable life are balanced, and so long as this equili- 
brium is preserved the two can be kept together in clear 
colourless water for any length of time. 

My next grade in the aquarium line was a more elaborate 
affair altogether. I wished to have a fountain in the centre 
of a tank, as well as the vegetation and fish already described. 

For this purpose I had a small tank made with plate- glass 
sides, and ends bedded into brass pillars, and a slate bottom. 


In this I put 4 in. deep of washed sand and several aquatic 
plants, including the white and blue flag, small bulbs of the 
white arem lily, and some of the finest specimens of the 
graceful Vallisneria spiralis I ever saw, presented to me by 
my friend, Mr. J. Bosisto, who obtained them, I believe, 
in Gippsland, where, he informed me, it grows in abundance. 
Notwithstanding the distance it had been brought, the plant 
had still the graceful spirals and elegant flowers attached. 
I may mention that this, of all others, is esteemed the best 
aquatic plant for the purposes of a fresh- water aquarium, and 
in Europe it is extensively used by chemists and those who 
deal in leeches to oxygenate the water in which those blood- 
thirsty creatures are kept. It is indigenous to the south of 
Europe. 

My next requirement was a framework of wood, which I 
covered over when made with a coating of Portland cement. 
This I left in water — frequently cleaning it— for weeks, so that 
when put into the tank the lime in the cement would not 
destroy the fish. Soon ofter its completion I was cheered by 
the sight of my first goldfish. In the year of the great flood, 
1864, a large number of the fish that had accumulated at Mr. 
Coppin’e Cremorne-gardens was washed out into the Yarra, 
and from thence found their way into the North Melbourne 
swamp. A youth came to me one day with, I think, the first 
specimen of the kind that had been seen out of Cremorne. 
Who sent him I know not, but I presume that some kind 
friend who had heard of my icthyological vagaries or eccen- 
tricities considered that it was the right thing to do, and I 
have not heard since that any one regretted the proceeding. 
My hobby (and every one has, or ought to have, a hobby, pro- 
vided it is an interesting and instructive one, and interferes 
with no one else’s comfort) cost me 7s. 6d. on that occasion. 

I now added to my large aquarium some fresh- water turtle, 
about the size of a five-shilling piece, from the Murray River ; 
a few crayfish from the quarryholes at Brunswick ; and, in 
fact, I had quite the nucleus of an amateur’s aquarium. 
There was, however, a daily increasing desire for more 
wonders of nature, as distinguished from those which art can 
display. My next ambition was to breed goldfish, and I 
ultimately succeeded in bringing them to perfection in a tank 
I had made in my back garden. The spawning season for them 
commences about December. On closely watching the fish I saw 
them frequently brush quickly past any aquatic vegetation 
that came in their way, and on clipping some of these plants 
off with a pair of scissors I discovered several small jelly bags 
about the size of a pin’s head deposited upon them. These I 
carefully lodged in a large glass vase, in which some vegetation 
had previously been growing, and after a few days I was able 
to distinguish two little black spots (the eyes) in each jelly 
bag ; on the sixth day they were liberated, and adhering to 
the sides of the glass vase, just like the small mosquitoes 
without wings. A few days later, they commenced to dart 
about in the water, a distance of about two or three inches at 
a time ; then, after a few weeks, the fins were developed, they 
were of age, and away on their own account. 

I kept some of them for a length of time ; but owing to 
their confinement in such a limited space they remained very 
small. Subsequent experience proved to me that the carp, 
although brown at first, assumes a golden colour, and grow 
much quicker in a stream of dirty, muddy water, to which 
circumstance they are probably indebted for their appellation 
of a mud-fish. 

I think I have said enough to encourage any amateur who, 
like myself, is inclined to give this interesting study a fair 
trial. 

Many, if not all, of the doubts and uncertainties I had to 
contend with have been cleared away by the creation of such 
monster establishments as that of the Trocadero Aquarium, at 
Paris, an account of which appeared in the last number of the 
Victorian Review. Besides, the very “ difficulties” of such a 
pursuit are, to most minds, the best “ incentives” to further 
diligence, and, in this case, I guarantee that the reward of 
such perseverance will be ample. 

It was my intention to have added a resume of my experi- 
ence with marine aquaria. Space alone prevents me, for the 
material at my command is much more extensive than that 
already employed, and the interest it awakens is, to my mind, 
proportionately greater. 

I will, therefore, await the result of this first instalment, 
and, should opportunity afford, will do my best to save those 
who have followed me thus far a disappointment in the future 
article. 


May, 1880, 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 




PILL COATING. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Dear Sir — I have to thank your correspondent for the infor- 
mation contained in last issue in reference to coating pills, 
and hope to at last succeed. — Yours, &c., Ambition. 


DRUGGISTS AND THEIR POISONS. 

The following letter appeared in the Ballarat Star : — 
“To the Editor of the Star. — Sir — On behalf of the Bal- 
larat District Chemists’ Association, I am directed respect- 
fully to request the insertion of this letter in your valuable 
columns on the above subject, for the information and security 
of the public — viz., that in all well-ordered chemists’ shops 
the bottles are classified upon the shelves, with regard to 
colour, contents, &c., and poisons of a virulent natute — such 
as strychnine, morphia, arsenic, prussic acid, &c. — are in- 
variably kept in a cupboard as far distant as possible from 
the dispensing department. These rules are observed in all 
the chemists’ shops in Ballarat. Moreover, the chemists here 
consider they have good cause for self-congratulation, seeing 
that the unfortunate case just concluded is the only one that 
has ever occurred in this district through carelessness or mis- 
take on the part of a druggist. — Yours, &c., 

“28th May. “ J. T. Macgowan, Hon. Sec. B.D.C.A.” 


STOREKEEPERS AND DRUGS. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Dear Sir — I think it is quite time some action was taken to 
protect chemists from intrusion on their business by store- 
keepers, &c. The Pharmacy Act has done a great deal of good 
for the trade, but it does not apply to storekeepers dealing in 
drugs, &c., unless they call themselves chemists and druggists. 
They have long dealt in patent medicines, and cut them as 
fine as it is possible to do, and now the evil of their selling 
drugs is growing greater every year. 

I will confine my remarks to the action of the storekeeper 
in my own township; and perhaps some of my country 
brethren will follow suit. 

Some have said that patent medicines are a curse to our 
business, and so they are ; but the public will have Holloway’s, 
Cockle’s, &c., and if the chemist persuades them to take his 
own article, they will at times be offended, and go for the 
future to the storekeeper, where sometimes they will get them 
cheaper and at longer credit. 

Leaving patents alone, I will direct the attention of my 
brethren to the fact that in this township the storekeeper 
retails liq. ammon. fort., ext. tarax. aaci., acs : sulph., nitric, and 
muriatic, ammon : mur : sodas, bibor., pot. bitart., and others too 
numerous to mention. Could not an Act be brought before 
Parliament to suppress this evil ? 

Coming to patents again, the storekeeper here is not satisfied 
with dealing merely in Holloway’s, Cockle’s, Steedman’s, 
salts and senna, & c., but goes in for Churchill’s syrup, Jayne’s 
preparation, Row’s embrocation, &c. — in fact, one corner of 
the shop is stocked larger than my own with such articles as 
I have mentioned. — I have the honour to be, yours, &c., 

Country Chemist. 


PRESERVATION OF MUCILAGE OF GUM ARABIC. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir— T here are few pharmacists, I think, who have not 
experienced considerable annoyance in consequence of the 
difficulty of keeping a supply of sweet mucilage of gum 
arabic, and various have been the methods proposed for attain- 
ing this end, most of them aiming at the complete exclusion 
of air from the vessels containing the mucilage. “ Squire” 
recommends filling six -ounce bottles with mucilage as soon as 
made, and corking them. My own experience has led me to 
an exactly opposite opinion. I have frequently noticed that 
mucilage \vhen kept in open-mouthed vessels has invariably 
kept longer than when closed up in bottles so as to partially 


or entirely exclude the air. Three weeks ago I made ten 
pints of mucilage. About three pints of this were unused, and of 
this about a pint was put into a bottle, and closely covered 
with paper ; the remainder was allowed to remain in the jar 
in which it was made (which, by the way, has a diameter 
internally of 8 J inches, with perfectly straight sides); it was 
loosely covered with a piece of paper, thrown over it to exclude 
dust, &c. That which had been kept in the bottle was quite 
sour, and effervesced briskly on the addition of some solution 
of bicarbonate of potash ; that which had remained in the jar 
smelt and tasted perfectly sweet, and, although litmus paper 
distinctly indicated acidity, still on the addition of some solu- 
tion of bicarbonate of potash not the slightest perceptible 
effervescence took place ; it was, in fact, practically unaltered. 
Thinking the acidity indicated in the sweet mucilage might be 
due to the presence of a small quantity of acetic acid, I 
applied the usual tests, but failed to find any. 

I then powdered some of the same sample of gum, and dis- 
solved it in distilled water, and again applied the litmus 
paper, and again obtained the indication of the presence of an 
acid, which confirmed an opinion I had already entertained, 
that the acid reaction might be due to the presence of some free 
gummic acid, or that gummate of calcium might be an acid- 
salt. 

I enclose for your inspection the respective pieces of test 
paper used, and although there is a decidedly more apparent 
indication in favour of the older mucilage, there is still 
undeniable evidence of the existence of an acid in the perfectly 
fresh. 

I then thought that probably the acid present might be 
sulphurous acid, thinking that some of the gum might have 
been bleached by this agent ; but upon applying the tests 
therefor I failed to find even a trace. 

I think that these facts are most decidedly in favour of keep- 
ing mucilage in open vessels, and, I think, proves, or tends to, 
that air is not the cause of mucilage becoming sour. As to what 
may be the reason of this singular phenomenon I will not 
even venture an opinion ; but these facts have led me to the 
belief that the best method of preserving mucilage of gum 
arabic is to keep it in vessels in which it is as much exposed 
to the air as is consistent with the exclusion of dust and other 
extraneous matter. 

I shall be glad to see this matter taken up by some one more 
capable of throwing some light upon this apparent anomaly. — 
Yours faithfully, S. M. Dalton. 

Sandhurst, 7th June, 1880. 


THE PHARMACY ACT IN NEW ZEALAND. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — O ur New Zealand confreres deserve much commendation 
for their activity in attempting to assimilate the educational 
standard of the trade there to that legalised by the Government 
here ; and I am sure that we all heartily hope their endea- 
vours to get a bill passed through the Legislative Houses for 
this purpose may be crowned by the most complete and 
speedy success. If, as I see by editorial note in our Supple- 
ment (folio 88), and in the Chemist and Druggist Journal 
(folio 15), they have already drafted a bill on the model of 
our Victorian Act, I would like, through your journal, to offer 
a suggestion to the pharmacists of New Zealand, ere it be too 
late — that instead of accepting our Act in its entirety as a per- 
fect one, they should go further than ours, adding to it an 
additional grafting, that ours much requires, and one that I 
take to be a future necessity, and one which, ere many years 
have flown away, I trust may be carried out. Those gentle- 
men in New Zealand familiar with our Act will know that it 
is administered and carried out by a board of seven members ; 
that the Pharmaceutical Society is governed by another board 
or council of twelve members ; the one not necessarily con- 
nected with the other in any way, excepting in having the one 
qualification of being “ registered pharmacists.” Now, my 
impression is that there is in this mode of conducting our 
affairs a great deal of superfluous and supererogatory work, and 
the machinery, so to speak, unnecessarily large and unwieldly ; 
but considering the time, circumstances, and anxieties attend- 
ant on the introduction and consummation of passing the Act 
to the few zealous pharmacists on whose shoulders the whole 
responsibilities rested (many must have said, “ ’Tis greatly 
to their credit”), the Act has worked hitherto remarkably well ; 
I and, though in some points it is not auite as perfect as its 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


May, 1880. 


8 


framers desired it to be, it was, I believe, by them accepted on 
the law of expediency, as being as near perfection as at that 
time it could be made. The supererogatory work and heavy 
machinery to which I have alluded should be, if possible, 
avoided. I would, therefore, most strongly advise that the 
new Act for New Zealand should more closely follow the 
English than the Victorian in its constitution, for there the 
council have the power and undertake the triplicate duties of 
legislative, educational, and commercial ; here, the board directs 
the two former, and the council the latter ; so that if the 
Pharmacy Board, in the course of their duties, are desirous of 
initiating anything commercially to the advantage of the 
trade, it has to be relegated to the council, and the same see- 
saw work has to be done by it to the board in like circum- 
stances ; and as both have the one and self-same object in view, 
such a fault should, if possible, be remedied. Again, in order 
to make the Act a benefit and success to the public as well as 
to pharmacists, its governing body must be provided with the 
necessary sinews of war. Now, the Victorian Act has made 
provision only for the board’s receipt of registration and 
examination fees, and any penalties obtained from the infringe- 
ment of the Act. Clearly, therefore, as soon as the registration 
fees, which are its real and only positive income, become 
expended, so soon must the Board, without an appeal be made 
for a grant of money from the Government, be eleemosynary 
on the proverbially poor druggist, or cease to be effective. The 
English Act, being made a self-supporting one, should, there- 
fore, in this direction, I think, be most decidedly followed. I 
cannot see any hardship in compelling pharmacists to sub- 
scribe, say, nearly fivepence (!!!) per week towards the 
expenses incurred in self-protection, seeing that, in addition 
to it, a journal worth the annual guinea subscribed can be 
obtained by them ; though I very much regret that there are 
still in Victoria registered pharmacists who think differently, 
and hold aloof from the Pharmaceutical Society altogether. 
I think our register shows there are over six hundred registered 
pharmacists, and not half of this number are members of the 
Pharmaceutical Society. “ ’Tis true, ’tis pity,” &c. But it only 
shows the usual reticence of druggists in all matters which 
may — nay, does — vitally affect their individual and collective 
interests. If the New Zealand pharmacists get their Act passed, 
I have no doubt, sir, but that arrangements could be made 
with our society for the transmission of the journal to their 
members as to ours, reserving a certain number of folios for 
their exclusive use, which could also be done for the New 
South Welshmen, South Australians, Queenslanders, &c. Our 
Supplement would then be highly interesting — a fair reflex of 
pharmacy south of the line — and well repay pharmacists for 
their modicum of financial assistance in advancing trade and 
intellectual interests for the present and future generations. — 
I am, &c., Henricus. 


ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

“ Inquirer.” — Bauncheit’s oil is composed of croton oil and 
olive oil. 


PRUSSIAN BLUE PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Mr. C. L. Lochman, of Bethlehem, Pa., describes in the 
Druggists' Circular the following simple process for obtaining 
beautiful photographic impressions in Prussian blue 
Dissolve 210 grains of double citrate of iron and ammonia 
in 3 fluid ounces of pure water, and add 10 grains of citric acid 
to the solution ; then, separately, dissolve 180 grains of ferri- 
cyanide of potassium (red prussiate of potash) in 3 fluid 
ounces of water ; mix the solutions, and filter through paper. 
Float a good quality of unruled white ledger paper on this 
liquid for three or four minutes, or wash one side of it with 
the liquid by means of a pellet of cotton, and hang it up 
to dry in a dark place. This liquid or the paper can be 
kept in a good condition for a considerable time in a dark 
place. The paper is exposed under a negative or other 
media to sunlight, until the parts which are to receive the 
darkest impression have assumed a bronze-like appearance 
and the lighter parts a pale blue colour. The print is then 
developed to a brilliant blue, simply by washing it in water, 
until the water runs off clear. If the exposure is merely 
carried so far as to produce a blue impression, and the darker 
parts are not bronzed, it leaves the print too pale after washing. 
This method produces prints of a splendid blue, with fine half 
tones, from a negative. 


Impressions of ferns, leaves, small plants, tracings made in 
black on tracing paper or muslin can be readily copied with- 
out a camera. In these cases the ground, of course, will be 
blue, and the object or tracing light. A thin, flat piece of 
board of the requisite size is employed, a piece of cloth spread 
over it, and then the paper, with the sensitised side upwards, 
laid on the leaves or tracings, super-imposed and pressed in 
contact by covering it with a flat piece of glass, which is held 
in place by means of spring cloth clips. For negatives, a 
regular printing frame is better, or the board may be hinged 
in the middle, so that one half can be turned back for inspec- 
tion of the print. The leaves of plants should be pressed and 
dried, and fastened on the glass with mucilage. 

In printing from natural specimens the paper must be ex- 
posed to a strong sunlight until it has passed the bronzed 
stage and assumed a metallic gray colour in the body, in 
order to let the light penetrate sufficiently through the dark 
green leaves and show the veins. The process is exceedingly 
simple, and the results are beautiful. 


Detection of Ammonia in Water. — Ammonia is usually 
present in water as carbonate, but frequently in such small 
quantities that it cannot be detected by the ordinary tests. 
In such cases Hager ascertains its presence by mixing 2 to 3 
litres of the water with 20 drops hydrochloric acid, evaporat- 
ing to dryness, dissolving the residue in 10 or 15 cc. distilled 
water, filtering, and applying Bohlig’s test, which consists in 
adding, first, 5 drops of solution of corrosive sublimate (1 part 
in 30 parts of water), and then 5 drops of solution of potassium 
carbonate (1 part in 50 parts of water), when a cloudiness 
indicates the presence of ammonia. — Pharm. Centralb ., 25th 
December, 1879. 

To Pulverise Shellac. — Any one who has tried to pound 
up shellac in a mortar knows that the attempt is more favour- 
able to perspiration and profanity than to the pulverisation of 
the slippery stuff. A correspondent of the Druggists' Circular 
has devised the following method : — “ Enclose the shellac in a 
strong, closely woven piece of cloth, at first compressing the 
folds rather tightly, but gradually relaxing them. Then, after 
placing the bunch, which must be held in position with the 
hand, upon a solid block or smooth counter, the strokes of a 
heavy iron pestle are applied, gently at first, while the bunch 
is kept moving from side to side, so as to expose every part to 
the strokes of the pestle. After the large, sharp pieces are 
broken, the strokes are increased in velocity and power, with 
wonderful effect upon the resin, and but little injury to the 
cloth. In this way shellac may be reduced to a granular form 
sufficiently fine for pyrotechnic purposes at very short notice, 
and to an almost impalpable powder in a comparatively short 
space of time. To produce this result, however, it is neces- 
sary to wield the pestle forcibly, and then from time to time 
separate the finer particles from the coarser by sifting.” 


Pharmacy Board of Victoria Notices. 


T he tenth preliminary examination of 

Apprentices will be held at this office on THURS- 
DAY, the 2nd day of SEPTEMBER, 1880, at Eleven a.m. 
The attention of apprentices is directed to Clause 43 of the 
Regulations to the Act, which obliges indentures to be 
registered within twelve months of their being executed. 
Harry Shillinglaw, Secretary and Registrar. 

Office of the Pharmacy Board, Mutual Provident 
Buildings, Collins-street West, Melbourne. 


T he thirteenth modified examination 

of Candidates for Registration under the Pharmacy 
Act will be held at this office on MONDAY, the 6th 
SEPTEMBER, 1880, at Ten o’clock a.m. Candidates 
must give to the Secretary notice of their intention to 
present themselves for examination, together with their 
indentures of apprenticeship and the fee of three guineas, 
ten days prior to the day. 

Harry Shillinglaw, Secretary and Registrar. 
Office of the Pharmacy Board, Mutual Provident 
Buildings, Collins-street West, Melbourne. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


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THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


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July, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


17 


TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


INDEX 

PAGE 


Leading Article- 

Apprentices and the Preliminary Exami- 
nation 17 

The Month 17 

Meetings— 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 18 

The Pharmacy Board of Victoria 18 


PAGE 

Pharmaceutical Society of New South 


Wales 18 

Notes and Abstracts 19 

Note on Unguentum Hydraiigyri Ammoniati 20 
Chloride of Methyl for Extracting Per- 
fumes 20 

Prosecutions under the Sale of Poisons Act 20 


PAGE 

Notice of Book 21 

Ballarat 21 

Personalities 21 

Tiie Accidental Poisoning Case at Colac 22 

Correspondence 23 

My First Aquarium 24 


Cje (fffjetmst antr Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is, 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer — not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


NOTICE. 

Subscriptions for the year 1880 are now due , and 
members are respectfully requested to remit the same. 


APPRENTICES AND THE PRELIMINARY 
EXAMINATION. 

It is now nearly four years since the Pharmacy Act be- 
came law, and yet a great many of those who have been 
apprenticed have not passed the preliminary examination, 
which is the first step to be taken before proceeding to 
the studies and examination demanded by the law of the 
land, as a sine qua non before any person can commence 
business on his own account — indeed, to speak strictly, 
before a young man can hold the position of a qualified 
assistant to a pharmaceutical chemist, as without the full 
qualification required by law no one has the right to sell 
or dispense any of the drugs enumerated in schedule A 
of the Poisons Act ; and as it is the intention of the 
authorities to now enforce more stringently the application 
of the law, it behoves all principals to seriously consider 
the anomalous and dangerous position in which they are 
placed in disregarding the clearly defined conditions 
sanctioned by Parliament. The law cannot , and certainly 
will not, be allowed to be disobeyed with impunity. There 
is no longer the smallest excuse for masters to go on any 
longer in a selfish and lazy indifference ; it is the duty of 
all those who take apprentices and assistants to insist 
upon a prompt conformity to the wise provisions of the 
Pharmacy Act— -an Act which was passed most fortunately 
at a time when useful legislation was possible, and which 
was enacted to protect the public against ignorance and 
incompetency. It is a matter of surprise that the followers 
of so important and responsible a calling as that of phar- 
macy should in so many instances show themselves so 


careless of their own interest and reputation, for surely it 
is, even on the low ground of self-interest, culpable for 
any one to neglect to urge upon their pupils — who have in 
most instances paid good premiums — the duty of prepar- 
ing themselves for so easy an examination as the 
“preliminary.” Any youth who has had a fairly liberal 
education ought to pass this examination as soon as his 
indentures are signed, so that he may have more time to 
give to those studies and practical lessons which are to 
prepare him for the higher examinations in chemistry, 
materia medica, botany, &c. We feel sure that it rests 
mainly with the master whether an apprentice realises or 
not his true position ; if the principal is regardless of the 
future success of the youth confided to his charge, we may 
rest assured that the “parents and guardians,” and the 
pupil himself, will have cause to regret and feel aggrieved 
at the non-performance of a contract ! It ought to be the 
pleasure and pride of all pharmaceutical chemists to spare 
no effort, whether by example or precept, to instil into the 
minds of their apprentices a spirit of emulation, for 
without some energetic moral stimulus, how can we 
expect the often thoughtless youth to “burn the midnight 
oil,” and take a delight in study, especially when we con- 
sider how many and enticing are the temptations to 
profitless pleasure abounding in our large cities ? 

The anxiety of those earnest men, who, at much 
sacrifice of their time and energy, were the promoters of 
an improved education for pharmacists in Victoria, is great, 
and the ultimate success of their labour depends in no 
small degree upon a dutiful and cordial co-operafcion on 
the part of the pharmacists. We feel confident that all 
conscientious persons will feel the force of our appeal, and 
do all they can to support the Pharmacy Board in their 
efforts to enforce the provisions of the Pharmacy Act. 
We trust that those young men who have masters 
indifferent to their obvious duties will come forward, and 
without fear or delay pass the “preliminary.” 


JEonth. 


The Victorian branch of the British Medical Association gave 
a supper at Clement’s Cafe. About forty gentlemen were 
present. Mr. W. Gillbee, the president of the Victorian 
branch, presided. The guests present were — Mr. Gray, presi- 
dent of the Medical Society; Mr. Ellery, president of the 
Royal Society ; Mr. Blackett, president of the Pharmaceutical 
Society ; Mr. Ralph, president of the Microscopical Society ; 
Dr. Lucas, president of the Naturalists’ Society ; Dr. Brown- 
less, vice-chancellor of the Melbourne University; and Baron 
von Mueller, Government botanist. 


“ Through the exertions of the Public Record , a newspaper 
of Philadelphia, the operations there in selling bogus medical 
diplomas have probably been broken up. The proprietor of 
the Record has been for several weeks gathering evidence, his 
city editor, under assumed names, getting eight medical 
diplomas from the American University of Philadelphia, the 


18 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST 


July, 1880. 


Eclectic Medical College of Pennsylvania, and the Livingstone 
University. This work was done in connection with the 
Government authorities. Everything being ready, Dr. John 
Buchanan, the chief dealer in bogus diplomas, with three 
others of his faculty, were arrested on Wednesday, and charged 
with using the mails for improper purposes, also with fraud. 
Buchanan was to-day held in bail for 10,000 dol. to answer the 
charge in the United States Court, and the others will be 
examined to-night. The papers captured in Buchanan’s office 
showed a sale of 3000 spurious diplomas, while there was a 
large quantity on hand. Buchanan’s trade was chiefly with 
Germany, but some diplomas were sent to England. His 
prices varied from 65 dol. to 110 dol. each. Nearly all the 
diplomas issued were ante-dated. Buchanan’s colleges are 
legally incorporated by the Pennsylvania Legislature, but this 
exposure will be made the basis of forfeiting the charters.” — 
Telegraph . 

Mr. Joseph Bosisto, M.L.A., whose exhibits of essential oils 
and pharmaceutical preparations, obtained from the indigen- 
ous vegetation of Victoria, have formed a conspicuous feature 
in the collections forwarded to all the great exhibitions of 
the last fifteen or twenty years, has just been awarded the 
handsome gold medal of the Sydney International Exhibition. 
This is the highest award made by the Sydney commissioners^ 
and as very few gold medals have been awarded the distinc- 
tinction must be regarded as a very valuable one. 


Amongst other passengers who left by the “ Wotonga,” on 
the 17th July, was Mr. Duncan Carson, who goes on a botani- 
cal mission to the South Pacific with H.M.S.S. “Wolverine.” 
Mr. Carson studied practical botany at Edinburgh, and 
scientific botany under Sir William Hooker, at Kew. Mr. D. 
Carson is a son of Mr. John Carson of this city, and although 
young in years, is well grounded in botanical science. 


In accordance with a resolution carried some time since by 
the council of the Pharmaceutical Society, that proceedings 
should be taken against a number of persons who were known 
to be illegally selling poisons, the first two cases were heard 
in the District Court on the 2nd August. The evidence was 
perfectly clear, and showed that the defendants had sold 
poisons mentioned in part 1 of the Poisons Act, not being 
qualified, and without taking any precaution as to registering 
or labelling. In the face of this evidence, Mr. Call, the P.M., 
fined each of the defendants Is., and £3 3s. costs. The 
decision of the Bench took every one by surprise, and is 
certainly a miscarriage of justice. The society, acting in the 
interest of its members and the public, had gone to con- 
siderable expense in getting evidence in these and several 
other cases, fully expecting that the bench would recognise 
the importance of such illegal practices being stopped. This 
does not, however, appear to have weight with the magistrates, 
who, by their decision, rather protected than punished the 
offenders. 

It is contemplated to hold the annual dinner of the Phar- 
maceutical Society about the middle of November next ; the 
date will be fixed at the next meeting of council. 


The Licensed, Victuallers' Advocate , in a leading article on 
the late prosecutions under the Poisons Act by the Pharma- 
ceutical Society, says : — “ We consider the penalty inflicted 
utterly inadequate. Here were two unlicensed men deliber- 
ately selling arsenic and tartar emetic — deadly poisons — in 
unlabelled bottles ! The lives of a dozen people might have 
been jeopardised by such conduct, if our brewers did not 
resort to chemical purification of bottles, yet the offenders get 


off with a fine of Is. each. Mr. Call is an admirable 
magistrate, but in this instance we think he tempered justice 
with a little too much mercy — drowned the miller, in fact. 
However, future offenders may have an opposite experience to 
that of Leith and Miscamble.” 


iftectings. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The meeting of the council was held at the rooms, 100 Collins- 
street West, on Friday, 6th August ; present — Messrs. Bowen, 
Huntsman, Gamble, MacGowan, Jones, Baker, Hooper, and 
Shillinglaw ; the vice-president, Mr. Wm. Bowen, in the 
chair. An apology was received from the president, who was 
unable to attend. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and adopted. 

New Members. — The following were elected : — Fergus J. 
Heeney, Ipswich, Queensland; John T. Barker, Gawler, South 
Australia ; Albert Andrews, Beaufort ; Frederick J. Bartlett, 
Hotham ; John Davidson, Springthorpe, Queensland. Alfred 
Dickinson, of Nicholson-street, Fitzroy, was also nominated. 

Prosecutions under the Poisons Act. — The hon. secretary 
reported that, in accordance with a resolution passed some time 
since, a number of prosecutions had been instituted ; the first 
two cases had resulted in convictions. The council decided to 
go on with the other cases. 

The Annual Dinner.— It is contemplated to hold the 
annual dinner in the month of November ; the date will be 
fixed at the next meeting. 

Correspondence and financial business brought the meeting 
to a close. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting was held at the office of the 
board on the 21st July ; the president (Mr. J. Bosisto, M.P.) 
in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Applications for Registration. — The following were 
approved : — Arthur Power, Narracoorte (South Australia); 
Rawson Parke Francis, 31 Bourke-street, Melbourne (examin- 
ation certificate, Pharmaceutical Society, Great Britain); 
Walter Thomas Siddall, Footscray ; and Frederick Wm. Reeve 
Wilcannia. A provisional certificate was also granted to 
James Anderson, Moonee Ponds. 

Apprentices' Indentures Registered . — F. A. Groening, 
Sandhurst; E. C. Longson, Narracoorte (South Australia); 
Albert E. Pilley, Windsor ; J. A. Davy, Melbourne. 

Names Erased from the Register. — Certificates were 
received from the deputy-registrar of births and deaths of the 
death of Joseph Jelfs (Hotham) and James Edward Bryant 
(Collingwood), and their names erased from the register. 

Correspondence. — Letters from the following were read and 
dealt with A. H. Florance, John Lay, T. M. Cryer, A. C. 
Dunn, the Adelaide University, deputy-registrars of Hotham 
and Collingwood, Mrs. Jelfs, the police of Cowes, Melbourne, 
and Ballarat, J. C. O’Keaney, W. H. Frost, E. H. Hall, W. E. 
Matthews, the secretary Pharmaceutical Society, Great 
Britain, J. T. Poock, R. Soppet, the secretary Pharmaceutical 
Society of South Wales. 

Financial and general routine business brought the meeting 
to a close. 

PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES. 

Fourth Annual Report. 

The annual meeting of the members and associates of the 
Pharmaceutical Society of New South Wales was held in the 


July, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


19 


board-room of the institution, Phillip-street, yesterday after- 
noon. Mr. F. Senior, J.P., president of the society, occupied 
the chair. There was a good attendance of members. 

Mr. W. T. Pinhey, the secretary, submitted the annual 
report, which was as follows : — 

“Your council, in presenting this, their fourth annual 
report, have considerable gratification in being enabled to 
state that the past year has been one of prosperity, and that 
the money placed at their disposal has enabled them to form 
a reserve fund to meet emergencies, or to make purchases as 
opportunities offer advantageous to the interests of the 
society. 

“ Your council are of opinion that the time has arrived 
when the chemists ought to possess the power of self-govern- 
ment ; in other words, power to admit into their ranks only 
those who have acquired sufficient knowledge in the leading 
branches appertaining to and inseparable from the legitimate 
carrying out the practice of pharmacy with comfort to the 
chemist and security to the public. 

“ Your council trust the ensuing year of the society’s opera- 
tions will form an era in the history of pharmacy, for the long- 
required and ardently desired Pharmaceutical Bill will in all 
probability soon be laid before Parliament. Its object will be 
to raise the status of the chemist, and give assurance to the 
public that in future none but those qualified to deal in or dis- 
pense medicines will be permitted to do so. The’ Pharma- 
ceutical Bill will have, inter alia , this beneficial effect ; for it 
contains a clause bearing upon the necessity of those who may 
be desirous of commencing business undergoing an examina- 
tion in chemistry, pharmacy, and materia medica , which, if 
carried out, will meet one of the grand objects the founders of 
this society had in view, and the education and qualification 
of the chemist will be clearly defined. 

“ The Medical Bill, brought before Parliament for the second 
time by Dr. Bowker, is for the present shelved ; but your 
council felt constrained to petition against the last clause of 
section three of that measure, because it had a tendency to 
interfere with the rights and privileges secured to the chemist 
and druggist under the Apothecaries Act of 1815. 

“Your council are of opinion that it would be well if an 
arrangement were entered into with the University for special 
lectures to be given there on chemistry, pharmacy, and toxi- 
cology. This subject will be brought up for discussion at an 
early date. 

“Your council have to acknowledge with gratitude the 
gifts of valuable books from Messrs. W. H. H. Lane, A. J. 
Watt, L. B. Bush, T. Humphreys, your secretary, and others ; 
which have enabled your council to invest a sum which would 
otherwise have been expended in adding to the collection of 
standard works now in your library. 

“Your council have instituted a minor examination for 
associates, and a major examination for members. Every can- 
didate will be expected to be able to translate medical pre- 
scriptions, to be acquainted with a certain amount of practical 
pharmacy, as well as conversant with toxicology. 

“ The following have been selected as texts-books for exami- 
nation Proctor’s or Bed wood’s Pharmacy , Pereira’s Selecta 
e Prescripts, British Pharmacopoeia, Squire’s Companion to 
the British Pharmacopoeia , Attfield’s or Bowman’s Chemistry , 
and Bentley’s Botany. 

“Your council would impress upon all chemists and 
druggists that the Pharmaceutical Society is for the protec- 
tion of the chemist, and to study his interest ; they, therefore, 
trust that by and through your continued support your society 
may be further benefited, and its usefulness extended, involv- 
ing as it does the welfare of the public, upon whose patronage 
and confidence all are dependent upon for success. 

“During the year four vacancies in the council have 
occurred. These were filled by the appointment of Messrs. 
Wm. Larmer, Wm. Pratt, Edward Bow, and John C. Burrell, 
but their seats becoming vacant at the expiration of the year, 
notification to that effect was made by advertisement, and the 
following gentlemen have given the required notice to fill the 
vacancies, viz. Messrs. Wm. Larmer, Wm. Pratt, Edward 
Bow, and John W. Guise. 

“ The honorary treasurer will now lay before you the balance- 
sheet, duly audited, which your council trust will be gratify- 
ing to all concerned.’’ 

The report and balance-sheet were unanimously adopted. 

The treasurer’s financial statement showed that the receipts 
for the past year amounted to £269 10s. lid., which included 
a balance of £75 11s, 7d. brought forward from the previous 


year. The sum received during the past twelve months in 
subscriptions was £163 10s. The expenditure for the year was 
£82 Is. 2d., leaving a credit balance of £187 9s. 9d. 

Messrs. Wm. Hume and J. Henry were elected auditors for 
the current year. 

A vote of thanks was most cordially accorded to the council 
for their services during the year. Messrs. W. Larmer, W. 
Pratt, Edward Bow, andJ. W. Guise were declared members of 
the council, being the only members who had given the 
required notice. 

The chairman returned thanks on behalf of the council, and 
bore special testimony to the exertions of Mr. W. T. Pinhey on 
behalf of the society. In alluding to the various matters 
touched upon in the annual report the chairman said he could 
not help thinking that some of their brethren, who, from 
various causes, had withdrawn from the council, would be 
rather astonished to find the society at its fourth general 
meeting in such a prosperous state, considering the luke- 
warmness the society had met with until the last twelve months. 
In proof of this prosperity he drew attention to the following 
facts: — They would see by the audited account-sheet that the 
income from fees was doubled, and that the sum of the invested 
funds, though small, was increasing. They had purchased, 
and had now on order many of the latest works, both English, 
American, and foreign, on subjects pertaining to pharmacy. 
They had had several valuable gifts of books from kind well- 
wishers, and had now ordered from America a large quantity 
of specimen bottles, with which to commence the formation 
of a Pharmaceutical Museum. He thought they would allow 
these were all marks of progress in their young society. And 
the time had now arrived to make another progressive step, 
as their confreres in other parts of the world had done. By 
the kind assistance of the Government they were taking 
measures for the introduction of a new Pharmacy Bill, which 
would no doubt raise their status, and benefit their fellow- 
colonists by educating a more scientific body of dispensing 
chemists ; and already they have evidence of a better class of 
youths seeking admission into the society. As there seemed 
in the minds of some of their brethren a doubt as to what 
effect on their business Dr. Bowker’s Bill would have, they 
thought proper to petition against it, and for the present that 
Bill seemed to have dropped out, though he should hope before 
long the Government would be induced to introduce one, 
when he trusted no undue interference would be made with 
their privileges. He would advise all those who had 
not yet joined the society to do so at once, as it must be 
evident to every intelligent pharmacist that each year would 
necessitate their examinations being of a more stringent 
character, and he felt sure that all those who really felt an 
interest in pharmacy would have no difficulty in going through 
the curriculum laid down, and to which they were determined to 
adhere. He could not conclude without taking the opportunity 
of thanking the older society of Victoria for the interest they 
took in the society by regularly sending to them their exami- 
nation papers and periodicals, and he hoped this kindly 
sympathetic feeling would always exist. 

The meeting then closed. 


flotcs aitii Abstracts. 


Wickersheimer’s preservative fluid for animal and vegetable 
tissues is composed as follows : — 

Alum 100 parts 

Common salt 
Saltpetre 
Potash ... 

Arsenious acid 

Dissolve in 3000 parts of boiling water. After cooling and 
filtering, add to every 10 pints of this solution 4 pints of 
glycerine and 1 pint of methyl alcohol. 

According to the American Journal of Microscopy , silver- 
wire, in which the most delicate test could detect no difference 
of diameter, has been run through plates of rubies to the 
length of 170 miles. 

The new Boyal Irish University does not promise to become 
of great importance in science. The senate consists of ecclesi- 
astics, politicians, and lawyers— classes of men seldom favour- 
able to the investigation of nature. 


25 

12 

60 

10 


20 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


July, 1880. 


NOTE ON UNGUENTUM HYDRARGYRI AMMONIATI. 
(By C. R. Blackett, President of the Pharmaceutical 
Society.) 

Pharmaceutical chemists have alway found a difficulty in 
the keeping of the ointment of ammonio-chloride of mercury, 
notwithstanding the most scrupulous care in seeing to the 
purity of the various ingredients officially ordered for the pre- 
paration of this compound. In seeking for an improved 
method to remedy the defective formula in use, various fatty 
substances suggested themselves as desirable substitutes for the 
simple ointment recommended by the British Pharmacopoeia . 
As lard is so prone to undergo rapid change, it is the very 
worst material that can be used in any preparations in which 
there are any chemical substances liable to decompose with 
great facility ; and as ammonio-chloride of mercury is of this 
character, it is not to be wondered at that the ointment, as 
usually prepared, will not keep for any length of time. It is not 
necessary to go into any detailed account of the chemical 
changes which take place in this ointment when kept, as 
the true constitution of white precipitate has been the subject 
of much discussion. Hitherto it has been the practice of phar- 
macists to prepare this ointment as required, or in small 
quantities at a time. By adopting the improvement which I 
now suggest, this need no longer be the case. Paraffine oil and 
wax were at first thought of as a desirable basis for the ointment, 
as it would resist rancidity longer than the ordinary ointments 
containing animal or vegetable fats. Vaseline, cosmoline, 
&c., are probably merely paraffine oil and wax in varying 
proportions, and are excellent bases for such ointments 
as ung. hyd. am.-chlor., or ung. hyd. ox. rubri, &c., and 
will keep their condition for a very long time ; but it was 
found objectionable to use these patented compounds on 
account of their colour, and the B.P. formula was altered by 
substituting pure castor oil for the lard and almond oil with 
the most perfect success. Some ung. hyd. ammonio-chloridi, 
made many months since, has been found not to have undergone 
any, even the slightest, decomposition. As the substitution of 
castor oil cannot possibly cause any difference in the action of 
this preparation, there need be no hesitation in adopting this 
change in the formula as suggested. 


CHLORIDE OF METHYL FOR EXTRACTING 
PERFUMES. 

Professor Vincent, of the Ecole des Arts et Metiers, Paris 
has communicated to the Society d’Encouragement a process 
for th e extraction of perfumes by chloride of methyl, which 
seems to yield greater results and finer perfumes than are 
obtained by the ordinary methods. 

The idea was suggested by M. Massignon, a manufacturing 
perfumer, who is now constructing a laboratory at Cannes, 
which will be able to exhaust on this principle 1000 kilo- 
grammes of flowers daily. 

The experiments were first made with odorous woods. The 
perfume was extracted, but it was tainted with a very per- 
sistent disagreeable odour, derived from the chloride of methyl 
itself. Professor Vincent set himself to remove this, and 
succeeded in doing so perfectly by treating the chloride of 
methyl in a gaseous state with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Orange flowers were then experimented on, and the perfume 
obtained was pronounced by several practical men superior to 
neroli obtained by distillation of the flowers with water. 

An apparatus was then set up which has been regularly 
worked for some months. Its working is thus described : — A 
digester is filled with the flowers to be treated. On these a 
sufficient quantity of chloride of methyl is poured, from a 
reservoir in connection, to cover the flowers ; after being left 
in contact for two minutes, the liquid is drawn off into a third 
air-tight vessel. Further charges of chloride of methyl are 
passed through the flowers until the latter are believed to be 
exhausted. The chloride retained by the flowers is extracted 
by means of an air-pump, and a steam jet forces that which 
has combined with the moisture of the flowers into a gaso- 
meter, from whence all the chloride is obtained by means of 
the air-pump. 

The chloride charged with perfume is evaporated in vacuo 
by passing round the vessel a stream of water at about 30° C., 
the air-pump meanwhile withdrawing the chloride in vapour. 
A manometer is attached to the apparatus, and this, which at 
first indicates a pressure of three to four atmospheres, is 
allowed to show a vacuum of half an atmosphere, when the 
operation is considered complete. The vessel is then opened 


and the perfume is found in combination with fatty and waxy 
matters. This compound treated with alcohol yields the per- 
fume, possessing all the sweetness of the fresh plant. 

The process is applicable not only to those plants which are 
usually obtained by distillation with water, but also to those 
like jasmine and violet, which can only be extracted by 
enfleurage. 

Flowers, seeds, barks, and roots have all been tested, and in 
each case an increased yield of 25 per cent, has been obtained 
over the old method. 


PROSECUTIONS UNDER THE “SALE OF POISONS ACT.” 
At the District Police Court, on the 2nd August, before Mr. 
Call, P.M., James Leith and John R. Miscamble, described as 
veterinary surgeons, were summoned for that, not being duly 
qualified medical practitioners or registered pharmaceutical 
chemists, they did sell certain poisons, to wit, a solution of 
arsenic and tartar emetic, contrary to the provisions of the 
“ Sale and Use of Poisons Act.” 

Mr. D. Wilkie appeared to prosecute on behalf of the Phar- 
maceutical Society, and Mr. Frank Stephen appeared for the 
defendants. 

In opening the cases, Mr. Wilkie stated that, in consequence 
of the great increase of the number of deaths by poison, public 
attention had been directed to general evasions of the provi- 
sions of the “ Sale and Use of Poisons Act.” It was also 
well known that numbers of unqualified persons were selling 
poison without complying with the requirements of the 
Act in registering and labelling. Under these circum- 
stances the society felt that, in the public interest, some 
steps should be taken ; and these cases were the first of a 
number that would be brought before the court. The evidence 
would show that no precautions had been taken, that the 
defendants had sold the articles to a person who was a perfect 
stranger to them, and that there was no label “ poison” on them. 

The following evidence was taken : — 

William Lee deposed that, acting under instructions from the 
secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society he called at the 
defendant’s place of business and asked to be supplied with 
4 oz. of Fowler’s solution of arsenic, four doses of tartar 
emetic, and a horse-ball ; that these articles were supplied to 
him, for which he paid the sum of 7s. The witness stated 
that he was not asked to sign any book, neither was there 
any witness to the sale. Upon receiving the poisons he took 
them to the office of the Parmaceutical Society, and initialled 
each package, sealing them up, and then, by order of Mr. 
Shillinglaw, he took them to Mr. Blackett for analysis. He 
identified the packages now before the court, as those he had 
received from the defendants. 

In cross-examination by Mr. Stephen, the witness stated 
that he informed the defendants that the medicines were for 
a friend up the country. 

Mr. C. R. Blackett was then examined, and said : — “ I am 
an analytical chemist ; I received the articles produced from the 
last witness for analysis. Upon examination I found arsenic 
in one bottle and tartar emetic in all the packets. Arsenic 
and tartar emetic are both in part 1 of the schedule to the 
Poisons Act. This closed the case for the prosecution. 

No evidence was tendered by the defendants that they were 
legally qualified veterinary surgeons, and it was admitted by 
Mr. Stephen that his clients had practically no defence. 

Mr. Call said that, as this was the first case of the sort that 
had been brought forward in Melbourne, he thought a nominal 
fine would meet the case. He might, however, remark that any 
future cases would be severely dealt with. The defendants 
would be fined Is. and £3 3s. costs. 

Mr. Wilkie drew the attention of the Bench to the small 
amount of costs allowed. As the prosecutions were for the 
public good, he thought it scarcely fair that the society should 
be put to expense in bringing the cases forward, and the 
verdict was not one to induce the society to continue the good 
work they had commenced. 


According to M. Des Cloiseaux the crystalline form of 
magnesium is a regular hexagonal prism. 

Dr. Huggins most truly declares that one of the great charms 
of the study of nature lies in the circumstance that no new 
advance, however small, is ever final. There are no blind 
alleys in scientific investigation. Every new fact is the opening 
of a new path. 


July, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


21 


Jloticc of $ook. 


Eucalyptographia : A descriptive Atlas of the Eucalypts of 
Australia and the adjoining Islands. By Baron Ferd. 
von Mueller , K.C.M.G . , fyc. Sixth decade . 

We have received from the Government Botanist the sixth 
decade of the important work of Baron von Mueller, on the 
Eucalypts of Australia. The present number is the most 
valuable of those hitherto issued, and containing as it does a 
full botanical description of the Eucalyptus globulus, is 
especially interesting. The learned and accomplished botanist, 
with his usual laboriousness, gives us also a complete biblio- 
graphy on the subject, which will be found very useful to 
scientific botanists. The lithographic illustrations of this, as 
of the preceding decades, are exceedingly well done, giving 
in life-like exactness all the parts of those remarkable plants. 
As Baron von Mueller was the first to draw attention to the 
peculiar characteristics of the Eucalypts, and more par- 
ticularly the Eucalyptus globulus, his historical references 
will be read with interest by botanists in Europe. It would 
appear that we owe to the enlightened foresight of Baron von 
MUeller, (when Director of the Botanic Gardens), and Mons. 
Prosper Ramel, the transmission of the seeds of the Eucalyptus 
globulus to France, Algeria, and Italy ; in the two latter 
countries this tree so important for reboisement purposes, and 
in a sanitary point of view has been extensively cultivated 
with the best results. In the Campagna the planting of the 
Eucalyptus globulus, from seeds supplied by Baron von 
Miieller, has produced the most wholesome effects upon the 
poisonous air of the Pontinian swamps, thus solving a pro- 
blem in sanitation that has baffled the ablest rulers from the 
days of Appius Claudius to our own times ! 

We do not intend to write a review of these contributions 
to botanical science, as it would be, perhaps, beyond the scope 
of our journal, and therefore, must conclude by referring to a 
few points which are more particularly interesting, and to 
which, in justice to our eminent but insufficiently appreciated 
author, we feel it our duty to draw attention. The careful 
and exhaustive experiments made, under the direction of 
Baron von Miieller, upon the quality, strength, and durability 
of this timber, are worthy of close examination by builders 
and others. Upon the yield of Potash from the Eucalyptus 
globulus some valuable data are given, the result of experi- 
ments made by the author. Upon the febrifuge properties of 
the Eucalyptus some details will be found, which will interest 
those who believe in the therapeutical value of the Eucalypts. 
We cannot speak too highly of this work, the publication of 
which does credit to the Government of Victoria. — C. R. B. 


BALLARAT. 


We are in receipt of the annual report of the School of Mines, 
Ballarat, which deals exhaustively with the progress and work 
of the school during the past year, which seems to have merged 
from the uncertain babyhood of existence, and to have de- 
veloped into a robust youthfulness. Its finances appear to be 
on a more satisfactory, reliable, and permanent basis, and the 
superstructure, so to speak, of intellectuality, which will, we 
think, be endeavoured to raise on it, will be both utile et dulce , 
and alike creditable to the council, registrar, lecturers, and the 
country at large. With much pleasure we note the appoint- 
ment of permanent professors and lecturers as a great advance- 
ment in the school’s history, and having the honour of knowing 
some of the scientific capabilities of the appointees, we have 
every confidence that the prestige of the school will be greatly 
advanced and benefited thereby. It seems a pity that as yet 
no gentleman ha,s answered the appeal of the council to lead 
the way in forming a microscopical society, but the absence of 
special scientists in a provincial city is unfortunately by no 
means rare. Nearly thirty certificates have been granted by 
the council to those attendants of the school who have success- 
fully passed their examinations. The number of pupils during 
the year has been 266 for the four terms, and Government 
subsidy received, only £862 3s. 5d. Classes have been held in 
Euclid, algebra, logarithms, trigonometry mining and land 
surveying, mechanical engineering, elementary, organic, in- 
organic and pharmaceutical chemistry, botany and materia 
medica, animal physiology and telegraphy. In addition to the 
above subjects the council intend securing lecturers for geology, 
mineralogy, electricity, and magnetism, Since last report 


1220 assays and analyses have been made, and upwards of 
22,000 ozs. of gold and 500 ozs. of silver melted for the 
public. We have before alluded to the council’s great desire 
to increase the facilities for the introduction of free students, 
and with this view arrangements have been completed 
whereby a donor of £50 can always have one free student at 
the school, or an annual subscriber of £6 6s., after the second 
year, the right of retaining three students on the school-roll. 

. It appears to us that the school offers grand facilities to our 
rising young men for acquiring scientific knowledge cheaply 
and profitably, and the only apparent difficulty in the way is 
how to popularise it more. To say that the two Ballarats, 
with their large populations, has only some seventy of their 
youths attending the classes at the School of Mines is at 
present, perhaps, an unjust reflection on their scientific 
aspirations. Time, the great magician, will, however, we 
hope, soon alter this ; and now that the council’s endeavours to 
thoroughly establish the schools having been to a certain 
extent consummated, we hope to see their energy directed into 
popularising it, and in educating parents to see the many 
and great advantages the school offers our children over, 
above, and beyond the ordinary amusements now followed by 
them. We cannot do better than cull from the addendum to 
the report a clause which we think merits general attention : — 
“ The council take the opportunity of again inviting 
inventors and manufacturers to exhibit at the school any kind 
of appliance for the more effective carrying on of operations 
in connection with the great industry of mining, or with any 
other industry. Beside the direct advantage to the class of 
persons indicated, a positive benefit to the community at 
large is likely to arise from the adoption of such a scheme. 
But the council are the more anxious to obtain this co-opera- 
tion, in order to render the school as useful as possible ; for 
although instruction and examinations in the art of mining, 
and in the sciences pertaining thereto, are doubtless of primary 
importance, it cannot be denied that the public naturally look 
to this institution for a solution of difficulties met with in the 
practice of the art, and the practical application of those 
sciences, the teaching of which is generally considered 
peculiarly within the province of a school of mines and 
industries.” 


BALLARAT DISTRICT CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION. 
The usual monthly meeting of the association was held at 
Lester’s Hotel, Sturt-street, on Wednesday evening 21st July. 
There was a fair attendance of members. 

The president, Mr. Palmer, occupied the chair. The minutes 
of previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

The hon. secretary read a letter from Mr. Joseph Bradbury, 
of Sandhurst, asking for a copy of the rules of the associa- 
tion, and seeking information relative thereto, with the 
intention of initiating a similar association in that city. The 
hon. secretary said he had forwarded a copy of the rules as 
requested, and had written to Mr. Bradbury, stating the 
pleasure the members of the association here would derive 
from the knowledge that their hands would probably be 
strengthened by the formation of a kindred association at 
Sandhurst, and hoping that no obstacles would prevent its 
immediate formation, and that the association here would be 
most happy to render all the aid in its power to help them 
forward. The action of the secretary was endorsed by the 
meeting. 

The hon. secretary stated that there were several reasons 
which prompted him to resign his position as member of the 
Pharmaceutical Council, and wished the association to allow 
him to do so. All the members present regarded such an action 
as highly undesirable, as they considered it very important 
that the association should be represented on the council, and 
unanimously passed a resolution urging upon the secretary 
not to resign, and adopting measures to remove some of the 
obstacles that had arisen. Several additions and alterations 
were made to the price-list, and a hundred copies ordered 
to be printed. A vote of thanks to the chair closed the 
meeting. 


Personalities, 


Mr. John Reed, formerly of St. Arnaud, and Mr. O. M 
Davies have both opened very pretty new shops at St. Hilda 
Pharmacy is exceedingly well represented in this suburb now 


22 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


July, 1880. 


Mr. J. K. Blogg, for some time well known as town traveller 
for one of the principal wholesale drug-houses, has retired from 
that position, and has taken charge of the manufacturing de- 
partment for the same firm. Mr. M. Brown succeeds Mr. Blogg 
as traveller. 

We notice, with pleasure, the return to Melbourne of Mr. 
Geo. Swift, so well known as a member of the firm of Francis 
and Swift, Bourke-street. On his retiring from that firm Mr. 
Swift entered into business in Sale, Gippsland, where he has 
been for the past year, and he returns to the metropolis as 
the proprietor of the old-established and well-known business 
of Wm. Ford and Co., Swanston-street, Melbourne. So 
esteemed a pharmacist as Mr. Swift will, we trust, meet with 
that measure of business success he so well deserves. 

We are glad to hear that Mr. Alfred Brady, whose registra- 
tion we lately recorded, has been engaged as town traveller by 
one of our leading wholesale drug houses. Mr. Brady is a 
brother of the well-known English pharmacist of that name, 
whose researches on Foraminifera are known to all micro- 
scopists, and, though a new comer, his knowledge of the drug 
trade ought to well qualify him for the post he has obtained. 

We learn that the business in Elizabeth-street North, carried 
on for many years by the late Mr. Jelfs, has been sold to Mr. 
Alfred E. Hughes, for some time past assistant to Mr. Henry 
Francis, of Bourke-street. Another change has also to be 
recorded in the purchase of Mr. Swift’s business, at Sale, by 
Mr. George Wilson. Mr. Wilson was apprenticed several 
years ago to Mr. Bosisto, and has been since in business at 
Beaufort, and subsequently at Deniliquin. 


THE ACCIDENTAL POISONING CASE AT COLAC. 
The inquest on the death of Joseph Joshua Clark was held on 
the 30th July, at the courthouse, Colac, before Mr. Heron, 
P.M., coroner. 

The jury having answered to their names, the first witness 
called was 

George Farmer Turner, who deposed — I am a chemist 
residing in Colac. I remember Mrs. Clark coming to my shop 
on the evening of 14th July. She had a child in her arms. 
She asked me to give her something for a tightness at the 
child’s chest. I put up a mixture of almond oil and syrup of 
squills, and my apprentice, John Moir, put up some hartshorn 
and sweet oil and some soothing powders. I mentioned what 
1 had given her, and labelled the bottles. I recollect being 
called to see Miss Moore between eight and nine o’clock that 
same evening. I was called by my apprentice. I did not 
see the prescription. I saw it first about nine the next 
morning. The lad did not ask me for any directions as 
to making it up. I first found out that a mistake had been 
made with Dr. Dobie’s prescription the next morning between 
nine and ten. I went to look over the previous day’s prescrip- 
tions, as I usually do. The thingthat drew my attention to the 
prescription was that it was very badly written. It was 
signed by Dr. Dobie. This is the prescription. Noticing the 
top line written in a very bad style, I called my apprentice, 
who has been with me two years and two months, and' pointed 
out that line to him, and asked him how he read it. He 
answered, “ L’aqua morphia acet.” I knew from the nature of 
the prescription more than from the reading of that line that 
it was “ L’aqua ammonia acet.” intended. I felt very much 
stunned by the blow. I immediately said, “ Whatever comes, 
the child must not take another dose.” I immediately made 
up the prescription correctly, and sent it down to Mrs. Clark 
by the apprentice. I told him to give them the bottle, and 
tell them that a mistake had been made. I told him to ask 
for the first bottle in exchange. I did not see any directions 
that may have been given the night before. The prescriptior. 
directs a teaspoonful to be taken every four hours. The boy 
has been with me two years and two months. He has been 
very careful and intelligent. 

Mr. Heron— Does it not strike you that, to put the mildest 
face upon it, you were very lax in not looking at this 
prescription before the lad made it up. Was that not a neelect 
of duty ? 

Witness — No thought occurred to my mind. 

Mr. Heron— I ask you again why you did not, on the 14th 
of July, when this prescription was brought to you by Miss 
Moore to make up, look at it before the boy made it up. Your 
feeling that it might not be right because Mr. Dobie had left 
Dr. Foster’s service ought to have made you more careful. 

Witness— I never entertained any suspicion of the pre- 
scription. I did not know it was badly written. The next 


morning I found out that the prescription had been wrongly 
made up. I did not apply to Dr. Foster or Dr. Dobie to do 
anything to save the child. I knew the child must have taken 
some of it, but it did not occur to my mind to do more than 
acquaint the parents. I did not think of it. I saw Dr. Foster 
that morning before discovering the mistake. He told me the 
child was dying. He said I had prescribed for a child named 
Clark. It was between nine and ten. I told him I had 
not prescribed, and never did. Selling medicines and 
labelling them as such is a very different thing from pre- 
scribing. Mrs. Clark did not ask for the particular medicine 
I gave her. She paid for it. Dr. Foster said there would be 
some difficulty in the matter ; that he should not give a 
certificate as to the cause of death. I did not take any other 
steps to save the child’s life. 

The Foreman — Has your apprentice passed any examina- 
tion qualifying him to dispense prescriptions ? 

Witness — No. 

To Mr. Hebb — Have you allowed your apprentice to make 
up prescriptions before ? 

Witness — Occasionally, when I have been busy. 

Mr. Hebb — Did you warn your apprentice that the pre- 
scriptions were badly written ? 

Witness— All his previous prescriptions have been well 
written. 

To Mr. Hebb — Have you ever had any previous mistake ? 

Witness — No. This is the first I have ever had in the place. 

To Mr. Hancock — The lad has been with me two years and 
two months. He has been very careful. He has assisted me 
in putting medicines up. I have given my assistant the 
necessary instructions to qualify him for dispensing, and he 
has studied the necessary books. 

John Moir — I am an apprentice to Mr. Turner, chemist, 
of Colac. I remember Mrs. Clark coming to the shop with 
the baby on the 14th of July. She spoke to Mr. Turner. She 
said, “ My baby has a little tightness on the chest; will you 
give me something for it?” He said, “I will give you some 
syrup of squills and oil of almonds. ” He went and looked at the 
baby ; he did not examine it. I do not know what he said. 

He gave some syrup of squills and oil of almonds. I do 
not know whether she paid for it. She gave the baby a dose 
of it in the shop. He told her to rub its chest and back with 
hartshorn and oil, and give it the mixture every four hours. 
About eight that night Miss Moore came to the shop. She 
said she brought a prescription from Dr. Dobie. She told me 
to make it up. I said I would not till Mr. Turner came. Mr. 
Turner was out then at Mr. Robertson’s committee rooms. I 
went up and found him. I took the prescription with me. I 
asked Mr. Turner whether “ L’aqua morphia acet.” was the j 
same as that in the bottle labelled “ L’aqua morphia.” He 
said it was. I did not show the prescription to Mr. Turner. I 
I had it in my hand. I thought they were the same, but was 
not sure. I did not then know the difference between the ; 
two names. Mr. Turner told me they were the same thing. 

I put up the medicine when I had found out the dose. Mr. 
Turner did not ask me anything about the prescription. I j 
mean by finding out the dose consulting some medical } 
authority. I was not competent enough to make it up from 
my own experience or training as a chemist. When he dis- 
covered that a mistake had been made, Mr. Turner said they \ 
must not, on any account, have an opportunity of giving 
another dose. Mr. Turner put up another bottle himself. He ■ 
sent me down with it to Mrs. Moore’s. I asked for Mrs. Clark, j 
and told her a mistake had been made in the medicine. I J 
asked her to give me the other bottle and I would give her the t 
right one. She said, “ It was no use, the child was dying.” I ' 
came back and told Mr. Turner. This would be about eleven ; 
o’clock. Nothing was done to acquaint Dr. Foster, or to try 
and save the child. I said nothing about it. 

To the Foreman — I went to Mr. Turner twice. It was at 
the first time that he told me that “L’aqua morphia acet.” I 
was the same as “ L’aqua morphia.” The second time I told 
him I had a prescription from Dr. Dobie for Mrs. Clark. 
Then he came to the shop, and said to Miss Moore, “ You have 
been to Dr. Dobie ; you can please yourself.” 

To the Coroner— Mr. Turner’s evidence was quite correct on 
that point. 

To Mr. Forbes — I did not think to show Mr. Turner the 
prescription. 

To Mr. Hebb— I understand the nature of poisons. I 
thought the quantity ordered enormous till I looked at the 
book and found the dose to be from ten to sixty minims. 


July, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


23 


To the Foreman — I thought the word “ ammonia” on the 
prescription was “ morphia.” I think it looks like it now. I 
should take it for morphia now. 

To Mr. Mitchell — The mistake occurred entirely in the 
reading of the prescription. 

To Mr. Hancock — I have received instructions from Mr. 
Turner, and I have had the necessary books to inform myself. 
I took the word on the prescription to be morphia. I felt sure 
it was written morphia. I referred to Squire’s Companion to 
the Pharmacopoeia. I found the dose to be from ten to sixty 
minims. The prescription I made up would allow fifteen 
minims to each dose. I thought this a simple prescription. 
I have previously put up such prescriptions with morphia as 
an ingredient. I had no doubt about the prescription or I 
would not have put it up. I had been instructed by Mr. 
Turner not to put up a prescription where I had any doubt 
about it. 

To Mr. Forbes — I only went a second time to Mr. Turner 
because I doubted Dr. Dobie’s right to give a prescription. 
The first time I went was to ascertain whether the “ L’aqua 
morphia acet.” was the same as “ L’aqua morphia and the 
second time was to inquire if Dr. Dobie had a right to prescribe, 
and to fetch Mr. Turner. 

To Mr. Hebb — I do not usually refer to books instead of to 
Mr. Turner. 

The Coroner — I would be quite right in referring to any 
recognised and proper authority. 

To Mr. Hancock — I never put up any prescription with the 
same quantity of morphia in it. This is why I referred to the 
book, from which I found, as I thought, that it was a proper 
quantity. 

William Johnson — I am the Government Analytical 
Chemist, residing at St. Kilda. On the 20th instant I re- 
ceived from Constable Williams one jar containing some 
viscera, one box of powders (produced), two four-ounce medi- 
cine bottles (one quite full, the other nearly so). The one 
nearly full is marked E.H., No. 1 ; the other is marked No. 2. 
I examined No. 1, and found the presence of morphia imme- 
diately. I made an estimate of the amount of morphia the 
bottle No. 1 would have contained when full. It was equal to 
three grains of acetate or muriate of morphia. A teaspoonful 
of such a mixture, which is the dose ordered to be given every 
four hours, would be equivalent to one-tenth part of a grain 
of either of the morphia salts I have mentioned. The bottle 
No. 2 is free from morphia. There is nothing remarkable 
about the powders. They consist of James’s powder and a 
little calomel. They are ordinary fever powders. I examined 
the viscera, and there I failed to find any trace of morphia 
whatever. 

To the Senior-constable — The dose given would contain the 
tenth part of a grain. Children of a few months old might 
be killed by the fifteenth part of a grain. There is a case 
on record where one-nineteenth part of a grain has proved 
fatal. The prescription produced could be read by an 
experienced hand. The word might have been read morphia, 
but the context would have enabled an experienced man to 
know that it could not be morphia. 

To the Foreman — Morphia is very seldom found in the 
stomach after death. It is only the portion left over after 
causing death that could be found. The portion that had 
caused death would be absorbed into the system, and never 
found at all. 

To Mr. Hancock — I cannot say how much had been taken 
out of the bottle, when I got it. Supposing it to have been full 
to a certain mark on the label when I got it, then half an 
ounce must have been taken out. That is, about four doses. 
If that quantity were given by carelessness, the mischief 
would have been greater. In that case there would be four- 
tenths of a grain taken; that would be a full dose for you 
or me. 

Rupert Pincott, medical practitioner — I have heard the 
evidence of Mr. Johnson. There is no doubt that the dose of 
morphia given would cause death. At the same time I am 
bound to inform the jury that the appearances left by mor- 
phia or opium are quite negative. In point of fact there are 
none. Having made th z post-mortem^ I say that had the child 
been brought to me by the police I should have said that it 
died from inflammation of the lungs, but now having heard 
the evidence of Mr. Johnson, I think it died from an overdose 
of morphia. 

To Mr. Mitchell — The child might have recovered from the 
inflammation of the lungs. The morphia would accelerate 


its death. I have seen the prescription given by Dr. Dobie. 
I read it thus — “ L’aqua ammonia acet.” I must say, and I 
regret to say it, as it is a reflection on my own profession, that 
it is shamefully written. Prescriptions are often illegible, but 
this is very shamefully written. Still, even a mere tyro should 
not take it for morphia, considering the size of the dose. I 
do not consider it fairly written as it stands, and I do not 
think any physician should send such a prescription to a dis- 
penser. 

This concluded the evidence. Mr. Heron recapitulated the 
circumstances attendant upon Mrs. Clark’s consulting Mr. 
Dobie and the preparation of the prescription. He said — “ I 
tell you fairly and distinctly that when the boy Moir came to 
Mr. Turner with those questions it was his duty to look care- 
fully at the prescription, and to see it properly made up. It 
was culpable neglect not to do so. Mrs. Clark has told you 
that the child was better before she gave it the physic, and 
Dr. Pincott has given his opinion that the death resulted from 
an overdose of morphia. You have to consider whether the lad 
Moir has been negligent or careless, and whether his careless- 
ness amounts to criminality. You must not imply manslaughter, 
but if you consider this lad committed manslaughter, you must 
find a direct verdict ; and he must have the fullest benefit of any 
doubt in your mind. I ask you to dismiss from your minds 
everything that you have heard outside these walls, and give 
your verdict solely on the evidence.” 

The court was cleared, and at one o’clock the jury gave the 
following verdict : — “ This jury find that the deceased, Joseph 
Joshua Clark, died by an overdose of morphia, the same being 
accidentally dispensed as medicine ; the said morphia being 
mixed in a prescription prepared by John Moir, apprentice to G. 
F. Turner, chemist, he making a mistake in reading morphia for 
ammonia in the first line of the prescription, which was illegibly 
written.” They added the following rider : — “ We consider 
that the said G. F. Turner is guilty of gross carelessness in 
not reading the prescription, and seeing the same properly 
dispensed.” 




To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist . 

Dear Sir — Will you kindly allow me to say a few words on a 
subject broached by your correspondent “ Princeps” in your 
last issue ? 

As one of those who were present at the meeting held at the 
Clarence Hotel on the 17th of October last, to fix prices for 
patents and arrange other matters, I assented to the various 
proposals, with a full determination to carry them faithfully 
out ; and have done so up to the present time, so far 
as patent and proprietary medicines are concerned, and 
adhered, as near as I could, to the scale fixed for dispensing 
prescriptions. 

I thought the suggestion of a particular mark, to place over 
our stamp, to indicate the price charged for compounding a 
prescription a very good one, as it would enable us to see 
what had been charged elsewhere, and thus put us in a position 
to confute the too ready fib of parties, who, seeking only to get 
their medicine on the cheap, are not particular as to the means 
they use to do so. Well, Mr. Editor, for some time I acted as 
I thought others were doing, and duly marked, or caused to 
be marked, with the symbol agreed upon, every recipe dis- 
pensed at my establishment. But I, like “Princeps,” soon 
found that this practice was not carried on by my compeers ; 
for of all the prescriptions which have passed through my 
hands, from the date of the meeting until now, which had 
been dispensed at other places, only two bore the mark which 
had been agreed upon ; and now I own to having dropped the 
practice too, partly because I do not care to appear singular, 
and partly because it has been intimated to me by a brother 
chemist that there were some in the business mean enough to 
take advantage of the knowledge the mark gave them, to 
charge something under the price of the first dispenser, with a 
view of securing the future custom to themselves. 

I do not say that there are any members of our honourable 
calling so low down in the scale of rectitude as to do this, 
but it has certainly been intimated to me that there are ; and 
as other chemists do not care to give them the chance, neither 
does your humble servant, * Mel. Boracis. 


24 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


July, 1880. 


IS THERE AN ANTIDOTE AGAINST STRYCHNINE ? 
To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — I t appears to me singular that in this age of discovery 
that no antidote against the above dangerous poison has yet 
been discovered ! Persons who are desirous of ending their 
career in this life chiefly resort to it, knowing that under no 
circumstances can they recover from its effects ; instances I 
know have been recorded where chloroform, properly adminis- 
tered, has succeeded ; but the action of the poison is so quick 
that before a medical man arrives he generally finds it too 
late to use the means at his disposal. 

Some time ago a bank manager, residing in an Australian 
bush township, informed me that he thought prussic acid was 
an antidote for it, and gave me his reasons. He stated that 
in riding through a sheep run accompanied by a greyhound, 
the dog must have picked up some poisoned meat, pro- 
bably laid there for that purpose, for as soon as he arrived at 
home the dog was seized with tetanus, and continued in such 
dreadful agony that he determined to destroy it by adminis- 
tering to it some prussic acid. Soon after doing so he was 
surprised to see the dog completely recover, although he 
administered enough acid to kill two or three dogs. Knowing 
this gentleman very well, I communicated the fact to a 
learned professor in Melbourne with a view to inquiry, but, as 
yet, without effect. 

I trust, however, that as your valuable supplement is read 
by most of the pharmacists and chemists in Victoria the above 
facts may tend to elucidate further inquiry. — In the mean- 
time, I remain, your obedient servant, 

Sandhurst, 23rd July, 1880. J. Holdsworth. 

[We on one occasion administered a large dose of prussic 
acid to a dog, which had been poisoned with carbolic acid, 
for the purpose of speedily putting an end to his sufferings, 
and, strange to say, instead of causing death, it acted as an 
apparent antidote. — Editor.] 


MY FIRST AQUARIUM. 

(By C. A. Atkin.) 

( Concluded .) 

Then I collected some lovely rose-coloured anemones from the 
Black Rock or Rickard’s Point, below Brighton. I obtained a 
few small flounders from the back beach at Williamstown, 
renewed my researches along the shore at St. Kilda, where 
those useful scavengers — periwinkles — may also be found at low 
tides, and everything went on prosperously for the next twelve 
months. 

By a strange fatality, which a friend, in true prosodical 
style, attributed to tempus edax rerum , I was dismayed one 
day to find that the chord by which a bird-cage hung over this 
aquarium had suddenly snapped, and in its downfall involved 
the total destruction of so much pains and pride. 

Once more the right hand of fellowship which such studies 
engender was held out to me, in the shape of an invitation 
from the Microscopical Society to join in one of their very 
enjoyable marine excursions. I accepted with some misgivings 
as to the prudence of such a course, seeing that I possessed none 
of the appliances required on such an occasion. However, 
all doubts on that head were speedily removed by the indul- 
gence of my new-found friends, and I gratefully refer to the 
incident as having served as a fresh starting-point to my 
subsequent experiences in this matter. To those who keep 
aquaria, not merely for the sake of being amused, but of learn- 
ing the higher lessons which animated nature is ever so ready 
to teach us, both fresh- water and marine parlour aquaria may 
easily be converted into nurseries for microscopic research. 
In them may be reared myraids of minute forms of life, whose 
ephemeral history and various conditions may be positively 
seen enacted upon the stage of the microscope. Human eyes 
can thus look down upon and witness the evolutions of these 
lower forms of life, just as, it is possible, other eyes look down 
upon our own terrestrial career. 

Stimulated by the commendable zeal and rivalry for the 
place d'honneur I had witnessed amongst the members 
of the Microscopical Society, I determined once more to 
have a marine aquarium, or. more properly speaking, an 
artificial sea-water collection of curios. The necessary 
ngredients for the former were ready to my hand, and 


can easily be procured in bottles containing sufficient for 
an aquarium of any reasonable size. Twenty-four hours 
after being mixed, all impurities are thrown down in 
the shape of a deposit, and the top water must then be 
carefully removed by means of a lead tube bent as a syphon. 
Having thrown away the deposit, the clear water may then 
be returned to the acquarium, after which, or even before, a 
few pieces of rock, with patches of seaweed adhering to them, 
should be carefully arranged to suit the taste of the pro- 
prietor, and to prevent, as far as possible, any damage to the 
glass front. Now, place your acquarium in a strong light, 
not too much exposed to the sun, and let it remain there 
quietly for some six or eight weeks. At or about the expiration 
of that time you will frequently notice a number of beautiful 
pearl-like beadlets rising quickly to the surface. This is a 
good indication that the vegetation on your rockery is thriving, 
and you may then commence to stock the acquarium with 
animal life, such as anemones, periwinkles, an oyster or two, 
and a few live shrimps or prawns. I am not quite sure 
whether they are procurable here, but a gentleman who has 
had large experience in this matter at home was telling me 
the other day of the endless diversion which may be procured 
by watching the evolutions of the hermit-crab, one of the 
most pugnacious creatures, he asserts, in the animal kingdom. 
As is well known, the huge whelk shell this gentleman usually 
appropriates to himself as a domicile is not his natural cover- 
ing ; but, given a certain number of unprotected hermit-crabs, 
and drop a couple of empty whelk shells, or even a thimble, 
between them, the fracas indulged in to obtain possession of 
the huts, and the assaults and batteries to which the locum 
tenens is subjected after he is there, until he finds suitable 
shelter amongst the rocks, surpasses comprehension. I think 
I have now said all that is necessary to enable any one to 
make a start with a small marine aquarium ; perhaps a sup- 
plementary word of caution as to overstocking will not be 
altogether needless, and I will therefore add that the water 
should be well aerated, at first, by the aid of a glass syringe, 
failing which a teacupful may be taken out and poured back 
again for a few minutes each day. Notwithstanding these 
precautions, some of the specimens may not live, probably 
owing to carelessness in their capture, or injuries received en 
route to their destination. So long as the anemones thrive 
after the ninth or tenth day of their arrival, it may be 
concluded, however, that the aquarium is in proper 
working order, and if it contained no other specimens 
than those mentioned, I maintain that they would well 
repay all the trouble. In support of such a statement I quote 
the opinion of one of our most eminent naturalists : — “ If sea 
anemones were all of one kind and form, however exquisite 
that one form or colour might be, its constant repetition would 
tire the senses, and having seen one or two specimens, we should 
soon cease to admire the rest. It is so with flowers, it is so 
with beauty of every kind. If our ladies were uniformly 
fashioned after the strict model of beauty, as set forth in the 
statues of Venus, it is doubtful whether they would find so 
many admirers as they do now, with their charming variety of 
feature, complexion, and expression. No tiresome sameness 
marks our sea-flowers, but every one presents some variation 
from others of its class. Each individual varies in itself, as- 
suming now one shape, then another, now displaying one tint, 
then setting forth another in a different part of the body. 
Each specimen shows some slight peculiarity by which it may 
be known from others of the same variety. Each species has 
a distinct range of variation, clustered in crowded colonies, on 
sea rocks, and in pools on the beach, enriching the sands and 
pebbles with strange flowers as bright and variable as any 
terrestrial flowers that can be ranged out for prizes on a gala 
day. Such are the ‘ anemones.’ The more we know of them 
the more we shall admire their structure, economy, and trans- 
cendent loveliness.” 

It would serve no immediate public purpose that I am aware 
of to inquire why the few terse remarks offered in my last 
letter on the fresh- water aquarium have elicited such a large 
amount of inquiry. I dwell on the fact for the encouragement 
of others who have greater facilities than myself for promoting 
researches in the vast field of subaqueous zoology we have at 
our very feet. Viewed in every direction, that field is mani- 
festly capable of producing grand additions to our knowledge 
of nature. Problems that are suggested by the facts already 
discovered await a satisfactory answer, and I trust the time is 
approaching when such studies will enjoy a far larger share of 
public attention than they have hitherto done in Victoria. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


jr. BOSISTO 

Desires to direct the Medical Profession and Pharmaceutical Chemists to his 

Special Chemical and Pharmaceutical Preparations from Australian Vegetation. 


OL. EUCALYPTI ESS. 

Obtained from the Amygdalina Odorata species : the 
Eucalyptus Oil of Commerce. This Essential Oil of the 
Eucalyptus family is now recognised in the Hospitals of 
Europe as an antiseptic of great power. A few drops 
sprinkled on a cloth and suspended in a sick room 
renders the air refreshing ; and for disinfecting and 
deodorising, a tablespoonful of the Oil added to two or 
three pounds’ weight of sawdust, well mixed and distri- 
buted, will speedily produce a purifying effect. It is 
also employed as a valuable Rubefacient in all Rheumatic 
Affections, as a Basic Odour in aromatising Soaps, and 
as a Solvent of Resins difficult of solution. 

Note. — To ensure the certainty of obtaining this 
Oil is by purchasing it from the Wholesale Houses in 
packages or bottles, bearing the certificate and signed “ J. 
Bosisto and Co.,” together with the trade mark — Parrot 
Brand, yellow ground. 

SYRUPUS ROSTRATI. 

Prepared from the Inspissated Juice of the Red Gum 
Tree. A delicate mucilaginous astringent, employed in 
all affections of the mucous membrane, particularly in 
Diarrhoea and Chronic Dysentery. In bottles of 1 lb. each. 

OL. EUCALYPTI GLOBULI ESS. C 12 , H 40 , 0. 

Anthelmintic — By Enema 30 to 60 minims in mucilage 
of starch. Internally — Dose 3 to 5 minims in gum mucil- 
age, syrup, or glycerine. Tonic, Stimulant, and Anti- 
septic. A small dose promotes appetite ; a large one 
destroys it. In stronger doses of 10 to 20 minims it first 
accelerates the pulse, produces pleasant general excite- 
ment (shown by irresistible desire for moving about) 
and a feeling of buoyancy and strength. Intoxicating 
in very large doses, but, unlike alcohol or opium, the 
effects are not followed by torpor, but produce a general 
calmness and soothing sleep. A strong cup of Coffee 
will at once remove any unpleasantness arising from an 
over-dose. 

EUCALYPT0L. C 12 , H ao , 0. 

From Eucalyptus Globulus. Therapeutic use. For 
Inhalation in Bronchial Affection. Quantity employed 
—From half to one teaspoonful with half a pint of hot 
water in the Inhaler. 

TINCT. EUCALYPTI GLOBULI. 

Stimulant, Tonic, Antiperiodic, and Antiseptic. Em- 
ployed in purulent Catarrhal Affections of the Urethra 
and Vagina in dilution ; and for Disinfecting the Dress- 
ings of wounds. 


CIGARETTES OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Recommended for Bronchial and Asthmatic Affections, 
and also for the Disinfecting and Antiseptic Properties. 

Note. — The Cigarettes are numbered 1 and 2. No. 1 
are without Tobacco : No. 2 contain a small quantity, 
and are recommended for general smokers. 

EUCALYPTENE : from Eucalyptus Globulus; 

The Tonic or bitter principle in an amorphous condi- 
tion ; employed in Low Fevers in doses of one to three 
grains. 

LIQUOR EUCALYPTI GL0BULI. 

The Fever and Ague Remedy. Dose — For Ague and 
Dengue Fever 30 to 60 minims in half a wineglassful of 
mucilage and water, or glycerine and water, with the 
occasional addition of two minims of Eucalyptol every 
two or three hours during the paroxysms of Ague. In- 
compatibles — The Mineral Salts. 

UNG. EUCALYPTI VIRIDIS. 

Antiseptic Emollient ; rapidly sets up a healthy action. 
In lib. jars. 

0L. ATHER0SPERMA M0SCHATA ESS. 

The physiological effects of this Oil, in small doses, 
are Diaphoretic, Diuretic, and Sedative, and it appears 
to exert a specific lowering influence upon the heart’s 
action. As a medicine it has been introduced into the 
Colonial Hospitals, and employed successfully in cases 
of Heart Disease. Administered in one or two drop 
doses at intervals of six or eight hours. 

LIQUOR ATHER0SPERMA M0SCH. 

Employed in Asthma and all affections of the respira- 
tory organs. 


The following Articles are prepared ready for the Counter 
Trade : — 

EUCALYPTUS OIL, in Bottles Is., 2s. each. 

OINTMENT, in Pots Is. each. 

. PILLS, in Bottles 2s. each. 

* CIGARETTES, in Boxes 2s. each. 

LOZENGES, RED GUM, in Boxes Is., 

2s. each. 

SYRUP, RED GUM, in Bottles Is. 6d., 

2s. 6d. each. 

ATHER0SPERMA, in Bottles Is. 6d., 2s. 6d. each. 

Each bears the Trade Marh — Parrot Brand. 


J. BOSISTO, 

MANUFACTURING PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMIST 

(LABORATORY : RICHMOND, MELBOURNE), 

By whom the Eucalyptus Preparations were first introduced, both in Australia and in Europe, and to whom 
has been awarded the Silver Medal of the Society of Arts, London, and Special Medals of Merit from 
the various European and Australian Exhibitions, dating from the first of his investigations in 1858, 
and published in the Transactions of the Boyal Society of Victoria, and other publications, European 
and Colonial. r 

H OTF.-Tlie Medical Profession and Pharmaceutical Chemists are 
requested when ordering' through Wholesale Houses to state distinctly that 
Bosisto’s Preparatioiis are wanted. 


WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS, 


FELTON. GRIMWADE & CO 


•3 




•MPStQ. .ACT)- WP&UTIC AOUW. IRSFrPHTTffi I I £ 










[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] 


•nm 



c^i&rp. 8C Drui^fl ■ &***• S iof>l>Z i / ^ ^ 

* T3j no. £o:^fh *8 ; (J)tc[ f K2o) .THE y % 

Cltetni'it k Umnimt. 


T 3, no. 2o;V4h49. CfieC., 'Z*9> ■ 


THE 




WITH AUSTKALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 

h (Published under direction of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria,) 

/Subscription, 15s. per Annum, 
t including Diary, Post Free. 


NTr» qrj / Published on the 15th > 

** ANO. oU. \ of every Month. / 

• Register ed for Tr ansmission a s a Newspape r. 


OCTOBER, 1880. 



THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


HEMMONS, LAWS L GO. 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS, 

I 

5 5 & 5 *7 

RUSSELL STREET, 

MELBOURNE. 

I 


October, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


41 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 


Leading Article— 

American Bogus Diplomas 41 

Tiie Month 41 

Meeting — 

The Pharmacy Board of Victoria 42 


PAGE 


Ballarat 43 

The First Annual Report of the Phar- 
maceutical Society of New Zealand . . 43 
Melbourne International Exhibition .... 44 
Social Science Congress 45 


page 


Personalities 4G 

The Pharmacy Board Election 46 

Correspondence 46 

The Apollo Candle Company 47 

Notes and Abstracts 47 


Cfje €j)emtst aittr Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists' 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer — not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


NOTICE. 

Subscriptions for the year 1880 are now due , and 
members are respectfully requested to remit the same . 

BIRTH. 

Francis.— On the 3rd November, at 43 St. Vincent-place South, the wife of 
Henry Francis of a son. 

M‘Farlane. — On the 28th October, at 72 Smith-street, Collingwood, the 
wife of R. J. M'Farlane, chemist, of a son. 

MARRIAGE. 

Grace — Mackennal. — On the 20th October, at St. Peter’s, Melbourne, by 
the Rev. Canon Handheld, J. F. F. Grace, only son of J. F. Grace, M.D., 
M.R.S.E., West Melbourne, to Henrietta, only daughter of J. S. Mac- 
kennal, sculptor, 198 Collins-street East and Jolimont. 

AMERICAN BOGUS DIPLOMAS. 

It has long been a matter of surprise to observers as to 
how certain uneducated or imperfectly educated people 
contrived to get their credentials as medical practitioners. 
It has been generally understood that at some second-rate 
and obscure universities in Europe diplomas were granted 
in absentia on payment of certain fees ; but that de- 
moralising practice has ceased. It would seem, however, 
that in some of the States of the great republic of 
America “bogus diploma manufacture” has, under the 
sanction of the Legislature (State charter !), been carried on 
to a disgraceful extent. Pennsylvania, which in former 
years obtained a world-wide and unenviable notoriety for 
having been guilty of “ repudiation,” has, according to the 
editor of the Philadelphia Record , been the seat of this 
manufactory of swindling quacks. The Pharmaceutical 
J ournal gives the following account of the way in which 
this impudent business is or was until very recently car- 
ried on : — 

“ The Philadelphia Record is carrying on the work of 
exposure with great zeal, and is evidently determined to 
spare no effort to tread the swindle out of existence. 
Column after column is filled with lists of persons who are 
alleged to have countenanced these ‘ universities’ and those 
who have obtained diplomas from them. It appears, how- 


ever, that the charters of Buchanan’s colleges are still 
valid, and have been distributed gratuitously among 
coloured voters to influence local elections — that at length 
a committee was appointed by the Senate to investigate 
the scandal, the result being a resolution to repeal the 
charter. But the power of the Senate to repeal it was 
disputed in the law courts by Buchanan, and eventually 
successfully, and in the meanwhile he fell back upon 
another charter that he had obtained for the 4 American 
University,’ which had been overlooked. This contretemps 
seems to have given an impetus and additional audacity 
to the movement, so that when recently the proprietors 
of the Philadelphia Record entered into a compact with 
the legal authorities to find the funds necessary for an 
attempt to break up the system, the agent employed, it is 
said, obtained for a sum equal to about £45 sterling no 
less than eight diplomas from seven ‘ universities’ and 
‘colleges,’ five being for the degree of M.D., and one 
each for those of D.D., LL.D., and D. C.L. 

“The story of the schemes by which several diplomas 
were obtained by the same person under different names 
is very amusing, but cannot be recapitulated here. One 
of the most expensive — having cost twenty-five hours in 
time and £26 in cash — was for the curious degree of 
‘ Master in Electro-Therapeutics,’ and was declared to be 
granted to one ‘ qui bene curriculo studiorum praescripto 
perfunctus est, et quern jus to et rigido examine prius 
habito, hoc gradu dignissimum censuimus.’ The result 
was that Dr. Buchanan and some of his colleagues were 
arrested, he being charged with devising a scheme to 
defraud by means of the post-office of the United States. 
A few days afterwards proceedings were commenced 
against the trustees and officers of the ‘Philadelphia 
University of Medicine and Surgery,’ concerning whom it 
is in evidence that, in conferring degrees upon a person of 
whom they knew nothing except the name, they had made 
an infant two years old an M.D. and LL.D. 

“ Some idea may be formed of the extent to which this 
traffic extended from the statement that when Buchanan 
was arrested the officers discovered on the premises 
nearly half a ton weight of blank diplomas, some of 
them signed by the ‘ faculty’ and prepared for the 
insertion of the names of buyers. Receipts were also 
found showing that fully three thousand diplomas have 
been sold during the past six years, and it is estimated 
that during the last twenty-two years Buchanan has sold 
at least eleven thousand diplomas.” 

Unless a diploma is granted by Harvard, or some such 
old established and reputed seat of learning, we should 
imagine that American certificates will in future be received 
with little respect. 

^he ittonth. 


The following additional names have been added to the list of 
legally qualified medical practitioners in Victoria : — James de 
Burgh Griffith, South Yarra; Edward George Keighly Marks, 
Mornington. 


42 


In the last number of the Australian Medical Journal Dr. 
Maloney contributes an interesting paper on the therapeutics 
of tea-drinking. 


The annual dinner of the Pharmaceutical Society, to be held 
at Clement’s Hotel on the 18th November, promises to be well 
attended by both town and country members ; there are, also, 
several visitors from England and the neighbouring colonies 
who are likely to be present. 


Apropos of Dr. Embling’s paper, read before the Social 
Science Congress, we may quote the following suggestions of 
Dr. Beyrauds. He says that a practical test by which real 
death may be recognised is the application of the cautery to 
the supposed corpse. If the eschar does not show itself, the 
subject is dead ; if it be yellow and transparent, the subject 
is dead ; if it be black or reddish-brown, the subject is 
living. 

A vacancy has occurred in the Pharmacy Board of Victoria 
by the resignation of Mr. R. F. Kennedy. The announcement 
of the returning officer in reference to the election to fill the 
vacancy appears in the advertising portion of this issue. We 
are, at the same time, requested to draw special attention to 
the time when the ballot-papers must be returned. At the last 
election a number of votes were informal in consequence of the 
papers not being received before four o’clock on the afternoon 
of the day preceding the election. 


We have received from Messrs. C. H. Grondona and Co. a 
sample of Schlobach’s eucalyptus tobacco. This is a new pre- 
paration, and it is stated that instead of being injurious to 
smokers it is beneficial, besides which, it emits a fragrance 
altogether unknown to ordinary tobacco, and is of great value 
as a disinfectant, especially where such epidemics as measles, 
fevers, &c., are prevalent, and in sick-rooms and all un- 
healthy localities. It also affords relief in cases of asthma, 
and all diseases of the chest. It is prepared solely in Mel- 
bourne. 


The circumlocution office and the Tite Barnacle family are 
admirably represented at our Melbourne University, where 
it is quite a crime “ to want to know, you know.” During the 
examination of the registrar of the University before the 
select committee at present sitting on the bill it came out in 
evidence that some three years ago the faculty of medicine had 
decided that it was desirable pharmaceutical education 
should be recognised and taught at the Melbourne University, 
and that an examiner in pharmacy should be appointed. This 
determination of the faculty of medicine to introduce persons 
connected with trade into the Melbourne University appears to 
have quite upset the Tite Barnacle mind, and, in consequence, 
we find every opposition and obstruction offered to the recom- 
mendation of the faculty of medicine. After the lapse of a 
year the matter was referred to the senate, and from thence 
to the council, who referred it back to the faculty of medicine, 
who referred it to the council, who reversed the decision pre- 
viously arrived at, and after two years’ departmental routine it 
was finally wiped out from the business paper. The greatest 
joke of all this appears in the fact that the Pharmacy Board, 
who were the persons most interested, were kept quite in the 
dark as to what was going on, and are not, as Sir Joseph 
Porter, K.C.B., remarks, even now “officially” informed of 
the fact. 


We are very much gratified to read that Dr. Attfield, F.R.S., 
so long the able and respected Professor of Chemistry to the 
Pharmaceutical Society, has received an address and a hand- 


October, 1880. 

some present of books (about five hundred volumes). No one 
who knows the Professor but will endorse every word said by 
Mr. Schact, upon whom devolved the duty of making the 
presentation on behalf of the Pharmaceutical Conference. 
From the remarks made by the President we cannot forbear 
quoting the following: — “For many years I have had the 
pleasure of an intimate acquaintance with our friend, and 
charging my memory to strict accuracy, I can trace through- 
out all my knowledge of him nothing but one steady, constant 
effort to lead a good and useful life. As to its goodness, this 
is not, perhaps, the place to speak, and I will not dilate upon it 
further than to say that I believe that side of his character to 
be the mainspring of the other. It may not be inappropriate, 
perhaps, to say just a word or two on the point of Professor 
Attfield’s usefulness in his public life, which is, indeed, the 
cause of what we are now doing, and explains the enthusiasm 
with which the project has been received. Broadly speaking, 
it occurs to me that the usefulness of our friend’s life has con- 
sisted in this, that he first of all achieved a high and dis- 
tinguished position for himself, and from that moment he has 
endeavoured to hold up both for our admiration and achieve- 
ment that higher life of mental culture which is so plainly 
open to us in the very nature of our calling, but which we are 
very prone to forget in the experiences of business. It seems 
to me it has been in that constant protest against pharmacists 
sinking into anything like perfunctory drudges, and in his 
recommendation of the only genuine remedy for that, viz., 
that each man should do something, or at least try to do some- 
thing, for the general good, that the main influence of Professor 
Attfield has rested.” 


Electing. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the board was held on the 13th 
October. Present— Messrs. Bosisto, Brind, Power, Lewis, 

Holds worth, and Kruse. 

The President (Mr. J. Bosisto, M.P.)in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Applications for Registration. — The following persons 
were registered Henry James Massey, Emerald Hill ; James 
Edward Gribble, Castlemaine, and William Gray, East Mel- 
bourne. These three passed the modified examination. 
Robert Soppet, St. Kilda, certificate Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain ; John Davidson, Stanthorpe, Queensland, in 
business before passing of Act ; William Paul Green, 
Geelong ; and Robert Dalziell Murray, Sandhurst Hospital, 
were restored to the Register. 

Apprentices Indentures Registered.— John Kennedy Peter- 
son and William Alexander Taylor, both of Stawell. 

Name Erased from the Register —A. certificate of death of 
Theodore W. Jones, late of Warrnambool, was received, and his 
name erased from the Register. 

School of Pharmacy . — Mr. Bowen’s motion on this subject 
was postponed until the next meeting, when the nature of the 
report of the Select Committee on the University Bill will be 
known. 

The Major Examination. — The first practical pharmacy ex- 
amination under the major examination was fixed to be held 
in the presence of the whole Board on the 3rd December, 1880. 

Resignation of Mr. R. F. Kennedy .—Mr. Kennedy for- 
warded his resignation as a member of the Board, which, on 
the motion of Mr. Lewis, was accepted with regret. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


October, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


43 


The registrar was instructed to notify to the returning- 
officer that an extraordinary vacancy had occurred, and to re- 
quest him to take the necessary steps to fill the vacancy. 

Correspondence. — Communications were received from the 
registrar, School of Mines, Ballarat, intimating that the 
Governor in Council had appointed the President of the 
Pharmacy Board a member of the Council of the School. 

From A. J. Allan, 'Wellington, New Zealand, forwarding a 
copy of the Pharmacy Act of New Zealand. From the Secre- 
tary Pharmaceutical Society, Great Britain, enclosing copy 
of the Register for 1880. A number of other letters of no 
special interest were also dealt with. 

Financial business brought the meeting to a close. 

Books, &c., Received.— American Journal of Pharmacy , 
Boston Journal of Chemistry , Pharmaceutical Journal , Aus- 
tralian Medical Journal , Nero York Druggists' Circular , The 
First Annual Report of the Pharmaceutical Society of New 
Zealand. 


BALLARAT. 


THE SCHOOL OF MINES, BALLARAT. 

The ordinary quarterly meeting of the council was held on 
the 20th instant. Present — ‘Councillors H. R. Caselli, J.P. 
(in the chair), J. M. Bickett, A. Hoelscher, T. Mann, B.A., 
J. F. Usher, M.D., and W. H. Barnard, F.G.S. A telegram 
from his lordship the Bishop of Ballarat, and a letter from Mr. 
James Campbell, apologising for unavoidable absence, were 
read and received. Minutes of meeting held 21st July last 
were read and confirmed. On the report and recommenda- 
tion of the examiners, the council granted certificates of pro- 
ficiency in the art of telegraphy to the following students, all 
having passed satisfactory examinations, the first six with 
credit : — David Richard Davies, James Robert Bradshaw, 
Emily Ann Radley, Thomas Williams, Peter Alroe, Catherine 
Mary Wilmer Howe, Elizabeth Lee, Ruth Miller, Alice J me 
Ryan, Isabella Reardon, and William Arthur Goode. Pro- 
fessor F. M‘Coy, J.P., F.G.S. , and R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., 
F.R.S., were appointed examiners — the former in natural 
philosophy and geology, and the latter in electricity. H. B. 
de la Poer Wall, M.A., C.E., was appointed the fifth delegate 
from this institution to the Social Science Congress. The 
recommendation of the administrative council re fees — viz., 
£12 12s. for a three-year’s course by students going up for 
examination as pharmaceutical chemists, and £20 for attend- 
ance at all classes by perpetual students — was approved of and 
adopted. As the architect was not prepared with the plans 
for the tower erection, required for the apparatus for testing 
vacuum and steam pressure gauges, this matter was postponed. 
It was deemed desirable that reports of lecturers as to the 
students attending, and other matters connected with their 
respective classes, be submitted at meetings of the administra- 
tive council in the future. The registrar submitted the following 
report, which was received and adopted : — “ That the site of The 
School had been gazetted, and that since the Council last met 
there had been a change of Ministry, but it was not thought that 
the new estimates would vary from those previously prepared 
in the matter of grants in aid of mining schools. That it 
might be advisable to obtain dies for the striking of medals as 
prizes to be given to students. That the additions of store- 
room and office to the laboratories, at a cost of £95, and a 
new class-room, 33 ft. by 23 ft., at a cost of £177, as approved 
by the administrative council, were being proceeded with 
expeditiously. That a large number of exhibits at the Mel- 
bourne International Exhibition might be obtained by the 
school if proper and immediate steps were taken. That 
arrangements had been made for the treatment and testing of 
samples of quartz sent to The School for that purpose, the 
following charges being fixed : — From one lode only, 1 ton, £5 ; 
2 tons, £9 ; 5 tons, £15 ; 10 tons, £20 ; 20 tons, £35— inclusive 
of all costs for crushing, grinding, amalgamating, assays, re- 
ports, and advice as to modes of treatment.” The resignation 
of Mr. Newman as a member of the administrative council was 
accepted with regret, and Mr. J. M. Bickett appointed in his 
stead. The council then adjourned. 


THE FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PHARMA- 
CEUTICAL SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND. 

The President’s Address. 

Gentlemen — It gives me great pleasure, and I am sure it 
does also those who have been working with me here, to 
welcome the representatives from the other large centres to 
take part in the work of building up “ The Pharmaceutical 
Society of New Zealand.” Before going into the business 
which we have met to consider, I will say a few words as to 
the origin and progress of the Society so far, though I fear 
what I have to say will not be very new to any of you. 

As most of you are aware, it originated in a meeting of the 
chemists in this city, called by me two years since, to consider 
what steps could be taken to put the profession generally 
throughout the colony in a better position with the public, and, 
also, for self-protection. 

This met with cordial support here, and was very generally 
approved by those in other parts of the colony, as is evidenced 
by the number of members, associates, and apprentices who 
have enrolled their names, the former numbering 128, asso- 
ciates 60, and apprentices 27, previous to 1st July. In fact, a 
large proportion of those connected with the business have 
joined the Society. In Otago this is especially the case, there 
being scarcely an exception, and I feel confident we shall yet 
see it universally supported, as it deserves to be. And, although 
the movement commenced here, it must not be thought that 
we wished to make it centre in Wellington, or have the entire 
management of it. It might be fairly said to be a happy 
thought of ours. 

It seemed to us that the time had come when something 
should be done to raise the standard of education for those who 
wished to qualify themselves for the business ; and by doing 
this, more thoroughly to secure the public safety, and at the 
same time insure a certain amount of protection for ourselves, 
and that it was better that a movement in this direction 
should emanate from ourselves. That we should show the 
public we wished that, for the future, those who were desirous 
of entering into business, and engaging in the responsible work 
of dispensing medicines, should by a proper course of educa- 
tion become more thoroughly fitted for it — following, in fact, 
the example set by the pharmaceutical chemists of Great 
Britain and some of her dependencies. 

I think we all felt this was most desirable, and that such a 
course would meet with the approval of the public generally ; 
and I believe in this we were not mistaken, judging from re- 
marks that have reached us. 

And it certainly should be so, as at present there is nothing 
to prevent a person, however uneducated he may be, from 
keeping open shop for dispensing and dealing in medicines, 
the nature and use of which he may be entirely ignorant of. 
However, the Pharmacy Act is now an accomplished fact, and 
all this will be changed. And although we have been charged 
by some persons with trying to create a monopoly, by asking 
the Government to introduce a Pharmacy Bill, we fully believe 
the public are thoroughly on our side, and that it is uni- 
versally considered a step in the right direction. 

How it could be looked upon as an attempt at a monopoly 
by any sensible person I fail to see. It is clearly no more so 
than the making a course of education necessary to qualify a 
surgeon or a solicitor for their professions. The opposition 
shown to the measure appeared to be chiefly from those who 
were ignorant of its object and did not trouble themselves to 
understand it. And had it not been for the support given by 
those who made themselves thoroughly acquainted with it, and 
with English and colonial legislation on the subject, there is 
little doubt it would have been thrown out. 

We may, I think, congratulate ourselves that a Society so 
recently established has been enabled in so short a time to 
accomplish so much ; and though the Pharmacy Act now 
passed may not be all that could be desired, I think it is 
generally admitted that it is a great point gained, giving us a 
standing which we had not before, and it rests with ourselves 
now to make the most of it. 

It is to be hoped that now we have met to consider matters 
of general interest we shall make a fresh start from this point, 
and by vigorous and united action set in motion plans which 
in future will raise the profession in the eyes of the public, and 
that the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand will follow 
in the steps of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
and be a credit to the colony and to those who have taken 
part in its promotion. 

The minute-book of the Society and the Treasurer’s balance- 


44 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


October, 1880. 


sheet will be laid before you, and by reference to them I think 
you will find that in all we have done our aim has been, as far 
as possible, to consult our members throughout the colony, to 
exercise the greatest economy consistent with working the 
Society, and to make it as popular as possible ; and we have 
been pleased to receive their suggestions, and very generally 
their confirmation of our action. 

So much for what has been done. It may to some extent 
be considered of a preliminary character. We have been feel- 
ing our way, and it now remains for us thoroughly to organise 
our work for the future, which can be much more effectually 
done by our all meeting to discuss. The revision of our rules 
and many other matters will engage our attention. 

In conclusion, I would say that the fact of our being brought 
together, as we have been, to consider matters of general in- 
terest, has already had a good effect, and made us know one 
another better. And the establishment of the Society bring- 
ing the chemists of all parts of the colony into frequent com- 
munication with each other, by meetings held in connection 
with it, should have a tendency to do away with local 
jealousies. If we can only bear in mind the old motto that 
(( union is strength,” and act upon it, we may accomplish a 
great deal. 

Charles D. Barraud, President. 

Wellington, September 27, 1880. 


MELBOURNE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 
Visitors to the Exhibition will have noticed that chemical 
and pharmaceutical products have been assigned a prominent 
place. All the most important exhibits under this class are to 
be found in the main avenue, on the right-hand side on leav- 
ing the main building. Our wholesale and manufacturing 
chemists make a creditable display. As most of our readers 
have inspected the various exhibits for themselves, it is un- 
necessary for us to describe them in detail, especially as on 
some future occasion — after the jurors have made their 
examinations — we shall be called upon to return to the subject. 
The following list includes the names and exhibits of the Vic- 
torian and foreign manufacturers. There are in the official 
catalogues 43 o chemical and pharmaceutical exhibits. Great 
Britain furnishes 61 ; France, 56 ; Germany, 51 ; Victoria, 63 ; 
New South Wales, 18 ; United States, America, 22 ; Italy, 
43 ; Japan, 6. There are 76 exhibits of perfumery. Under 
the classification of chemical and pharmaceutical products are 
included many articles which have little, or at least only a 
remote, relation to pharmacy, and are, consequently, in many 
instances omitted from enumeration in our list. The Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy has, in a letter addressed to Mr. 
Bosisto, very courteously given the exhibits No. 190 in cata- 
logue to the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria — which offer 
has been accepted and acknowledged. At the close of the Ex- 
hibition the specimens will be added to the museum of the 
Society, and carefully preserved. We may take this oppor- 
tunity of expressing a hope that some of the other exhibitors 
will follow the laudable example of our American friends, and 
so enrich our collection ; the necessity for a more complete 
repository of materia medica and chemical specimens being 
increasingly felt by the Society. 

Victoria. — G. Adams, Latrobe-terrace, Ashley, Geelong, eye 
lotion. L. C. Andreson and Co., 9 Market-buildings, William- 
street, Melbourne, chemicals, chemical and pharmaceutical 
preparations, varnishes, &c. Apollo Stearine Candle Co. 
Limited, Footscray, Mel bourne, candles in variety, oils, chemi- 
cals, glycerine (medicinal and crude), &c. C. A. Atkin, 43 
Errol-street, Hotham, Melbourne, quinine tonic made with 
colonial wine. Australian Lithofracteur Co., 29 Little Collins- 
street East, Melbourne, nitric, sulphuric, and other acids. 
W. Beckwith, 43 Little Collins-street East, Melbourne, medi- 
cines for horses and cattle. J. Bosisto, Bridge-road, Richmond, 
Melbourne, essential oils from eucalyptus, others from 
indigenous trees, &c., chemical products from same. Bull and 
Owen, 9 Malop-street, Geelong, chemicals, pharmaceutical pre- 
parations. S. Capper and Co., 97 Webb-street, Fitzroy, Mel- 
bourne, blue, blacking, washing-powder, knife-polish, epsom 
salts, senna leaves, &c. Cumming, Smith and Co., 47 William- 
street, Melbourne, chemicals. T. 0. Dunstone, High-street, St. 
Kilda, Melbourne, medicines. Felton, Grimwade and Co., 31 
and 33 Little Fiinders-street West, Melbourne, chemicals, 
dugs, &c. R. J. Fullwood, Barkly and Canning streets, 
Carlton, Melbourne, drugs, chemicals, proprietary preparations. 
A. Hall, 48 Douglas-parade, Williamstown, Melbourne, aerated 


waters. Hemmons, Laws and Co., 55 Russell-street, Melbourne, 
pharmaceutical chemicals. Hepburn Spring Water Co., 142 
Collins-street East, Melbourne, aerated waters. L. Hesse, 
Argyle-street, St. Kilda, Melbourne, disinfectants (liquid and 
in powder). Hood and Co., 147 Elizabeth-street, Melbourne, 
sheep-dipping composition, Hood and Co.’s proprietary medicine. 
G. Kingsland, 259 King-street, West Melbourne, chemical and 
pharmaceutical preparations. J. Kitchen and Sons, 28 Little 
Fiinders-street West, Melbourne, stearine candles, soda crystals. 

F. Longmore, Flinders and King streets, Melbourne, beeswax 
(bleached and prepared), insecticide, pharmaceutical chemi- 
cals and medicines. R. M‘Call, Swan-street, Richmond. Mel- 
bourne, cough mixture. N. S. Marks, 108 Collins-street West, 
Melbourne, pharmaceutical products, ointments, tonic syrup, 
chlorodyne. T. W. Norris, 68 and 70 Chapel-street, Prahran, 
Melbourne, medicines for domestic animals. Rocke, Tompsitt 
and Co., 3 Fiinders-street, Melbourne, insectibane. Sander 
and Sons, Bridge-street, Sandhurst, Eucalyptus globulus extract. 
W. H. Slater, Mitcham Grove, Box Hill Distillery, Nuna- 
wading, essential oils and extracts from medicinal herbs. J. 
Sullivan, 15 King William-street, Fitzroy, Melbourne, Sulli- 
van’s disinfecting preparations. 

New South Wales. — L. J. Altman, 277 Pitt-street, Sydney, 
cement for glass and china. Barratt and Co., Buckingham - 
street, Sydney, aerated waters, cordials, &c. ; balsam of aniseed. 

G. Bogerly and Co., Botany, gelatine and glue. W. Davies, 
Goulburn, Dr. Waugh’s baking-powder. G. W. Gibson, 
Forcaux-street, Surrey Hills, odontalgic essence. Gregan and 
Co., 497 George-street, Sydney, pure india-rubber stamps, 
seals, signatures, crests. B. O. Holterman, 674 George-street, 
Sydney, furniture polish, Holterman’s life drops, Hudson 
Brothers, Botany-road, Redfern, non-poisonous paint. C. 
Icke, Wickham, Newcastle, pure soldering liquid, invented 
and produced by exhibitor. E. Kerr 508 . George-street, 
Sydney, cement for veneers, cabinet work, household purposes. 
J. and J. Mulcahy, Regent-street, Redfern, toilet and other 
soaps, candles. A. Orchard, 145 Cleveland-street, Redfern, 
exhibition cement and marking ink. L. Peate, George-street, 
Bathurst, baking-powder. J. Pottie, 215 Elizabeth-street, 
Sydney, patent medicines. M. Saunderson, 55 Point-street 
Pyrmont, bonanza (a cleansing cream). J. Schweppe and Co., 
62 Margaret-street, Sydney, mineral waters (non-competitive). 

J. Starkey, 156 Phillip-street, Sydney, aerated waters. Watson 
and Young, Albury, aerated waters. 

South Australia.— A. M. Bickford and Son, wholesale 
druggists, Adelaide, aerated waters— viz., soda-water, lemonade, 
ginger ale, ginger beer, sarsaparilla. W. H. Burford and Sons, 
soap and candle makers, Adelaide, superior yellow soap. A. 
Centauri, veterinary surgeon, Adelaide, “ Time” metal polish* 
B. M. and II. Conigrave, manufacturers, Macclesfield, aerated 
waters, assorted. W. Evans, valet, Government House, 
Adelaide, boot varnish. G. Hall and Sons, aerated water 
manufacturers, Norwood, aerated waters — viz., soda, seltzer, 
tonic, lemonade, ginger ale, sarsaparilla. W. H. Malpas, 
Adelaide, patent anti-ant compound. J. Tidmarsh, soap and 
candle maker, Adelaide, (1) stearine, (2) stearine candles, (3) 
soap. 

New Zealand. — Kelly and Frazer, Puriri Mineral Springs, 
Thames, aerated and medicinal waters. Kitchen and Sons, 
Wellington, candles and soaps. M'Leod Brothers, crown soap 
and candle works, Dunedin, stearine candles, soaps. J. Neil, 
herbalist, Dunedin, selection of botanic medicines. F. Bennett, 
Thames, raw and calcined hematite, and specimen board showing 
tint effects. F. Bennett, Thames, specimens of raw and manu- 
factured hematite. J. Gomez, Bulls, Rangitikei, soda-water, 
lemonade, and sarsaparilla. H. A. H. Hitchens, Auckland, 
vegetable compound for purifying the blood. Hokitika Local 
Committe, Hokitika, dozen mineral waters, from Waihoauri, 
Westland. W. Innis, Port Chalmers, five pint bottles cod liver 
oil, warranted pure. 

Queensland. — Berkley, Taylor and Co., dugong oil (un- 
refined). Botanic gardens, Brisbane, essential oils, tinctures, 
&c., prepared by L. Carmichael, chemist. D. Clarke, War- 
wick, collection of essences, perfumes, and tooth-powders. 

K. T. Staiger, F.L.S., samples of pyroligneous acid, acetic acid, 
methylated alcohol, wood tar, acetate of soda, kerosene, 
paraffine. K. T. Staiger, F.L.S., essential oil, made from the 
leaves of the Eucalyptus citriodora, found near Gladstone. K. T. 
Staiger, F.L.S., essential oil, from leaves of ironbark-tree on the 
Palmer River (not yet named); samples of the leaves there- 
with, K. T. Staiger, F.L.S., essence made from the leaves of 
the ironbark-tree on the Palmer River (not yet named) ; 


October, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


45 


samples of the leaves therewith. K. T. Staiger, F.L.S., 
essence made from the leaves of the Eucalyptus citriodora, 
found near Gladstone. K. T. Staiger, F.L.S., duboisine, ex- 
tract from duboisa leaves. K. T. Staiger, F. L.S., crystalline 
alkaloid, alstonine crystals, like quinine. Stiller and Co., 
Amity Point, Moreton Bay, dugong oil. C. H. F. Yeo, Bris- 
bane, collection of essences and perfumes. 

America. — Barclay and Co., 7 Burling Slip, New York, toilet 
articles. J. Burnett and Co., Boston, Massachusetts, extracts, 
•cologne, &c. Eastman and Brother, 1011 Marble-street, Phila- 
delphia, toilet soap and perfumery. Fell and Co., Phila- 
delphia, toilet soaps. H. S. Fox and Co., Philadelphia, 
Oriental balm, &c. Greenfelder Brothers, St. Louis, extracts, 
A. Pirz, New York City, chemicals. H. Tetlow Brothers. 
Philadelphia, perfumery, &c. A. J. Vaught and Co., Washing- 
ton-street, Buffalo, New York, tooth-powder, perfumery, &c. 
Barclay and Co., medical specialties. F. K. Brown, Phila- 
delphia, extract of Jamaica ginger. J. Burnett and Co., Boston, 
Massachusetts, flavouring extracts, florimel, essence of ginger. 
The superiority of Burnett’s flavouring extracts consists in 
their perfect purity and great strength. They are warranted 
free from the poisonous oils and acids which enter into the com- 
position of many of the factitious fruit flavours now in the mar- 
ket. Burnett’s essence of Jamaica ginger, a household remedy 
for colic, cholera morbus, colds, chills, and diarrhoea, warming 
and stimulating the whole system. Carniola Chemical Works, 
Anthony Pirz, Long Island, City of New York, U.S.A., Cos- 
moroma (toilet vinegar), various chemical products, pre- 
mium white sugar of lead, orange acetic acid, C.P. premium 
acetic acid, and photo-acetic acid. All of the preparations 
manufactured by Professor Pirz are of the highest standard, 
and have invariably secured the first prizes in State, National, 
and International Exhibitions. His manufactures of sugar of 
lead, acetic acid, vinegar, and litharge are known as chemi- 
cally pure ; the sulphuric acid full standard and renowned for 
purity. The Pirz fertilizer, or his super-phosphate of lime, is 
acknowledged as the best fertilizer now known, not exhausting 
soil, but acting as a permanent stimulant. Over 50,000 tons 
have been sold the past year. The Pirz cosmoroma is now 
recognised as a toilet article of great value for bathing pur- 
poses, headache, &c., greatly invigorating the body. The Pirzii 
anti-congestion powders are largely used by physicians in the 
relief of constipation, piles, and apoplexy. All these articles 
can be ordered direct from Professor Pirz, or through Newell 
and Co., Melbourne. Cherry and Myrick. Boston, Massachu- 
setts, botanic medicines. T. Gill, New York City, soap (borax). 
A. S. Hale, Lyons, Wayne, New York, oil of peppermint, 
(“ Hale and Par shall” brand). E. Lilley and Co., Indianapolis, 
drugs and medicines. Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Philadelphia, drugs. W. H. Schieffeln and Co., 170 and 172 
William-street, New York, pharmaceutical preparations, fluid 
extracts, elixirs, syrups, &c. W. H. Schieffeln and Co., 170 and 
172 William-street, New York, soluble pills and granules. 
Seabury and Johnson, New York, pharmaceutical plasters. 
W. B. Warner and Co., Philadelphia, drugs and pills. 

Madras. — Dr. G. King, cinchona febrifuge. Rai Kanny 
Loll Dey Bahadur, Calcutta, collection of indigenous drugs. 

Japan. — Government Mint, Osaka, nitric acid, sulphuric 
acid, &c. Government Printing Office, Tokio, blacking, soaps, 
and colours. Kaitakushi, Department for the Colonisation of 
the Island of Yesso, Tokio, sulphur. Kogio Shokuwai, Tokio, 
sulphur, camphor, and wax. Kiritsu Kosho Kuwaisha and 
T. Akiyama, Tokio, Japanese candles. S. Wooyesugi, Osaka, 
gum. 

Germany. — Van Baerle and Sponnagel (proprietor, F. G. 
Sponnagel), Berlin, water-glass, its raw materials, and articles 
made from it. Dr. F. V. Heyden, Dresden, salicylic acid and 
preparations. E. Merck, Darmstadt, chemical preparations. 
Dr. T. Schuchardt, Gorlitz, chemical technical products. 
Associated Stassfurt, Leopoldshall, Douglashali Salt Industry, 
Stassfurt, raw salt and products; explanations, both written 
and pictured, of every kind— twenty exhibitors, viz.: — Andrae 
and Gruneberg, Leopoldshall. Askania Act Co., Leopoldshall. 
Royal Mine Inspection, Stassfurt. Chemical Factory, Harburg- 
Stassfurt (late Thorl and Heydtmann Co., Stassfurt). Con- 
cordia Chemical Factory Co., Leopoldshall. Douglashali, 
Westeregein. Hell and Sthamer, Schonebeck. Kali and Stein 
Salt Mine, Douglashali, near Westeregein. Friedrich’s Smelt- 
ing-house, Leopoldshall. Lindemannand Co., Stassfurt. N. F. 
Locfasz, Stassfurt. Maigatter, Green and Co., Leopoldshall. 
Muller and Allihn, Leopoldshall. F. Muller, Leopoldshall. C. 
Nette, Faulwasser and Co., Leopoldshall. Salt Mines, Neu- 


Stassfurt, near Stassfurt. Stassfurt Chemical Factory (formerly 
Vorster and Gruneberg), Stassfurt. Associated Chemical 
Works, Leopoldshall. Wustenhagen and Co., Hecklingen, near 
Stassfurt. Zimmer and Co., Stassfurt. — Baden Aniline and 
Soda Factory, Stuttgart, aniline colours. J. E. Devrient, 
Zwickau, chemicals and artists’ colours. Gademann and Co., 
Schweinfurt, chemical colours. Pfannenschmidt and Kruger, 
Danzig, amber, lac, &c. J. Bernhardi, Leipsig, drugs. Bruck- 
ner, Lampe and Co., Leipzig, drugs, cut and in powder. J. B. 
Feilner and Grienwaldt, Bremen, collodium, gellatine for 
photographic purposes. Dr. F. Witte, Rostock, in Mecklenberg, 
dry rennet for whey (sole agents : Schmedes, Erbsloh and 
Co., Melbourne). L. Ziffer, Berlin, butter and cheese colouring 
and preserving powder, cheese rennet extract. Brunswick 
Quinine Works, Brunswick, quinine, quinine compounds. 
Haarmann and Reimer, Holzminden, vanilin, heliotropin, Sec. 
E. Sachsse and Co., Leipzig, etherised oils and essences. J. 
Gautsch, Munich, wax goods (sole agents : Schmedes, Erbsloh 
and Co., Melbourne). American India-rubber and Celluloid 
Factory, Mannheim, articles in strong india-rubber. E. 
Cuntze, Cologne, Ehrenfeld, eau-de-Cologne (sole agents : 
Schmedes, Erbsloh and Co., Melbourne). J. M. Farina, oppo- 
site the Alten Market, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne and perfumes 
(sole agents : Schmedes, Erbsloh and Co,, Melbourne). F. M. 
Farina, 4711 Glockengasse, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne and per- 
fumes. J. M. Farina, 4 Julichsplatz, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne. 

J. A. Farina, Zur Stadt Mailand, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne. J. 
M. Farina, opposite the Neumarkt, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne. 

K. Fievet, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne and perfumes (sole 
agents : Schmedes, Erbsloh and Co., Melbourne). M. C. 
Martin, Nun, Cologne, eau-de-Cologne and <{ Carmeliter- 
Geist.” G. Bohm, Offenbach, perfumes and soaps. Junger 
and Gebhardt, Berlin, essences, scented and washing waters, 
soaps, pomades, &c. L. Leichner, Berlin, powder and rouge. 

( To be continued.) 


SOCIAL SCIENCE CONGRESS. 

The first of a series of horticultural shows will be held in the 
great hall about the middle of November. At a recent 
meeting Mr. Bosisto, chairman of the Vegetable Products 
Committee, was requested to undertake the details. 

At a meeting of the agricultural section of the Social 
Science Congress papers on the following subjects were laid 
on the table : — “ The Cultivation of the Olive in Victoria,” by 
C. May, Sunbury ; “The Clearing of Land,” by C. H. Lyon, 
Ballan ; “ Manufacture of Beetroot Sugar,” by W. Murray 
Ross ; “ Scientific Agricultural Education,” by D. B. Smith, 
Buln Buln ; “ Sylvian Streets,” by W. R. Guilfoyle ; “ Insect 
Pests on Fruit-bearing Trees,” by C. May ; “ Rust in Wheat” 
and “An Economical Scheme of Experimental Farming,” by 
R. W. E. Maclvor. 

The health section of the Social Science Congress com- 
menced its sitting on 18th October, when Dr. M‘Crae delivered 
his presidential address ; and the following papers were read : 
— By Mr. H. K. Rusden, on “ The Prevention of Lunacy by 
Dr. M'Carthy, on “ The Use and Abuse of Stimulants as 
Articles of Diet.” An interesting discussion followed upon 
the two subjects of lunacy and drunkenness. In the evening 
Dr. Louis Henry read a paper on “The Comparative 
Immunity from Disease among the Jews,” and Dr. Jamieson 
another on “ Infant Mortality.” He pointed out that the 
Melbourne rate was disproportionately high, being 168 per 
1000, and greater than that of London. He attributed this 
to the result of artificial feeding. 

On the 20th October Mr. A. Sutherland, M.A., read a paper 
on “ Health Insurance.” 

On the 21st October Mr. Bosisto, M.L.A., read a valuable 
paper on “ The Forests and Timber Growth of Victoria in 
Relation to Health, Conservation, and Culture.” He pointed 
out the disastrous effects likely to result from a diminution of 
our forests, and suggested the appointment of a forest trust, 
independent of Government control. An interesting discus- 
sion followed, in which the importance of the subject was 
fully recognised. Dr. Day, of Geelong, read a paper on “ The 
Application of Spontaneously Generated Peroxide of Hydrogen 
to Purifying and Disinfecting Purposes.” In the evening Mr. 
H. K. Rusden contributed a paper on “ Contagious Diseases,” 
in which he urged the rigid enforcement of quarantine 
in the case of every contagious disease. Dr. Paterson, of 
Adelaide, read a paper on “ Quarantine.” 

The health section of the Social Science Congress concluded 


46 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


October, 1880. 


its proceedings on the 22nd October. In the afternoon three 
papers were read and discussed, the first being ‘‘Notes on 
Ventilation, 5 ’ by Mr. Le Capelain ; the second on “ Hospital 
Architecture,” by Dr. Henry ; and the third by Mr. T. R. 
Wilson, on “ The Prevention of the Spread of Infectious 
Diseases.” In the evening Mr. T. Embling contributed a 
paper on “ Premature Interments.” He urged that the State 
should exercise a vigilant scrutiny to prevent the possibility 
of any one being buried alive ; and he thought that no burials 
should take place until indubitable evidences of decay had set 
in. The remaining papers were by Dr. Cleland, of Adelaide, 
on “The Committal and Care of Insane Paying Patients,” and 
by Dr. Ginders, of New Zealand, on “ School Hygiene.” 

Mr. E. L. Marks, lecturer on chemistry at the Sandhurst 
School of Mines, in his paper, read before the Education Section, 
on “ Technical Education,” made some excellent remarks on 
the chemistry of many bodies, such as iodine, tartaric acid, 
fibrous plants, artists’ pigments, &c. He also particularly drew 
attention to pharmacy in the following words : — “ in the 
matter of drugs and chemicals, how infinitely more genuine are 
they now than was the case formerly. The change has been 
brought about by the higher technical education required from 
those practising pharmacy — a change inducing emulation, a 
change that has intensely impressed the line that distinguishes 
the chemist from the mere druggist, a change beneficial to 
society by assuring to it every possible care in every detail 
of the business, a change beneficial to the individual by expand- 
ing the mind and investing mere drudgery with elegance. To 
a scientific pharmacist no wholesale druggist, no traveller in 
druggists’ wares, would venture to offer, much less to supply, an 
inferior or a spurious drug ; hence in every way technical train- 
ing has here been a success.” Again, he said — “By an extended 
education we raise the quality of articles of food and clothing, 
since the knowledge of how simply to detect adulterations is 
the best way to stamp them out. How easy is it to teach the 
means of recognising admixtures of cotton with linen, of those 
with wool or silk, both by chemical means or by the 
microscope. The intrinsic peculiarities existing in potato 
starch, maizena, and genuine arrowroot, by which each is at 
once verified, the genuine tea-leaf from leaves used as 
adulterants ; how the recognition of chalk, iron oxides, 
Prussian blue, logwood, &c., said to be more or less 

used to deceive the purchaser, may easily be taught.” “ Take, 
again, the question of sweetmeats. Who does not recollect the 
agonies that children formerly suffered ; the pains in the 
stomach so distracting as to their causes, so difficult to allay ? 
We see the causes in the plaster-of-Paris, the vermilion, the 
chrome yellow, the arsenical pigments formerly used. Happily, 
now, thanks to technical training, sugar alone and vegetable 
colours only are used in the manufacture.” It is gratifying to 
find that, although actively engaged in teaching and lecturing, 
Mr. Marks has found time and opportunity to bring these im- 
portant matters prominently forward. 


Personalities. 


Mr. T. Lakeman, Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbridges and Co.’s 
representative, has opened an extensive show-room at 24 
O’Connell-street, Sydney. 

Mr. Edwin Plummer, who for the last four years was in 
business. in Wellington, New Zealand, has returned to Victoria, 
with a view, it is reported, of again settling here. 

Mr. Henry Trumbie, late of Eaglehawk, has purchased the 
business^ of Mr. Nielson, Lonsdale-street. A man of Mr. 
Trumble’s energy will be an acquisition to our city phar- 
macists. 

The business for some time past conducted by Mr. J. 
Churchus, at Mount Egerton, has changed hands, and is now 
being conducted by Mr. Archibald M‘Gowan. Mr. Churchus 
is, we believe, in search of “ fresh woods and pastures new.” 

The business of Mr. Henry Trumbie, pharmaceutical chemist, 
Eaglehawk, changed hands during the past fortnight, Mr. 
Berriman, a former apprentice of Mr. Trumbie, and lately dis- 
penser to the late Dr. Cheyne, being the purchaser. We wish 
the young man every success. 

The races, Exhibition, and other attractions have caused 
many of our friends in the other colonies to visit us. Mr. Wm. 
Jas. Main, of Adelaide, being in Melbourne, has paid several 
visits to the rooms of the society. Mr, Main hopes that South 


Australia will shortly follow the example of the other colonies 
in the matter of a Pharmacy Act. 

Mr. James W. Henton, of Auckland, New Zealand, the local 
secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society at that place, is in 
Melbourne, and has taken advantage of his visit to make him- 
self acquainted with details of the working of the Pharmacy 
Act in Victoria. Mr. Henton expresses himself as greatly- 
pleased with the highly effective manner in which the Act is 
carried out. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD ELECTION. 

The election for a member of this board, in the place of Mr- 
R, F. Kennedy, resigned, will be held on the 17th November 
next. The nomination closed on the 4th November, at four 
p.m. The following are the canaididates nominated : — 
Clemes, A. B., Stawell, 

Owen, A. J., Geelong, 

MacGowan, J. T., Ballarat. 


SoiTesponbencc. 


ELECTION OF THE PHARMACY BOARD. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir— The retirement of Mr. Kennedy from the Pharmacy 
Board allows the original equilibrium of representation to be 
restored thereto, if our Melbourne Pharmacists will but kindly 
lend their assistance in this direction. At the inception of the- 
Pharmacy Act it was deemed as advisable as it was judicious 
that the principal centres of population should be represented 
at the Board. This was done by nominating one gentleman 
each from Geelong, Sandhurst, Ballarat, and four for Mel- 
bourne and all its suburbs ; and, though at the late election, 
the personnel of the board was considerably altered, through 
the unfortunate retirements of Messrs. Johnstone and Blackett, 
yet still the original idea was fairly consummated, except in 
the case of Geelong, which was left out in the cold through, I 
think, the casting vote of the returning officer. An opportunity 
now offers which should, I think, be embraced, of restoring 
things to the military dictum — “As you were.” With thisview* 
I would suggest that Geelong should nominate a gentleman, and 
then work for his return, calling upon us in Melbourne, to 
assist, them. Why not elect Mr. Green, who is already 
familiar with the duties required, and proved himself, while 
there (as far as I can learn), a fair representative man. I 
think it behoves all Pharmacists to take an interest in these 
elections, though how they are to arrive at the qualifications 
of new aspirants, except from hearsay, or, perhaps, the in- 
terested motives of drug houses or their travellers or 
modest trumpeting by aspirants of their own virtues, I admit 
puzzles me, though I suppose Old Time, like it does to every- 
thing else, will unravel even this difficulty. 

Senes Pilul^e. 


DARNEL. 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — I forward you the following, which no doubt will be 
interesting to your readers : — A cow-keeper consulted me a 
few days ago in reference to the illness of some of his cows 
and death of one as yet, and no doubt others may have suffered 
likewise. 

I. suspected poison, and on inquiry found the “mash” or 
grain obtained from a distillery contained a large proportion 
of “darnel.” I therefore had no hesitation in declaring the 
cause of the cows illness. The question is, should ma*sh of 
this description be used or sold as cattle food, and what is the 
effect on the milk ? The use of this seed in distillation is also 
questionable, although it is supposed none of the deletereous 
principle is retained by the spirit. With brewing it is very 
different, and may the stupefying effect of some of the trashy 
ales not owe their injurious effect to “darnel” either accident- 
ally or otherwise mixed with the malt. I draw attention 
to this subject entirely on public grounds, and warn unfortu- 
nate dairymen of the danger of mash such as the samples I 
have on hand, a portion of which I have placed in the Exhibi- 


October, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


47 


tion. Perhaps some of your readers may think the subject worthy 
of remark with the view of an investigation being instituted, and 
the use of this poison for any purposes of food made punishable 
by law. The quantity supplied appears to be annually on the 
increase, and is in fact a recognised marketable commodity. 
You kindly published extracts on the poisonous action of Lolium 
temulentum when used in flour, &c., from some of the best 
authorities of the day. The subject is one peculiarly suited to 
your columns, and on that account request your insertion of 
these remarks. In conclusion I have to ask your able assistance 
in throwing all the fresh light possible to prevent the evil in- 
creasing as it has been, and undoubtedly is at present. 

GRAHAM MITCHELL, F.R.C.Y.S. 

Melbourne, 1st November, 1880. 

P.S. — I herewith forward a sample of the “mash” referred to, 
which you might place on view. G. M. 


THE APOLLO CANDLE COMPANY. 

Amongst the principal Victorian exhibits at the International 
Exhibition, that of the Apollo Stearine Candle Co. (Lmtd.) may 
fairly claim a place in the foremost rank. Their trophies are 
two in number — one representing the stearine industry, and the 
other one of the various soaps made by this firm. The more im- 
portant of their two trophies is naturally that devoted to 
stearine candles of every description, glycerine, and various 
oils produced in their process of manufacture. The form is 
octagon, with an octagon dome, and here we may draw atten- 
tion to the fact that this exhibit is unique in kind. The 
whole of the case containing the candle exhibit is made of 
stearine. This case is sixteen feet in diameter, and twenty- 
three feet high. The dome is surmounted by a large bust of 
Apollo, on a pedestal also of stearine, and on the columns 
stand eight stearine figures representing the four quarters of 
the globe and the four seasons. The whole case has the 
appearance of a marble temple, and contains nearly four 
hundred separate castings. Within is an octagon pyramid 
with carved sides, on which are arranged, according to size 
and colour, candles of every possible description and material, 
amongst which may be mentioned — stearine, paraffine, 
spermaceti, wax, ozokerit, composite, & c., in sizes vary- 
ing from the large 2-lb. altar candle, to the tiny taper of 
eighty to the pound. Every kind of fancy candle is here 
shown — cable, spiral, fluted, star-shaped, painted ; various 
patent ends, to fit any candlestick ; aerated candles, with 
internal channels to prevent guttering and wash ; tulip 
candles, holly candles, and candles in the shape of Cleo- 
patra’s needle — hieroglyphics and all — besides the more ordinary 
candles for household and mining purposes, for cabs, omni- 
busses, coaches, ship-lanterns, &c. Within the case appear, 
also, various bottles containing crude glycerine-oleine for 
lubricating, saponified and oleic acid, and the various products 
of the stearine industry. 

The second trophy is hexagon in form, and is made entirely 
of household and wool-washing soap. This soap is manu- 
factured from oleic acid, a by-product of the stearine 
industry, which, until lately, was virtually useless here, and 
had to be shipped home to find a market. The company, 
however, after repeated and costly trials, have succeeded in 
working it up into various soaps, of which they are the first 
and only successful makers in Australia from this article. 
The company’s soft soap, specially made from pure oil and 
potash for wool-scouring, is also here shown. In addition to 
the ordinary soaps, they also exhibit transparent glycerine 
soaps in many varieties, as eucalyptus, carbolic, camphor, 
rose, honey, Oxford, and Cambridge, which appear in every 
size and shape of tablet, bar, and ball. These soaps are 
made by a process, peculiar to the company, from the very 
finest glycerine and other materials ; and their eucalyptus 
soap has a very wide reputation as a pleasant and healthy 
detergent. 

The company has branch factories in Sydney and Brisbane, 
and an agency in Adelaide. Its candles have almost entirely 
superseded the foreign article. In fact, the company produces 
and sells more candles throughout Australia than all foreign 
and colonial makers combined. Its consumption of tallow is 
about eighty tons weekly, and its machinery is of the most 
modern and powerful description. Its yearly production is 
about thirty million candles, which, if placed end to end, 
would extend about five thousand miles, and if burned con- 
secutively would last for twenty-eight thousand years. 


flutes anb Abstracts. 


A Novel Suture. — The Rev. J. G. Wood, the well-known 
writer on entomology, says the Medical Times , is responsible 
for the statement that in some parts of Brazil ants are used 
for sewing up wounds. He says — “ They simply pinch the 
edges of the wound together and hold the ant to it. The 
creature immediately bites at the obstacle, making its jaws 
meet. The native surgeon pulls away the body, leaving the 
head still adhering. Seven or eight ants’ heads are sometimes 
employed for a single wound.” 

Santonin Contaminated with Strychnia.— Strychnia is 
stated to be a common impurity in commercial samples of 
santonin. Forquate Gigli recommends for its detection, in 
preference to Fllickiger’s method, the following process : — 1 
gram of the sample is placed in a small beaker, covered with a 
little distilled water and acidulated with a few drops of 
sulphuric acid. On agitating with a glass rod, the strychnia 
dissolves while the santonin remains insoluble. The liquid 
is filtered, the residue washed with a little water and the 
washing added to the filtrate, which is then distributed in 
several test-glasses and examined for strychnia by means of the 
usual reagents. — Ckem. JVetvs , 18 tli June , 1880, p. 283. 

De Vrij’s improved method of preparing fluid Extract of 
Cinchona is as follows : 100 grams of the powdered bark of 

the trunk of East India Cinchona succirubra, containing at 
least 6 per cent, alkaloids, are mixed with 38 grams normal 
hydrochloric acid and 362 grams water, and are macerated for 
12 hours, at the expiration of which, 20 grams glycerin are 
added and the whole mixture is transferred to a percolator. 
When the clear percolate ceases to pass, clear water is passed 
through the percolator until the percolate is only coloured, but 
no longer rendered cloudy by soda lye, which usually is the 
case before 800 grams percolate are obtained. The latter is 
then evaporated to 100 grams, the obtained fluid extract thus 
corresponding in strength to the fluid extracts of the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia. — Pharm. Ztg ., 27th March, 1880, p. 187. 

Buttermilk as Summer Food, Drink, and Medicine. 
— A Detroit physician asserts ihat, for a hot weather drink, 
nothing equals buttermilk. It is, he says, “both drink and 
food, and for the labourer is the best known. It supports the 
system, and even in fever will cool the stomach admirably. 
It is also a most valuable domestic remedy. It will cure 
dysentery as well and more quickly than any other remedy 
known. Dysentery is really a constipation, and is the oppo- 
site of diarrhoea. It is inflammation of the bowels with 
congestion of the ‘ portal circulation ’ — the circulation of 
blood through the bowels and liver. It is a disease always 
prevalent in the summer and autumn. From considerable 
observation 1 feel warranted in saying that buttermilk, drunk 
moderately, will cure every case of it — certainly when taken 
in the early stages.” 

New Way of Preserving Hops.— The principal feature in 
this new system consists in sprinkling the hops with alcohol 
prior to packing, and then pressing them tightly into air-tight 
vessels. In course of time the alcohol combines with some of 
the constituents of the hop, and certain volatile ethers are 
thus formed ; these possess a strong and peculiar fruity smell, 
but being very volatile they are all dissipated during the boiling. 
Dr. Lintnerhas experimented on these preserved hops at Weihen- 
stephan, and speaks well of them ; he says the fine colour is 
retained, and there is a full development of aroma ; the 
fermentation of worts made with these hops worked well, 
and the resulting beer possessed a fine bitter flavour. If this 
method of sprinkling with alcohol will stop the development 
of valerianic acid, which takes place in hops when stored in 
the usual manner, it ought to come into general use. — Journal 
of Chemistry . 

Phosphate of Lime for Clarifying Muddy Water. 

Philadelphia appears at present to be supplied with muddy 
water extremely difficult to clarify even by filtration through 
paper. Mr. R. F. Fairthorne offers, in the Am. Jour, of Pharm., 

a simple method for remedying the evil. He says “After 

many fruitless or only partially successful efforts, I found the 
following plan to succeed admirably, namely, to agitate each 
quart of water with an ounce of phosphate of lime, and allow 
it to settle. This only requires a few minutes, and it will be 
found that most of the impurities are carried down to the 
bottom. The supernatant water is now filtered without any 
trouble through absorbent cotton. Ordinary cotton will answer 


October, 1880. 


48 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


as well if previously moistened with alcohol and then washed 
with water. Of course, either of them must be pressed tightly 
into the neck of a funnel. By this means perfectly clear 
water can be obtained in about five minutes. 

Chemically Pure Hydriodic Acid. — Winkler proposes, 
in the Ghem. Centralblatt , the following improvement on the 
usual method with sulphuretted hydrogen. Iodine is dissolved 
in bisulphide of carbon almost to saturation. The solution 
being poured into a tall glass jar, some water is added on top, 
in a proportion corresponding to the degree of concentration 
desired. The tube of the sulphuretted hydrogen generator 
is conducted to nearly the bottom of the glass jar. As soon as 
the sulphuretted hydrogen gas acts on the solution of iodine 
in the bisulphide, hydriodic acid is formed, which is im- 
mediately taken up by the water. The free sulphur, which in 
the ordinary method of making the above acid would separate, 
remains here dissolved in the bisulphide. As soon as the dark 
violet colour of the iodine solution has been replaced by a 
colour like sherry wine, the reaction is completed, and the \ 
glass jar contains a heavy, oily solution of sulphur in bisulphide i 
of carbon and an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid. It will, 
of course, be necessary to heat the acid to the boiling point for ! 
a short time, in order to free it from sulphuretted hydrogen 
gas . — Journal of Chemistry. 

At Greenwich, Henry Morton, chemist, Broadway, Deptford, 
appeared to an adjourned summons, at the instance of the ' 
Greenwich Board of Works, under Section 4 of the Adultera- | 
tion of Food and Drugs Act, for having mixed a drug, to wit, | 
tincture of quinine, with ingredients or materials so as to 
affect injuriously the quality or potency of such drug, by 
which he had rendered himself liable to a penalty of £50. Mr. 
Corden, inspector under the Board, said on 16th June he went 
to the defendant’s shop and asked for 3 ozs. of tincture of 
quinine, for which he paid Is. 8d. He divided it into three 
parts, and told the defendant it would be analysed by the 
public analyst. While he was getting the sealing-wax from 
his pocket the defendant took two of the bottles containing 
the samples and threw them away. He offered to mix him 
up some more, as he said he had made a mistake and put six 
grains instead of eight to the ounce ; but the witness took the 
remaining sample, and told him he should report the matter. 
The magistrate was handed the certificate of the public 
analyst, Mr. Wigner, showing that the sample was more than j 
60 per cent, deficient, some other comparatively worthless 
alkaloids being added. Mr. Marsham fined the defendant 
£5, with £1 costs. 

At the British Pharmaceutical Conference, after the reading 
of a paper on the “ Supply of Cinchona Bark,” the Pharma- 
ceutical Journal reports as follows upon an exhibit of a peculiar 
kind of bark by Dr. Paul : — “ Closely connected with the sub- 
ject of the foregoing paper was the exhibition, by Dr. Paul, of 
a peculiar kind of cinchona bark, with the object of showing 
that it is now no longer possible to arrive even at an approx- 
imate conclusion as to the value of a sample of bark from ! 
mere visual examination. Leaving out of account the fact 
that the officinalis, or crown bark, now coming from India 
contains a large amount of quinine, while that hitherto known 
as ‘crown bark,’ or ‘Loxa bark,’ from South America seldom 
contains much, if any, it is also to be noted that amongst the 
bark derived from South America it is equally impossible to 
judge of the value of a sample from its outward appearance 
alone. The old landmarks are no longer sufficient for indi- 
cating whether a bark is worth only a few pence a pound or 
the same number of shillings. Thus, for instance, the official 
‘yellow bark,’ or ‘flat calisaya,’ of the present day is rarely, 
what it used to be, but, on the contrary, seldom contains ' 
much or any quinine at all, and only a little cinchonine. 
On the contrary it often happens that bark of unusual or novel 
characters comes into the market containing an amount of qui- 
nine and other alkaloids that renders it intrinsically very 
valuable. In the case of the specimen exhibited this fact was 
well shown, for to all appearance it was of little or no value. 

It represented, a somewhat considerable parcel of bark that 
was imported in June, 1879. It did not recommend itself for 
making pharmaceutical preparations, and quinine manufacturers 
were disinclined to buy it at any price. However, the analysis j 
of the bark gave it a different character, showing that in 
addition to mere traces of quinidine, cinchonidine, and 
cinchonine it yielded nearly per cent, of sulphate of quinine, 
so that for either or both of the purposes above referred to it 
was an excellent bark, notwithstanding its unfavourable 
appearance.” 


Election Notices. 



TUHEREAS under the provisions of the Pharmacy Act, 
’’ 1876, and of the regulations made thereunder, I, 

the undersigned, ALBAN THOMAS BEST, was appointed 
to be the Returning Officer, and to conduct the Elections 
of Members of the Pharmacy Board of Victoria ; and 
whereas the office of a Member of the said Pharmacy 
Board has become vacant by resignation ; and whereas 
under the provisions of the said Pharmacy Act , 1876, and 
of the regulations made thereunder, the Returning Officer 
shall, upon being notified by the Board that an extra- 
ordinary vacancy exists, proceed to the ELECTION of 
ONE PERSON, being a Registered Pharmaceutical 

Chemist of Victoria, to serve as a Member of the Phar- 
macy Board of Victoria : 

Notice is hereby given that I will, on the Seventeenth 
day of November, 1880, proceed to the ELECTION of 
ONE PERSON, being a Registered Pharmaceutical 

Chemist, to serve as a Member of the Pharmacy Board 
of Victoria ; and also that if the number of persons- 
nominated as hereinafter provided for is greater than the 
number of persons required to fill the vacancy created 
as aforesaid, a poll will be taken on the Seventeenth day 
of November, 1880. 

Nomination Papers must be lodged or delivered by post 
at the office of the Pharmacy Board of Victoria, Mutual 
Provident Buildings, Collins-street, Melbourne, before 
four o’clock in the afternoon of the Fourth day of 
November, 1880. 

Dated this Twenty-second day of October, 1880. 

A. T. BEST, Returning Officer. 

TO THE REGISTERED CHEMISTS OF VICTORIA. 


Election of a Member of the Pharmacy Board of 
Victoria. 

T BEG to announce myself as a Candidate at the above 
J- election, and respectfully solicit support thereat. 

ALFRED B. CLEMES. 
Stawell, November 4th, 1880. 


TO 


THE REGISTERED 
CHEMISTS OF 


PHARMACEUTICAL 

-- VICTORIA. 

LJ.ENTLEMEN — Mr. Kennedy having resigned his 
^ position as a member of the Pharmacy Board, I 
beg respectfully to offer myself as a CANDIDATE for 
the vacancy created thereby. At the general election of 
members in February last you did me the honor of 
placing me in a good position on the poll. Should a contest 
take place at the present time I have every confidence 
that you will secure my return. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Yours faithfully, 

Ballaarat. J. T. MACGOWAN. 

TO THE REGISTERED PHARMACEUTICAL 
CHEMISTS OF VICTORIA. 


T BEG to offer myself as a Candidate for the seat on the 
Pharmacy Board rendered vacant by the retirement 
of Mr. Kennedy. In once more seeking your votes, I 
take occasion to thank you for the very liberal support 
accorded me at the last election ; and having so recently 
waited on you by circular, I will now content myself with 
saying that my claims to your support are — that I represent 
Geelong, which, though chosen by the Governor in Council 
to be a represented district, at present has no member on 
the Board ; and, that I take a deep interest in everythin^ 
that can benefit and elevate our calling. 

I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

ALFRED J. OWEN, 

of Bull & Owen, Geelong. 

Geelong, Nov. 4th, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


CT_ BOSISTO 

Desires to direct the Medical Profession and Pharmaceutical Chemists to his 

Special Chemical and Pharmaceutical Preparations from Australian Vegetation. 


OL. EUCALYPTI ESS. 

Obtained from the Amygdalina Odorata species : the 
Eucalyptus Oil of Commerce. This Essential Oil of the 
Eucalyptus family is now recognised in the Hospitals of 
Europe as an antiseptic of great power. A few drops 
sprinkled on a cloth and suspended in a sick room 
renders the air refreshing ; and for disinfecting and 
deodorising, a tablespoon ful of the Oil added to two or 
three pounds’ weight of sawdust, well mixed and distri- 
buted, will speedily produce a purifying effect. It is 
also employed as a valuable Rubefacient in all Rheumatic 
Affections, as a Basic Odour in aromatising Soaps, and 
as a Solvent of Resins difficult of solution. 

ggf” Note. — To ensure the certainty of obtaining this 
Oil is by purchasing it from the Wholesale Houses in 
packages or bottles, bearing the certificate and signed “ J. 
Bosisto and Co.,” together with the trade mark — Parrot 
Brand, yellow ground. 

SYRUPUS ROSTRATI. 

Prepared from the Inspissated Juice of the Red Gum 
Tree. A delicate mucilaginous astringent, employed in 
all affections of the mucous membrane, particularly in 
Diarrhoea and Chronic Dysentery. In bottles of 1 lb. each. 

OL. EUCALYPTI GLOBULI ESS. C 12 , H 40 , 0, 

Anthelmintic — By Enema 30 to 60 minims in mucilage 
of starch. Internally — Dose 3 to 5 minims in gum mucil- 
age, syrup, or glycerine. Tonic, Stimulant, and Anti- 
septic. A small dose promotes appetite ; a large one 
destroys it. In stronger doses of 10 to 20 minims it first 
accelerates the pulse, produces pleasant general excite- 
ment (shown by irresistible desire for moving about) 
and a feeling of buoyancy and strength. Intoxicating 
in very large doses, but, unlike alcohol or opium, the 
effects are not followed by torpor, but produce a general 
calmness and soothing sleep. A strong cup of Coffee 
will at once remove any unpleasantness arising from an 
over-dose. 

EUCALYPTOL. C H 20 , 0. 

From Eucalyptus Globulus. Therapeutic use. For 
Inhalation in Bronchial Affection. Quantity employed 
— From half to one teaspoonful with half a pint of hot 
water in the Inhaler. 

TINCT. EUCALYPTI GLOBULI. 

Stimulant, Tonic, Antiperiodic, and Antiseptic. Em- 
ployed in purulent Catarrhal Affections of the Urethra 
and Vagina in dilution ; and for Disinfecting the Dress- 
ings of wounds. 


CIGARETTES OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Recommended for Bronchial and Asthmatic Affections, 
and also for the Disinfecting and Antiseptic Properties. 

Note. — The Cigarettes are numbered 1 and 2. No. 1 
are without Tobacco : No. 2 contain a small quantity, 
and are recommended for general smokers. 

EUCALYPTENE : from Eucalyptus Globulus. 

The Tonic or bitter principle in an amorphous condi- 
tion ; employed in Low Fevers in doses of one to three 
grains. 

LIQUOR EUCALYPTI GLOBULI. 

The Fever and Ague Remedy. Dose — For Ague and 
Dengue Fever 30 to 60 minims in half a wineglassful of 
mucilage and water, or glycerine and water, with the 
occasional addition of two minims of Eucalyptol every 
two or three hours during the paroxysms of Ague. In- 
compatibles — The Mineral Salts. 

UNG. EUCALYPTI VIRIDIS. 

Antiseptic Emollient ; rapidly sets up a healthy action. 
In lib. jars. 

0L. ATHER0SPERMA M0SCHATA ESS. 

The physiological effects of this Oil, in small doses, 
are Diaphoretic, Diuretic, and Sedative, and it appears 
to exert a specific lowering influence upon the heart’s 
action. As a medicine it has been introduced into the 
Colonial Hospitals, and employed successfully in cases 
of Heart Disease. Administered in one or two drop 
doses at intervals of six or eight hours. 

LIQUOR ATHER0SPERMA M0SCH. 

Employed in Asthma and all affections of the respira- 
tory organs. 


The following Articles are prepared ready for the Counter 
Trade * 

EUCALYPTUS OIL, in Bottles Is., 2s. each. 

OINTMENT, in Pots Is. each. 

PILLS, in Bottles 2s. each. 

* CIGARETTES, in Boxes 2s. each. 

LOZENGES, RED GUM, in Boxes Is., 

2s. each. 

SYRUP, RED GUM, in Bottles Is. 6d., 

2s. 6d. each. 

ATHER0SPERMA, in Bottles Is. 6d., 2s. 6d. each. 

Each bears the Trade Mark— Parrot Brand, 


J. BOSISTO, 

MANUFACTURING PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMIST 

(LABORATORY : RICHMOND, MELBOURNE), 

By whom the Eucalyptus Preparations were first introduced, both in Australia and in Europe, and to whom 
has been awarded the Silver Medal of the Society of Arts, London, and Special Medals of Merit from 
the various European and Australian Exhibitions, dating from the first of his investigations in 1858, 
and published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, and other publications, European 
and Colonial. 

NOTE.-The Medical Profession and Pharmaceutical Chemists are 
requested when ordering- throug-h Wholesale Houses to state distinctly that 
Bosisto’s Preparations are wanted. 


WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS, 


FELTON, GtRIMWADE & CO., 



31 «SC 33 FLINDERS LANE WEST, 

MELBOURNE. 






[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] 






THE 



dTli eini*) t k Druggist 



WITH AUSTKALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


(IPiiblislied under direction of tlie 3?h.armaceu.tical Society of Victoria,) 


f PUBLISHED ON THE 15TII ) 
of every Month. J 


No. 31. 

Registered for Transmission as a Newspaper. 


NOVEMBER, 1880. 


{ 


Subscription, 15s. per Annum, 
including Diary, Post Free. 



THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


HEMMONS, LAWS t CO. 

WHHESELE DRUGGISTS. 

5 5 & 5 7 

RUSSELL STREET, 

MELBOURNE. 

* 


November, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


49 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Leading Article— 

_ . page 

The Annual Dinner m 

„ xr PAGE 

Costless Ventilation 54 

The Month 50 

Social Science Congress 53 

Correspondence 54 

Notes and Abstracts * * ’ 55 

Notes on Nitrite ok Amyl ^5 

Meetings — 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 50 
Tiie Pharmacy Board of Victoria 50 

University of Melbourne 53 

The Pharmacy Board Examinations 53 

Ballarat 53 

Melbourne International Exhibition 56 


Eijt €{jemtst antr Untggtst 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 

Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists' 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . , ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 I Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

. No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer— not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith 


SPECIAL NOTICE . 

Members are informed that , unless tlxeir subscriptions 
for the current year are paid on or before the 31 st 
December , 1880, they cease to be members , and , in 
accordance with Pule 14, their names are omitted 
from the list. 


BIRTHS. 

Fullwood.— On the 19th November, at Barldy and Canning streets, 
Carlton, the wife of R. Jackson Fullwood, chemist, of a daughter 

Thompson -On the 25th November, at 122 Bourke-street East, the wife of 
J. D. Thompson of a daughter. 

MARRIAGES. 

Simpson— James. —On the 24th November, at the residence of the bride’s 
parents, Gore-street, Fitzroy, by the Rev. W. L. Binks, David Arthur 
youngest son of John Simpson, of Carlton, to Sara, only daughter of 
Joseph James, of Fitzroy. ° 

Hogartii— Don.— On the 25th November, at the residence of the bride’s 
parente by the Rev Andrew Hardie, William Peel, eldest son of the late 
Mr. William Hogarth, of Connell, Hogarth and Co., merchants, Mel- 
bourne, to Marion Katarme (Minnie), eldest daughter of Mr. J. W Don 
Richmond. » 

R< r^ m^ P T n f ^° n f thG f 2 w h ^ember, by special licence, at St. John’s 
Church, Latrobe-street West, Melbourne, by the Rev, Canon Chase 
assisted by the Rev Walter W. Mantell, of Essendon, Walter M. Rowley, 
chemist, of 8 Bourke-street East, Melbourne, second son of the late 
George William Rowley, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England, to 
Florence Ada Pyne eldest daughter of Mr. Charles Pyne, of West Mel- 
sMre?En g gfand Ug 6r ° f ^ ^ George ***** ^Bristol, Gloucester- 
DEATH. 

Hackett— On the 1st December, at 203 Bourke-street East, Thomas 
Masteis, second son of Thomas Hackett, aged sixteen years. 


ADDRESS TO STUDENTS. 

The Chemical News of 17th September has the following 
excellent address to students. The observations, both 
to those who are about to commence their studies and 
also to examiners, are so admirable that we feel confident 
that the article will be read with profit and pleasure. As 
the writer says, ‘ 4 Examinations are only a means, real 
or supposed, to a certain end, and not the end itself.” Our 
youths must be taught and impressed with the idea that 
they must study “ to know” as well as “pass,” or the 
result will be disastrous, and end in intellectual debase- 


ment and futility. We therefore venture to think that 
this timely and judicious advice may have a salutary 
effect: — 

“The duty or the policy — and the two are here iden- 
tical — of a man entering upon any course of serious study 
is not as simple as was the case in former days. We 
refer not merely to the vastly increased extent of every 
science, to the enhanced accuracy now expected in all 
investigations, or to the rapid progress made in every 
department, which frequently compels us to revise before 
the end of the year views which we had adopted at its 
beginning. There is another and a more perplexing dif- 
ficulty. Formerly, and even at present in some countries, 
the student had to keep in view one paramount object 
only. To whatever science he had devoted himself he 
had to make himself thoroughly master of its principles 
and its methods. The purpose of study was not so much 
to acquire a mere summary of what had already been 
discovered by others, as to become capable of continuing 
their work and of adding to the stores of truth which they 
had accumulated. The power of effecting such continua- 
tions and of making such additions is surely the best, the 
all-sufficient proof that the student’s time has not been 
misspent. 

“But in higher education, as conducted in modern 
England, this unity pf purpose no longer exists, and this 
test of proficiency is no longer accepted. The student 
is required not merely to make himself, if possible, 
thoroughly acquainted with his subject, but to satisfy 
certain official persons that he has obtained such an 
acquaintance. If he does not succeed in the latter object 
his actual proficiency in the science in question will be of 
no avail. And if a due knowledge of such science be a 
part of the preparation required for some professional 
career, his time will have been in one sense wasted. Hence 
this latter object assumes the preponderance — the shadow 
outweighs the substance— and, in the never-to-be-forgotten 
words of Professor Huxley, we study in these days not to 
know but to ‘pass,’ the consequence being that we pass 
and don’t know. The difficulty, then, placed before the 
British student is how to combine the two purposes ; how, 
whilst qualifying himself to take a good position at an 
examination, he may at the same time become fitted for a 
career of research hereafter. We cannot, unfortunately, 
give any neat formula or recipe for compassing this object, 
but there are some considerations which may profitably 
be kept in mind. Let it be remembered that examina- 
tions are only a means, real or supposed, towards a 
certain end— not the end itself. When a man has got so 
far as to define, even in his secret thoughts, science as a 
mere something to be examined in, he is intellectually 
dead. In conjunction with this caution we must make a 
demand upon the moral nature of the student. We must 
exhort him, at whatever cost of time and labour, to eschew 
cram, including under the term all the tricks and dodges 
by which a really undisciplined mind is made to put on 'a 


50 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1880. 


false appearance of mastership. It is not safe to argue 
that the English system of examinations being essentially 
a sham, it may be legitimately evaded. He who wins 
degrees and diplomas by deceit will have acquired habits 
of dishonesty which will cling to him in after-life, and 
which will manifest themselves in a propensity for trim- 
ming and cooking results, for suppressing inconvenient 
facts, and forging evidences for a tottering theory. He 
who cheats examiners in his youth will in after-life be apt 
to cheat scientific societies and the learned world at large 
for his own glorification, and may, perhaps, for a time 
succeed. 

“If we might presume to address a word of advice to 
examiners, we would recommend them, in place of reading 
up recondite matter in order to puzzle a student, to devise 
means for distinguishing true knowledge from mere cram, 
and intelligent comprehension of principles from the 
results of verbal memory.” 


Ute iftonth. 


At the termination of the meeting of the council of the 
Pharmaceutical Society an adjournment was made to the 
Union Club, where the health of our visitors— Messrs. Aicken 
and Langton— was drunk. In responding, Mr. Aicken said he 
felt very much the very kind and hospitable manner in which 
he had been treated in Victoria, and he trusted at no distant 
time to have the pleasure of seeing some of those present in 
New Zealand. 

The Chemists and Druggists' Diary for 1881 will be issued 
to members and subscribers as early in the year as possible. 
They are expected to arrive the first week in January. 


Mr. Rivers Langton (Messrs. Langton, Edden, Hicks and 
Clark, Thames-street, London), in response to the toast of his 
health, which was proposed at the conclusion of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society’s meeting at the Union Club, said that he 
had some experience in essential oils, and the truly magnificent 
Eucalyptus oil exhibit of Mr. Bosisto’s at the International 
Exhibition reflected the greatest credit on that gentleman. 
The samples shown would successfully compare with the best 
makes of the world. Mr. Langton also spoke of the very 
great kindness and attention that had been shown him during 
his visit to the colonies. 


The election of a member of the Pharmacy Board in the 
place of Mr. R. F. Kennedy, resigned, took place on the 18th 
November. There were three candidates — Messrs. Owen, 
Clemes, and Macgowan. The polling was not heavy, 320 only 
voting out of a possible 570. As usual, there were a great 
many informal and unsigned papers. The following are the 
numbers for each candidate Owen, 125 ; Clemes, 112 ; 
Macgowan, 83. 


At the last council meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society 
a communication was read from Mr. Edward Mortensen, 
Ballarat, expressing his thanks for the assistance given to him 
in bringing his case before the Executive Council, which has 
resulted in his liberation. 


Professor Halford, who is about to leave the colony on a 
visit to the medical schools of Europe, after eighteen years’ 
labour in connection with the Melbourne University, was 
entertained at dinner at Gunsler’s Cafe on the 11th November, 


The gathering was a most successful one ; there were about 
sixty-five gentlemen present. 


We are desired to state that the Pharmaceutical Register 
will not, as heretofore, be published in The Chemist and Drug- 
gist. The council of the Pharmaceutical Society have decided,, 
in consequence of the expense attendant on its re-publi- 
cation, to discontinue it. The official copy can be obtained — 
price one shilling — at the offices of the Pharmacy Board, 100 
Collins-street West. 


The following have been added to the legally qualified 
medical practitioners registered under the provisions of the 
Medical Practitioners Statute, 1865 : — Joseph Higham Hill r 
Fitzroy; Arthur Alma Johnston, Moonee Ponds; Richard 
Henry Symes, Melbourne. 


ittettings. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The monthly meeting of the council was held at the rooms 
on the 5th November, 1880 ; present — Messrs. Blackett,, 
Baker, Bowen, Jones, Francis, Hooper, Huntsman, Norris, and 
Shillinglaw ; the president, Mr. Blackett, in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

An apology was read from Air. Alacgowan for his absence. 

New Members. — John Nathaniel Bird, of Carlton, was 
elected, and Frederick C. Cook, Prahan ; Henry W. Potts, Bris- 
bane ; George Fox Ward, Semaphore, Port Adelaide ; David 
Jones, Ballarat, and Charles Ross, Chapel-street, Windsor, 
were nominated as members. 

School of Pharmacy. — A copy of a resolution passed by the 
Pharmacy Board on this subject was received and discussed, 
and, on the motion of Mr. Bowen, a committee appointed to 
deal with the matter, 

Finance and other Committees . — Mr. J. C. Jones’s motion in 
reference to the appointment of a number of committees to 
manage the affairs of the society was after some discussion 
rejected, a motion being proposed by Air. Francis, and carried, 
that the business be conducted as at present. 

The Dinner Committee. — On the motion of Air. J. C. Jones, 
a vote of thanks was carried to Alessrs. Bowen, Thomas, and 
Shillinglaw for the very satisfactory manner in which the 
dinner was carried out. 

The President of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand 
was elected an honorary member, 

During the evening Mr. Graves Aicken and Air. Rivers 
Langton were present as visitors. 

Correspondence. — Letters were received and dealt with from 
the following persons : — G. A. Prichard, A. Kibblewhite, W, 
C. Bohn, H. W. Potts, J. Al. Murphy, James Tipping, J. G. 
Bioore, G. Gammon, R. W. Fairthorne, J. B. Hudson, D. Tom- 
linson, G. B. Fairbourne, John Barker, G. P. Philpots, the 
Secretary Pharmaceutical Society, New South Wales. 

Financial and routine business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


Books, &c., Received. — American Journal of Pharmacy , 
Boston Journal of Chemistry , Pharmaceutical Journal , Aus- 
tralian Medical Journal , New York Druggists' Circular , The 
Seventh Decade of the Eucalyptus of Australia. 


THE PHARA1ACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting was held on the 10th November ; 
present — Messrs. Bowen, Brind, Holdsworth, Lewis, and 
Kruse. On the motion of Mr. Lewis, Air, Brind took the chair. 


November, 1880.3 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


51 


A telegram was received from the president, who was unable, 
from business engagements, to attend. 

Applications for Registration as Pharmaceutical Chemists. 
— The following were passed : — Daniel C. O’Connor, Beech- 
worth ; Charles Ross, Chapel-street, Windsor ; Augustus F. 
Sapsford, Maryborough, Queensland ; and James Anderson 
Moonee Ponds. The indentures of S. V. Say were transferred 
from J. Jelfs, deceased, to A. E. Hughes. 

School of Pharmacy. — The notice of motion given by Mr. 
Bowen on this subject was further discussed, and the following 
resolution agreed to : — Moved by Mr. Bowen, and seconded 
by Mr. Lewis, and carried — “That in consequence of the 
unsatisfactory nature of the reply from the Melbourne Univer- 
sity, this board is of opinion that it would be desirable to 
establish, and is prepared to recognise any efficient School of 
Pharmacy where the instruction required by part 4, clause 18, 
of the Pharmacy Act could be obtained ; and that a copy of 
this resolution be forwarded to the council of the Phar- 
maceutical Society.” 

Names Erased from the Register. — In accordance with the 
provisions of the 13th section of the Pharmacy Act, letters 
were sent to the last known address of the following persons, 
asking if they had changed their residence. The letters having 
been returned unclaimed, their names were removed from the 
register J. M. Ryan, Warrnambool ; A. Bekkevold, Stawell j 
J. L. Anderson, Castlemaine j J. E. Williams, St. Kilda ; F. J. 
Searle, Fitzroy ; G. S. Allingham, Peel-street, Windsor ; 
L. Meyring, Melbourne ; R. Hustwick, Geelong ; T. D. Rutter, 
Buln Buln ; F. J. Negus, Williamstown ; A. S. Beaven, Romsey ; 
J. C. Hallam, Melbourne. 

Correspondence. — Letters were received and dealt with from 
the following persons Mrs. Summers, F. H. Smith, F. Long- 
more, R. D. Murray, the police (Clunes and Sandhurst), the 
Registrar Melbourne University. 

The Pharmaceutical Register for 1881.— The registrar was 
authorised to take the necessary steps to print and circulate 
the register for the year. 

Financial and general business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


THE ANNUAL DINNER, 

The annual dinner of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 
was held at Clement’s Cafe on Thursday, the 18th November, 
when there was a good attendance. The president, Mr. C. R. 
Blackett, occupied the chair, and on his right was seated 
Mr. Cosmo Newbery, and on his left Dr. Moloney and 
Mr. Gillbee, Messrs. Bosisto and Bowen occupying the vice- 
chairs. The country districts were represented by Mr. 
Holds worth, Sandhurst; Messrs. Wheeler and Macgowan, 
Ballarat ; and Mr. A. J . Owen, Geelong. Letters of apology were 
received from Messrs. H. Brind, Ballarat; R. Ellery, F. S. 
Grimwade, A. E. Pulling, T. M. Blackett, S. S. Strutt, W. J. 
Branscombe, and Drs. Day, Nield, Girdlestone, and Henry. 
The catering, as might be expected, was served in Mr. 
Clement’s best style, and afforded satisfaction. The president 
proposed the usual loyal toasts in suitable terms, and they 
were drunk with musical honours. 

Dr. Moloney then proposed the health of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Victoria, coupling with it the name of the president, 
Mr. Blackett, The society had started in 1857, and but very 
few of the orignators of it were now present. It was to the 
founders that the Pharmaceutical Society owed the fact that 
it was now a powerful and influential body. (Cheers.) If 
there were proportionately as many such downright 
earnest men in his profession, he felt sure that the 
status of medical men would vastly improve. (Applause.) 
It was strange, though true, that the medical profession 
was . not represented in Parliament, but the Pharma- 
ceutical Society had a representative of whom they might be 
justly proud — (applause) — and he regretted that another 
gentleman, their respected president, had failed to obtain his 
seat in the Legislative Assembly ; but if that gentleman 
desired to be still honest and a patriot, he must content 


himself with remaining a little longer out of Parliament. 
(Laughter and cheers.) He was glad to observe that the 
pharmacists were at last obtaining that which they had so long 
been foreign to— fair play. (Cheers.) It was a strange fact 
that amateurs in every other sphere of life, except in pharmacy 
and medicine, were treated with contempt, but even in regard 
to this matter, the prospects of the Pharmaceutical Society 
were vastly improving. (Applause.) He had to say that the 
medical man received a great amount of assistance from 
the chemist and druggist which often proved valuable to 
him. It was true there were instances where medical 
men had to complain of their chemists and druggists, but 
every one expected to find black ‘sheep in every flock ; and the 
same had to be said of the profession of which he was a repre- 
sentative. But these remarks of his did not refer to the 
members of the Pharmaceutical Society, but to the impertinent 
outsider who foists himself on the public, and will, he was sure, 
die out by “effluxion of time.” (Laughter and applause.) He 
would very much like to see fairer play given to the society 
and medical men as well, and a chair of pharmacy established, 
the beneficial results of which he would not attempt to 
estimate. (Applause.) This could not be done, but by united 
action. The Government, he was sure, would afford no help ; 
and from the University but little assistance could be expected. 
The only way would be to establish a School of Pharmacy, 
and then they could boast of having such men as their 
president and other worthy representatives of the society as 
“professors” of it. (Cheers.) This proposition, if carried out, 
would remove all difficulties in the way of examinations, &c. 
for he had only the other day learnt with great regret from 
the worthy secretary of the society that there were several 
students awaiting examination, and unable to undertake 
what they desired. The establishment of the school would 
foster reunions and establish an esprit de corps necessary to the 
welfare of the society, besides stimulating young and promising 
men to spend time in the discovery of new and useful drugs? 
(Hear, hear.) Mr. Bosisto had done much towards the con- 
summation of this latter object, and had given Australia a 
prominent position in the pharmaceutical world. In conclusion, 
he had only to say again, that from his personal experience 
the greatest care and vigilance was practised by pharmacists 
in the preparation of prescriptions. The manner in which 
this was carried out was unique ; and in the suburbs just as 
well as in town a medical man could depend on having his 
prescriptions prepared with the greatest care. He proposed 
the health of the Pharmaceutical Society coupled with the 
name of Mr. Blackett. (Applause.) 

The toast was drunk enthusiastically. 

Mr. Blackett, in responding, thanked the proposer for the 
kind terms in which he had couched the language of his toast. 
He regretted the absence of Dr. Gray, the president of the Medi- 
cal Society, who was unavoidably absent. The Pharmaceutical 
Society of Victoiia was the first of its kind in the southern 
hemisphere, and it was a matter for congratulation to the mem- 
bers of the society that they had first led the way to the opening 
of so many other similar institutions in the other colonies. The 
founders of the society had undoubtedly done much good ; and 
he trusted that those who would follow would strive to emu- 
late the example of their predecessors — (cheers)— and that 
the future might be more glorious than the past. (Applause.) 
He was one of the few left who started the society in 1857 ; 
and then there was Mr. Bosisto, whose name had already 
become so much respected, and Mr. Johnson, who had held 
the position of Government analyst for so long a period, and 
discharged his duties in such a manner that he had gained a 
reputation for himself, and reflected honour on the Pharma- 
ceutical Society, and some others who were happily still 
with us. He would like to see those coming after them 
treading in the footsteps of these men. The establishment 
of the Victorian society stimulated the pharmacists of 
New Zealand to originate one themselves. New South Wales 
followed, and now Queensland, and there was a prospect of 
South Australia adopting the good example of the" sister 
colonies. (Cheers.) He trusted the laws of the Pharma- 
ceutical Societies would not diverge, but be more in unison. 
They had wished for a Pharmacy Act, and now had the 
pleasure of seeing their desire fulfilled. He remembered the 
time when that Act was under debate in the House, and how 
Mr. Bosisto had to answer the criticisms of Messrs. Gaunson, 
Longmore, and other members who were opposed to it. He 
had only to say that their representative stood the attacks 
like a martyr, and his replies silenced the opponents of the 


52 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1880. 


Act. (Applause.) Of course that Act was not perfect, but it 
was the best they could get at the time. By the light of 
experience they found in it flaws, which at the time were not 
detected. These mistakes, he trusted, would be rectified as 
soon as the Assembly settled down to useful legislation, 
and peace was restored to this politically afflicted country. 
(Laughter and cheers.) The new Pharmacy Act would give 
larger powers than those possessed at present, and limit the 
sale of patent medicines. It was monstrous to suppose that 
ignorant men should be allowed to dispense poisonous medicines 
simply because the bottle or packet had a stamp and a seal on 
it. It was also, in his opinion, a dangerous practice to allow 
grocers to sell unchecked such large quantities of patent medi- 
cines, and he considered that any wise Government would re- 
medy this defect. In regard to the suggestion to establish a 
school of pharmacy, he was convinced that there was abun- 
dance of talent in the members of the society to carry out 
the undertaking, but what seemed to stand in the way was the 
want of cash. (Laughter.) He would, however, in the event 
of the suggestion being carried out, like to see the school 
taken under the wing of the University. If, however, this 
could not be effected, he would be satisfied to see pharmacy 
added to the curriculum of studies in the University for medi- 
cine. (Cheers.) Why, he (the speaker) knew of an instance 
where an M.B. did not know the difference between opium and 
asafoetida. (Laughter.) To his mind it was incumbent for medi- 
cal men to study materia medica more than they did. (Cheers.) 
And now he had to say a word about the journal representing the 
society. He admitted that it was an imperfect one, but he was 
quite certain that it was better than nothing, and that efforts 
were made to make it interesting and valuable. (Cheers.) What 
the paper wanted was fresh writing. He did what he could, 
and was ably assisted by Mr. Shillinglaw, but much could be 
done by young pharmacists contributing original papers. He 
hoped that this matter would be attended to, and his appeal 
receive a ready response. The journal, he was sure, had done 
much good, not only here, but in the neighbouring colonies ; 
and, with support, was sure it would become a valuable pro- 
perty ; and he hoped that it would ultimately be able to run 
alone, and become, like the Medical Journal, the independent 
organ of pharmacy in Australasia. 

Mr. Best, in a few well-chosen remarks, couched in eulogistic 
terms, proposed the health of the members of the Pharmacy 
Board, coupled with the name of Mr. Bosisto. 

Mr. Bosisto, in thanking the company for the hearty 
manner in which the toast of the Pharmacy Board had been 
drunk, said the object of the Board was to seek to educate the 
young pharmacists in this colony to a standpoint equal to 
those in other countries of the old world. He was astonished 
at the progress made by the Board, and at the beneficial 
results that had accrued from its establishment. He felt sure 
that what had been done would prove an incentive to the rising 
generation. He regretted to find that the University did not 
recognise pharmacy as it ought to, as, in his opinion, it ought 
to be included in the curriculum of medical studies. (Hear, 
hear.) He trusted that in the alteration of the University 
Amendment Bill the medical faculty would recognise this fact, 
and endeavour to have the study of materia medica enforced 
on a broader basis than the present. And not only did 
he desire to see this object attained, but that medical 
botany would be taught as well. (Hear, hear.) He trusted 
that the day was not far distant when the University 
would see its way to establish a school of pharmacy, which 
would meet all the difficulties that they had at present to 
encounter. (Cheers.) He did not think that it was the duty 
of a chemist to merely learn the art of coating pills, but to 
obtain knowledge regarding the different plants and other vege- 
tation which so vast a field lay open for them in Australia. By 
so doing they would thereby be handing down to posterity 
knowledge which would be at once useful to generations to 
come and make to themselves great names. The Pharmacy 
Board were willing to help, and he hoped that young men 
would take advantage of the opportunities. 

Mr. Francis proposed the health of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain and kindred societies. 

Mr. Bowen, in responding, referred to the names of Jacob 
Bell, William Allen, Thomas Nurson, Ur. Pereira, Theophilus 
Redwood, and others, who had so readily come forward to 
establish the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and 
otherwise to promote the cause of pharmacy. The names of 
these gentlemen were still fresh in the memory of some 
around us, and associated with many great and good deeds, 


especially so, the exposure of the frauds perpetrated by some 
of the English and Continental manufacturers of chemical 
and pharmaceutical products. It was a singular circumstance 
that Great Britain, which usually takes the lead in art, 
science, and literature, should be the last to recognise the 
necessity of establishing a school of pharmacy. Norway, a 
country possessing at that period a population of about 

350,000 souls— less than half that of the colony of Victoria 

was the first to do so in the year 1673. France followed in 
1803 ; the United States next ; Germany in 1823 ; Russia in 
1839 ; and, last of all, Great Britain, in 1811. The establish- 
ment of these schools, to his mind, was an imperative 
necessity, for however skilful the physician or general 
practitioner might be, unless the prescription was uniformly 
and honestly dispensed that skill would be thrown a wav 
(Cheers.) 

Mr. Johnson proposed the medical societies of Victoria, 
coupled with the name of Mr. Gillbee. He was nothing of a 
speaker, and had only experience in that line when bad°gered 
by counsel in the witness-box. 

Mr. Gillbee, in responding, said he had need scarcely to 
mention that, as a rule, physicians endeavoured to keep up as 
friendly an association with their chemists as practicable. 
The medical man depended entirely in them for the proper 
preparation of his prescriptions, and he had to say, from his 
own experience and that of other members of his profession, 
that their directions were attended to with the greatest care 
and precision. (Hear, hear.) He trusted that the Pharma- 
ceutical Society would soon rise above a trade, and establish 
itself into a profession— (cheers)— so that no one would be 
allowed to tamper with the lives of the general public without 
having a State certificate of competency to dispense medicines. 
(Applause.) 

The president said that the next toast he had to propose 
was one he knew they would all drink with great pleasure. 
The toast was the health of Mr. Shillinglaw, the honorary 
secretary of the society. (Applause.) As the president of the 
society, perhaps no one was better acquainted with the large 
amount of work annually performed by the honorary secre- 
tary, and he felt certain all would agree with him when he said 
that the present prosperous condition of the society was in a 
great degree owing to the admirable manner in which the 
business was conducted ; no matter what information was re- 
quired, you had but to apply to Mr. Shillinglaw for it, and it 
was at once forthcoming. They were not, perhaps, aware of 
the very large amount of additional work the publication of 
The Chemist and Druggist had entailed. In the official position 
held by Mr. Shillinglaw as registrar to the Pharmacy Board, 
he had earned the respect and esteem of all with whom he 
had been brought in contact. The toast was drunk amidst 
great cheering. 

Mr. Shillinglaw, in replying, said that he felt very much 
pleased at the kind and hearty manner in which his health 
had been drunk. His duties had been very much lightened 
by uniform kindness and courtesy shown to him by the mem- 
bers of the council. He had endeavoured to extend the 
members’ roll outside Victoria, he was glad to find, with 
some success, and a number of leading pharmacists in the 
neighbouring colonies were now members of the society ; and 
the circulation of the journal had trebled itself during the last 
three years ; not a little of the success of the journal was 
due to Mr. Blackett, who gave a deal of valuable time to 
it. There could be no doubt that the journal had done much 
good, and induced the other colonies to form societies. He 
again begged to thank them for the kind manner in which the 
toast had been received. 

“The Ballarat District Chemists’ Association,” coupled with 
the names of Messrs. Wheeler and Macgowan, was the next toast 
proposed by Mr. Blackett, who said it was highly gratifying 
to find this district society so well represented. He hoped to 
see the other districts follow in the footsteps of Ballarat, and 
form local societies. 

Mr. Macgowan returned thanks, and remarked that it was 
owing to the troubles and difficulties of the tariff some twelve 
months ago that had called their society into existence. He 
was glad to say the formation of the association had done 
great good in promoting general unanimity and good feeling. 
He hoped to see the other large centres of population follow 
their example ; and he thanked them very much for the kind 
manner in which they had drunk the toast. 

, The health of Mr. Holds worth, as the representative of 
Sandhurst, was also proposed. 


November, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


53 


In responding, Mr. Holdsworth remarked that he was grati- 
fied to take part in so successful a gathering. He had attended 
the first meeting of the society, which consisted of Messrs. 
Ford, Croad, Plummer, Glover, Drewry, and himself. That 
was just twenty-four years ago. He had always taken a great 
interest in the society, and was pleased to see it attain the im- 
portance it had. 

Mr. Rocke, in a humorous speech, proposed “ The Press,” 
which was responded to by Dr. Moloney. 

“ The Ladies” was proposed by the chairman, and responded 
to by Mr. Ross, who remarked that he thought that it was a 
pity that the annual ball had been discontinued, and ladies 
excluded from taking part in the festive gatherings. 

During the evening Messrs. Plunket, Atkin, Rocke, and 
Blogg sang several songs, which added greatly to the enjoy- 
ment of the evening. The music was by Plock’s band. 


SOCIAL SCIENCE CONGRESS. 

The Agricultural and Horticultural Section of the Social Science 
Congress was opened on the 29th November, when Baron von 
Mueller, president of the section, delivered the opening 
address. On the following day Mr. Abraham Lincolne read a 
paper on *• The Milk Supply of Towns,” and in the discussion 
which followed the necessity was urged for the appointment of 
an official to inspect the dairies which now supply milk to 
Melbourne and its suburbs. Mr. J. C. Cole also read a paper 
on “ Pomology.” In the evening Mr. W. Murray Ross con- 
tributed a paper showing the advantages to be gained by 
encouraging the manufacture of beet-root sugar in Victoria. 
Mr. C. May, of Sunbury, read two papers — one upon “ The 
Olive and its Cultivation in Victoria,” and the other upon 
Insect Pests of Fruit-bearing Trees.” The following papers 
were also read : — By Mr. C.H. Lyon, of Ballan,onthe “ Clearing 
of Land ;” by Mr. E. Hulme, of Oxley, on the “ Comparative 
Merits of Large and Small Farms;” by Mr. R. W. E. Maclvor, 
on “ Experimental Farming.” Two interesting subjects were 
dealt with on the 1st December. Mr. D. Howitz read a paper 
upon the “ Climate Influence and Preservation of Forests ;” and 
Mr. W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.S., another upon li Sylvan Streets,” 
in which he gave some useful information with respect to the 
best mode of planting trees in the streets and the best trees to 
be selected. In the evening Mr. W. Kendall contributed a 
paper upon “Veterinary Education,” and Mr. Graham Mitchell 
one upon “ Diseases of Stock.” The following papers were 
read at the afternoon meeting : — By Mr. D. Howitz, on “ The 
Relative Timber Producing Capabilities of Exotic and Indi- 
genous Trees;” by Mr. J. Hall, of Hastings, on “Some Exotic 
Trees ;” by Mr. A. D. Hunter, on “The Utilisation of Sewage.” 
In the evening Mr. B. D. Smith, of Buln Buln, and Mr. 
R. W. E. Maclvor contributed papers upon “ Scientific Agri- 
cultural Education.” 


f) evscmaUtics, 


Mr. Charles Ross, who was for some time at Malden Island, 
has returned to Victoria, and purchased a business in Prahran. 

The premises and stock of Mr. J. F. F. Grace, of St. Arnaud, 
have been destroyed by fire. Mr. Grace announces by circular 
that he will re-open with a new stock, &c., on the 29th inst. 

We regret to state that Mr. Jackson, manufacturing chemist 
for Messrs. Felton, Grimwade, met with an accident by the 
bursting of a bottle at the Exhibition. We are glad to say it 
is, however, not of so serious a nature as was at first expected. 

Amongst the visitors attracted by the Exhibition from the 
other colonies, we have pleasure in noticing the arrival 
of Mr. Graves Aicken from Auckland. Mr. Aicken, who 
is a member of the Pharmacy Board of New Zealand, and 
one of the vice-presidents of the Pharmaceutical Society, was 
entertained at dinner by Mr. Johnson, the Government 
analyist, on the 26th instant. On the 29th, by invitation of Mr. 
Bosisto, he met the members of the Pharmacy Board at dinner. 
Mr. Aicken was entertained at lunch by Mr. Blackett on the 
3rd December. In response to his health, which was drunk 
at the various festivities, he expressed himself as much grati- 
fied at the hospitality and courtesy shown him. We feel cer- 
tain Mr. Aicken’s visit will do a great deal of good in promot- 
ing that good feeling which should exist between the kindred 
societies. 


UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE. 

Ordinary Examinations.— October Term, 1880. 

Practical Chemistry. — R. Aitchison, H. R. Maclean, F. A. 
Nyulasy, C. H. Flack, P. Wisewould. 

Materia Medica. — F. H. Cole, G. J. Scantlebury, P. Wise- 
would. 


PHARMACY BOARD EXAMINATIONS. 
Preliminary.— 2nd December, 1880. 

The following passed in the order of merit in which their 
names appear : — 

Charles Alfred Graves, Sale. 

George Clark, Sandhurst. 

A. E. Pilley, Windsor. 

T. S. Woodfull, Melbourne. 

Thomas Gardiner, Sandhurst. 

Fourteenth Modified Examination.— 6th December. 

The following passed, and are now eligible for registration as 
pharmaceutical chemists : — 

Joseph Thomas Poock, 183 Bourke-street, Melbourne. 
Thomas Shanassy, Mount Gambier, 

Walter Fisher, Sandhurst. 


BALLARAT. 


The School of Mines, at the late Horticultural Society’s Show, 
made a splendid exhibit of about seventy specimens of 
medicinal plants, nicely arranged, and labelled with its 
botanical and vulgar name, class, natural order, genus, species, 
country, the portion of plant used, and its therapeutic pro- 
perties ; and when we mention that the whole of these were 
grown in the small botanical garden attached to the school 
especially for theuseof students studying materia medica , &c., it 
must be taken as another illustration of the school’s efficiency 
and earnestness in imparting a practical and perfect phar- 
maceutical education to our young men, and is well deserving 
the liberal support of our local pharmacists. 

Either the serious illness of Mr. Mortensen, or the powerful 
and influential petition presented to His Excellency on his 
behalf, or both combined, have had the effect of restoring him 
once more to his family circle, from which he had°been 
estranged. To this change, care of his medical attendants, and 
the comforts of his home must be attributed for producing a 
favourable reaction on his system ; and though his trials must 
have undermined a rather weekly constitution, the sympathy 
evinced by his brother pharmacists and other gentlemen have 
acted most favourably on him. We are requested, on his 
behalf, to acknowledge, with much gratitude, his indebtedness 
to those who lent their influence for his release, as it will 
enable him once more to battle hopefully with the world, and 
to maintain himself and family independently. 

The dispensary of our district hospital has lately, at the 
hands of Mr. G. Bailey, a recent arrival from London, under- 
gone a thorough renovation— walls repainted, fixtures French 
polished, bottles re-lettered, and it now looks speck, span, and 
new ; this was a work much needed, and we congratulate the 
committee on getting it done in such a neat and appropriate 
style. 

An example of the carelessness and ignorance that still 
unhappily prevails with some regarding medicines was aptly 
illustrated by one John Hellyer (aged eighteen years), of 
Mount Clear, who, instead of taking, as he intended, a dose of 
Eno’s Fruit Salt, made a mistake, and took half a powder con- 
taining antim. nig., which had been prepared and intended 
for one of his master’s horses ; his feelings, however, soon 
warned him that something was wrong, and the cause being 
found, he was then taken to the district hospital, promptly 
treated, and is now, we hope, a wiser, if sadder young man. 


BALLARAT DISTRICT CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION. 
The usual monthly meeting was held at Lester’s Hotel, Sturt- 
street, on Wednesday evening, 17th November. There was a 
fair attendance of members ; Mr. Palmer, president, in the 
ch air. 

A letter was read from Mr. H. W. Potts, of the firm of Potts 
and Berkley, chemists, Brisbane, Queensland, asking for a 
copy of the rules and regulations of the association, and for 
any further information that could be given, as they were 


54 THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. November, 1880. 


desirous of forming a similar association in Brisbane. The 
honorary secretary said that he had forwarded a copy of the 
rules, and written to Mr. Potts, offering some suggestions 
upon the initiation of the society. 

The president remarked upon the influence the association 
was exercising, even in the other colonies. 

The honorary secretary reported that the Governor-in- 
Council had released Mortensen from gaol before the expira- 
tion of his sentence. 

The committee of the friendly societies had determined 
upon opening a dispensary, and expected to be ready to com- 
mence on 1st January, 1881. They were about to advertise 
for a dispenser. 

A telegram was received from Mr. Shillinglaw, stating that 
Mr. Owen, of Geelong, had been elected to a seat on the 
Pharmacy Board, vice Mr. Kennedy, resigned. 

Some matters of business routine having been transacted, 
the meeting closed with a vote of thanks to the chair. 


COSTLESS VENTILATION. 

Mr. Holdsworth sends us clippings from Sleeman’s Export 
Drug Circular , and directs attention to a process of “ costless 
ventilation,” which he says has been used with great success 
in his own house for the last three years, and recommends 
others to try the experiment. Mr. H. says that a room or 
nursery so ventilated have none of the unpleasant smells 
(when entering them from the fresh air) that bedrooms 
usually have, which clearly proves the efficacy of the method. 
Attention is also drawn to an excellent method of disinfecting 
rooms after and during sickness by the means of carbolic acid 
(No. 5 will answer) ; and its efficacy at the present time may 
be clearly proved, in cases of sickness from measles and 
whooping cough — in the latter case especially, as by the 
inhalation of the vapour it produces the same effect that is 
supposed to be produced by taking children to a gas house 
during that malady, which is no uncommon thing on Sand- 
hurst. The simplicity of the process recommends itself as 
much superior to only placing deodorants or disinfectants on 
the floors or furniture of the apartments, as by burning the 
acid on hot coals or embers the vapour reaches the ceiling, 
and every nook and corner of the room. Directions : Take a 
small pan of red hot embers from the fire, and drop upon them 
about a teaspoonful of No. 5 carbolic acid, moving about the 
room during the process. If this is done at night, it can be 
repeated in the morning with excellent effect. Be careful of 
the fingers during the process. 

A constant supply of fresh air is so important to our well- 
being, and in the prevention and cure of disease, that the 
subject needs no comment ; an attendance, however, at any 
public meeting is only necessary to convince how much this 
axiom is ignored — or, if admitted, how unsuccessfully met — 
“crowded to suffocation,” indeed, being the conventional 
term used to express a full assemblage. 

For some time, says Dr. Hinckes-Bird, I recommended to 
my patients the plan of opening the window-sash at the top, 
and stretching out on a frame a corresponding depth of 
tarlatan to intercept blacks and prevent draughts ; but the 
principle is wrong, and the results unsatisfactory, as the 
draught is directed downwards on the sitter, and not upwards 
towards the ceiling ; the screen, too, is anything but orna- 
mental, and becomes clogged with blacks, so as to require 
removal and repair. 

The method I now use is simple, economical, quite free from 
draught, can be regulated to a nicety, and does not get out of 
order. Raise the lower sash of the window, and place in front 
of the opening at the bottom rail a piece of wood of any 
approved depth— from two to three inches is sufficient ; this 
leaves a corresponding space between the meeting rails in 
the middle of the window through which the current 
of air is directed upwards towards the ceiling ; heavy 
blacks cannot ascend with the air, which is driven so high 
as to be warm before it descends ; light blacks are not 
admitted in ordinary conditions of the atmosphere, though 
doubtless they are in cases of violent commotion caused by 
very high wind— the more the lower sash is raised the more 
the difficulty of blacks entering between the meeting rails is 
increased. The principle may be modified in various ways, 
making the lower beading of wire blinds supersede the strip 
of wood, or if this be placed above and the top sash drawn 
down, to a corresponding depth, the same result will obtain ; 
in a word, open the lower sash of the window two or three 
inches, and block it up anyhow, and the air enters the space 


in the middle and is carried to the ceiling. In the Sanitary 
Hints I have circulated in the district to which I am medical 
officer of health, it is more tersely described thus : — “ Raise 
the lower sash of the window two or three inches, and fill the 
opening underneath the bottom rail with a piece of wood — 
this leaves a corresponding space between the meeting rails 
in the middle of the window, through which a current of air 
enters, and is directed towards the ceiling, whence it should 
escape by a valvular opening.” The sand-bag, so frequently 
placed over the meeting-rails to prevent fresh air coming in, 
should, the greater part of the year, be placed under the 
lower sash, so as to allow air to enter at the meeting rails. 


€ot‘rc$ponl)ence. 


THE CASE OF THE QUEEN V. TURNER, 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — When a person seeks the advice of an attorney or 
doctor-at-law, or as in the case of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Victoria did in the above case, you are generally bound to 
accept his advice ; but it appears to me that the privileges 
enjoyed by the druggists of Victoria were not properly under- 
stood by the magistrates who heard the case at Colac. Even 
the Medical Practitioners Statute does not infringe upon 
those privileges, but rather upholds them, in that it provides a 
clause for that purpose. Part 2 section 14 of that Act provides 
that “ Nothing in this part of the Act shall be construed to in- 
fringe on the rights and privileges hitherto enjoyed by 
chemists and druggists and dentists.” Now, I uphold that 
Mr. Turner did nothing at all wrong in prescribing the simple 
remedies he did, and if any one was to be blamed or prose- 
cuted it was the person who employed Mr. Turner, for if a 
child dies without medical attendance a certificate of death is 
1 refused, hence an inquest ; and if neglect can be proved, a 
committal of the parents or guardians follows. Again, even a 
properly qualified medical man is always open for damages if 
mal-treatment can be proved ; but this, even, was not proved 
against Turner ! I for one am not satisfied ; for if a chemist 
can be fined through a clause in the Pharmacy Act, it is like 
being condemned out of the mouth of babes and sucklings. 

J. Holdsworth. 


“DARNEL.” 

To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — Mr. Mitchell’s inferential deduction regarding the seed 
of Lolium temulentum causing the death of one and illness of 
other cows because of its having been found in the mash or 
grains obtained from a distillery, and on which the cows were 
fed, has, I think, been drawn a little too precipitately, inas- 
much as the poisonous properties of this grass seed has, 
I think, on the whole, been rather disproved than sup- 
ported. I have heard of its having been given to pigs with 
impunity ; and though this may be no proof it would not kill 
cows, yet the researches which, sometime since, were made on 
the Continent, completely established its perfect harmlessness 
and to this view I incline. 

The contamination of malt with this seed, ergo , affecting the 
beer produced therefrom, I cannot think in any way can be sup- 
ported, doubting whether a hundred grains of it could be found 
in a hundred thousand bushels of any malt used by any brewers 
either in town or country ; for when the barley is steeped any 
light grain such as the darnel (or drake) will always float, even 
if the .barley is of such an even quality as not to require screen- 
ing (the first and usual preparatory step to malting). Now, 
either of these processes should, and I think does, effectually 
remove it from the grain to be malted ; and having seen a good 
deal of malt, I cannot recall one instance of ever seeing darnel 
in it, so that I think we must look further afield than to the 
one in question for the ill effects found in the trashy ales 
alluded to. Darnel is only grown by tyro farmers and dirty 
farming, and will ultimately be as scarce in samples of grain 
here as at the present time it is in those from England or New 
Zealand ; but even now I do not think it a recognised or mar- 
ketable commodity, or ever should or will be, but I should very 
much like to hear of Mr. Mitchell, or other scientist, conduct- 
ing a few experiments, so that its actual properties may be 
elicited beyond a doubt. — Yours, Hordeum. 


November, 1880. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


55 


A WORD FOR THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY. 
To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — T he present seems an opportune time to say a word to 
those pharmacists who have not yet joined our society. The 
senate of the University having declined to institute a chair 
of pharmacy, the entire responsibility of pharmaceutical 
education is thrown back upon ourselves. We must establish 
our own school ; this requires money and organisation. In the 
Pharmaceutical Society we have the latter ; to the whole body 
of chemists we must reasonably look for the former. Hitherto 
the “sinews of war” have been furnished by a section only, 
who have voluntarily borne the whole burden. It is not fair 
that this should continue. Since all are interested, each man 
should contribute. At home membership of the society is 
compelled by law ; but I hope better things of my brethren 
here than that an Act of Parliament will be needed to teach 
them their duty. I know there are those who are not satisfied 
with the society, but I would urge that the remedy is in their 
own hands. Let them join its ranks, and it will be what they 
make it; and I would further suggest that a better acquaint- 
ance would remove or modify some of the objections. It is 
often said — What is the good of all this education ? It neither 
puts money into our pockets, nor makes us more respected. 
Time will prove this statement to be unfounded. But, even if 
it were true, we cannot help it. We dare not stand still ; we 
cannot. The rest of the world is moving on, and, if we do 
not move with it, we shall be left behind. Every schoolboy 
will know more of chemistry, and botany, and of physical 
science generally, than did the chemists of a few years ago. 
When the mechanic calls science to his aid, the chemist dare 
not neglect it, if he values his reputation or his bread. The 
public will soon learn to discriminate between the educated 
pharmacist and the mere seller of drugs, and will bestow their 
patronage accordingly. I will not, however, further enlarge 
upon this theme; but, in conclusion, will re-state the facts: — 
The fiat has gone forth — we must be educated ; the Pharma- 
ceutical Society must undertake the work, and money is 
needed. This the chemists must supply. The question is — 
Will each man join the society, and so contribute his share, 
or must the willing horse do all the work. I trust, for our 
credit’s sake, “ that every man will do his duty.” — I am, yours 
truly, Alfred Owen. 


ffotcs anb Abstracts . 


Cloth, linen, paper, straw, &c., can be rendered fire proof 
(incombustible) by immersing them into a boiling solution of 
pure ammonium sulphate eight parts, ammonium carbonate 
2^ parts, boracic acid three parts, pure borax 1*7 parts, and starch 
two parts, in water 100 parts. —Pharm. Ztschr.f. Russl ., 15th 
Feb., 1880, p. 120. 

Concentrated tincture of insect powder (tinctura pyrethri 
florum concentrata) is highly recommended as an insecticide 
by Finzelberg, who prepares the tincture in the proportion of 
one part Persian insect powder to ten parts absolute alcohol, 
and claims that in order to prove efficient, it is necessary to 
scatter it by means of a perfume atomiser. When thus used 
in a closed room all flies soon drop dead, while scattering it 
over linen, &c., acts as a protection against fleas, &c. — Pharm, 
Centralh ., 1st April, 1880, p. 118. 

Grimault’s Indian hemp cigarettes are highly recommended 
for asthma, other affections of the breathing organs, and various 
other diseases, consist almost altogether, as the French manu- 
facturer claims, of Indian hemp and a litttle saltpetre, and are 
far superior to the ordinary remedies, which consist of the 
leaves of belladonna, of nicotina, or of paper — all impregnated 
with saltpetre, opium, or even arsenic. An analysis, made by 
Dr. H. Braun, proved, however, that Grimault’s cigarettes con- 
sist chiefly, in contradiction to the manufacturer’s statements, 
of belladonna leaves, contaminated (we might almost say) with 
a few fragments of cannabis, and of two other species of 
leaves, one of which greatly resembles the leaves of epilobium. 
— Ztschr . d. Allg . Oest. Apoth. Ver. , 10th April, 1880, p. 168. 

Cold Air Fruit Curing.— The California Mountain 
Messenger reports an interesting experiment in fruit curing 
lately made at a Placerville foundry. About a peck of sliced 
apples were placed in a sieve and subjected to a cold air blast 
for three and a-half hours in the cupola furnace of the foundry, 
and the fruit is reported to have been completely and beauti- 


fully cured by the treatment, remaining soft and without the 
slightest discolouration. The cured fruit showed none of the 
harsh, stiff dryness which results from hot curing, the cold 
blast completely freeing the fruit from excess of moisture, with 
no possibility of burning or shrivelling it. The Messenger 
says: — ‘‘Compared with our sun-drying, it effects a great 
saving of expense, attention, and risk. Anybody who can 
command or devise a strong blast of cold air, can dry fruit in 
a superior— we might say perfect — manner, without being de- 
pendent on the weather and waiting on the slow process of 
sun-drying, and without the most expensive resort to fuel and 
the risk of overheating.” 

The Greening of Preserved Vegetables— It is known 
that the green colour given to preserved vegetables is generally 
obtained by means of the salts of copper, the presence of which 
in preserves is both dangerous and fraudulent. M. Lecourt, a 
preserve manufacturer of Paris, and Professor Guillemare, of 
the Lycee of Rheims, have devised a new process for such 
colouration which is the subject of an interesting report 
addressed to the Consultative Committee of Public Hygiene of 
France by MM. Wurtz, Gavarre, and Bussy. This new process 
consists in adding to the vegetables employed a surcharge of 
chlorophyll, so that after the inevitable loss caused by boiling 
at 120 deg. Cent., they still retain sufficient to present the 
green colour of fresh vegetables. MM. Lecourt and Guille- 
mare obtain all the green colour thus utilised from table vege- 
tables, especially spinach, which contains a great quantity that 
is easily extracted. By an appropriate manipulation they 
obtain this green matter in solution in water alkalised by soda. 
The application of the colour is made thus : — The vegetables 
being plunged in boiling water, previously acidulated by 
chlorohydric acid, a suitable quantity of the solution of 
chlorophyll is turned into the water; by saturation of the soda, 
by means of chlorohydric acid, sea salt is produced, and the 
colouring matter is deposited in the organic tissue to increase 
the intensity of its proper colour. The vegetables thus treated 
are submitted to several washings before being enclosed in the 
vessels, in which they are to be submitted to the high tempera- 
ture necessary for their conservation. 

Palm Oil — That portion of the west coast of Africa which 
lies south of the River Volta furnishes the principal supplies 
of palm oil. Nearly 1,000,000 cvvt. of this oil are annually 
exported to Great Britain, of the value of 7,500,000 dols., 
its principal use being in the manufacture of soaps, per- 
fumery, candles, and similar articles. Among the natives it is 
highly valued, both for food (taking the place of butter), for 
lighting and cooking purposes, and for anointing the head and 
body. The so-called oil, which is rather a fatty substance, 
resembling butter in appearance, is obtained from the fruit of 
several species of palms, but especially from the one known 
botanically as Blais guineensis , which grows in abundance on 
the western coast of Africa, and from which it takes its specific 
name. So thickly do these trees grow, and so regular and 
rapid are their supplies of fruit, that in some localities where 
the regular collection of the produce is not practised the 
ground becomes covered with a thick deposit of the oily, fatty 
matter produced by the ripe berries. Deposits of palm oil, 
which may almost be called “ mines” of vegetable fat, exist in 
some parts of the Gold Coast, and which, if not in themselves 
worth working, at least practically illustrate the natural wealth 
of the country in such productions, and indicate its unde- 
veloped resources. These “ mines” would probably not repay the 
cost of exploration, as the palm oil is apt to become rancid 
and valueless for its general uses after long exposure, though 
for such purposes as candle making these deposits might still 
be valuable. — Colonies and India . 


NOTES ON NITRITE OF AMYL. 

(By James Mayne.) 

Amyl nitris, nitrite of amyl, amylo nitrous ether (C 6 
No. ? ), is an amber-coloured, very volatile liquid, of a pene- 
trating, peculiar odour, resembling that of ripe pears, the sp. 
gr.of the liquid being 0*877 ; of the vapour, 4*30 ; the boiling 
point is 205° F., but when perfectly dry it boils at 210° F. It 
is insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol. Fused caustic 
potash converts it into valerianate of potassium. Nitrite of 
amyl can be prepared by passing a stream of hyponitric acid 
(nitrous acid) gas through amylic alcohol (purified) at a 
temperature of 132° C. This process is very long and tedious, 
taking hours for the amylic alcohol to become saturated, 
and the resultant contains not only the nitrite, but also 
valerianate of amyl, also nitrate of ammonium, and a black, 


56 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1880. 


non-volatile substance, so that to purify a complicated process 
is required. 

The best process for preparing nitrite of amyl is a modifi- 
cation of Balard’s process. Amylic alcohol is first rectified until 
pure, until its boiling point is about 270° F. This alcohol, 
with an equal quantity of nitric acid, is introduced into 
a large glass retort, and moderate heat applied, gradually 
increasing. When the mixture approaches boiling the 
fire is removed and reaction allowed to continue. If the 
application of ihe heat has been too rapid or too long continued 
great frothing occurs, and contents of retort may froth over. 
Moderate and slowly increasing heat must be used, when the 
reaction is much less violent, the temperature rising gradually 
after removal of the fire and the beginning of boiling. As 
soon as the thermometer inserted in the tubulus rises above 
212° F. the receiver is changed, the distillate now becoming 
more and more mixed with ethyl amylic ether, and nitrate of 
amyl, readily perceived by change in ordour. The distillate 
obtained below 112° F. is shaken with an aqueous solution 
of carbonate of potassium to remove free acids, and after 
separation the oily liquid is introduced into a clean retort and 
again slowly heated. The first portion coming over is amylic 
aldehyde. When the very slowly increased heat has risen to 
205° F. the receiver is changed, and the distillate now 
collected is nitrate of amyl, until the thermometer reaches 
212° F., when distillation is stopped. 

To Dr. Brunton belongs great merit of being one of the first 
to use this remedy, and of inferring correctly its therapeutic 
effect from its physiological action ; also to the researches of 
Dr. Richardson is a very great deal due. 

In thirty to forty seconds, whether inhaled, subcutaneously 
injected, or swallowed, it flushes the face and increases the 
heat and perspiration of the head, face, and neck ; sometimes 
the increased warmth and perspiration affect the whole surface ; 
or while the rest of the surface glows the hands and feet may 
become very cold, and this condition of the extremities may 
last for hours. It quickens the pulse in a variable degree, 
sometimes doubling its pace. This augmented heat of the 
pulse precedes the flushing by a few seconds. 

It causes the heart and carotides to beat strongly, and some- 
times produces slight cough and breathlessness. 

It often causes slight giddiness, mental confusion, and a 
dream-like state. 

It relaxes the whole arterial system, probably by partially 
paralysing the sympathetic ganglia and motor nerves. This 
paralysing effect of the arterial system is well shown by 
sphygmographic tracings, the flushing of the face, and the 
increase of the size of visible arteries, like the temporal, which 
often becomes notably large, sometimes, indeed, being doubled 
in size, and branches previously invisible become plainly 
apparent ; and by the interesting fact that has been observed 
by several who, while cupping a patient over the loins, and 
finding the blood would not flow, administered nitrite of amyl 
by inhalation when the cuts immediately began to bleed 
freely. Nitrite of amyl is administered generally by inhala- 
tion, doses being two to five drops. If administrated 
internally, should be given in sugar or dissolved in alcohol. 
It is of extreme value in angnia pectoris, and in many 
spasmodic diseases it has proved valuable. 

Relief in asthma is often immediate, and in almost any con- 
vulsive disorder much good may be expected from its employ- 
ment. 


MELBOURNE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 

( Continued. ) 

Belgium. — T. X. De Beuklaer, 77 Rue Kipdorp, Antwerp, 
hygienic liqueur. A. Deelereq, 18 Rue du Convent, Antwerp, 
elixir. B. Dupuy, 80 Montague de la Cour, Brussels, cressine 
nasitorine (concentrated juice of watercress and lozenges). 
Kock and Reis, raffinerie du Noid, Antwerp, sulphur, raw, re- 
fined, crystallised, &c. A. J. Laurent, 36 Rue Fousmy, Brus- 
sels. pharmaceutical substances. Solvay and Co., Couillet, 
carbonate of soda and chloride of calcium. C. V anderbruggen, 
13 Rue du Fort, St. Gilles, near Brussels, hygienic liqueurs. 
L. E. Verbist, pharmaceutical chemist, aessehot, mercurial 
ointment. G. G. Yerzyl, and Co., Chemical Works, Louvain, 
chemicals used in the manufacture of saltpetre and nitrate of 
soda, chloride of potassium. 

France. — Candes and Co., 26 Boulevard St. Denis, Paris, 
antephelic milk for the toilet. — Carcano, 35 Notre Dame de 
Nazareth, Paris, perfumed satchets. — Cottance, 19 Rue des 
Lombards, Paris, perfumery. E. Coudray and Sons, 13 Rue 


d’Enghien, Paris, perfumery, toilet soap, tooth paste, powders, 
&c. A. Delettrez, 54 and 56 Rue Richer, Paris, perfumery. 

— Guerlain, 15 Rue de la Paix, Paris, perfumery. Lyonnet Mai- 
son (Gautier and Co.), 28 Rue d’Enghien, Paris, perfumes for 
the toilet, soaps, pomades, concentrated perfumes and tooth 
pastes ; agents— Paris, Wedeles and Co., and in Melbourne, 
Schmedes, Erbsloh and Co. Muraour and Co., 25 Rue 
d’Enghien, Paris, Laferriere water, scents, perfumed oil for 
the hair, rice powder, &c. Raynaud Maison (L. Legrand), 
207 Rue St. Honore, Paris, perfumery and scented soap. 
Roger-Gallet, 38 Rue Hauteville, Paris, eau-de-Cologne, soaps, 
and perfumery. Bertrand Roure, Grasse, Alpes-Maritimes, 
scents, perfumed oils, pomades. — Yiard, Levallois-Perret, 
Seine, eau-de-Ninon and Yelontine Yiard toilet vinegar, &c. 
A. Allenet, Angouleme, Charente, wine king, tonic and ape- 
rient wine. Armet de Lisle and Co., 18 Rue Malher, Paris, 
sulphate of quinine. — Arnaud, 141 Rue Montmartre, Paris, 
chemical and pharmaceutical products. — Bandon, 11 Rue 
des Francs- Bourgeois, Paris, Bandon wine, elixir eupeptic of 
Tissy. D. Belugon, Montpellier, quina cura^oa Belugon. Y. 
Beyer, 32 Rue Delaborde, Paris, elixir water and dentrifrice. 
Blaquart and Genevoix, 14 Rue des Beaux Arts, Paris, que- 
venne iron, hydrogene iron. A. Boude and Sons, 52 Rue St. 
Ferreol, Marseilles, sulphur of every description. A. Catillon, 
1 Rue Fontaine and 2 Rue Chaptal, Paris, pepsine Catillon, 
syrup of Catillon, ferruginous wine of Catillon. Charras and 
Co., Nyons (Drome), essential oils of different kinds. A. 
Chevrier, 21 Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, Paris, codliveroil, 
cocoa wine, codliver wine. Chouet and Co., 8 Place de 
l’Opera, Paris, tooth powder and dentrifrice of Dr. Pierre. E. 
Chouillon, 13 Quai du Havre, Rouen, chemical manures. 
Coignet, Sons and Co., 131 Rue Lafayette, Paris, gelatine, 
gelatine gum, and strong gum. Compaigne des Eaux Minerales 
Naturelles de Yichy (sources, Elizabethand Ste, Marie), 124 Rue 
St. Lazare, Paris, Yichy water. Desnoix and Co., 17 Rue Yieille 
du Temple, Paris, blisters, sticking-plasters, &c. E. Duriez, 
20 Place des Yosges, Paris, quinordine Duriez, elixir Duero. 

— Dutant, 26 Rue d’Enghien, Paris, Dutant’s food for young 
children, invalids, and the aged. Favier, Berard and Co., 
Valence (Drome), Glycirrhizine amonicale, ducime in powder, 
essential oils. Feil and Son, 56 Rue Lebrun, Paris, artificial 
reproduction of minerals, crystallisation of alluminium of 
magnesia. — Freyssinge, 97 Rue de Rennes, Paris, Freys- 
singe tar, salicale Dusaule, Dartois’ pills, &c. Genevoix and 
Co., 7 Rue de Jouy, Paris, chemical and pharmaceutical pro- 
ducts. St. G. Girandeau, 12 Rue Richer, Paris, Rob boyceau 
laffecteur, vegetable syrup. A. Guislain, Galleries de Yalois, 
185 Palais Royal, Paris, Peruvian cocoa wine. Homolle and 
Blaquart, 7 Rue de Belzunce, Paris, Homolle and Quevenne 
digitaline. A. Hottot and Co., 7 Avenue Victoria, Paris, pure 
pepsine, pepsine and peptine preparations. Jounet and Serret, 
118 Grand Chemin de Toulon, Marseilles, pale blue soap 
(called “ Marseilles soap”), white soap. E. Julien, St. Amand, 
Nord, anti-asthmatic trochus. — Lefebvre, Illiers, Eure et 
Loire, green water Lefebvre— a remedy against fever amongst 
animals. Limousin and Co., 4 Rue des Vieilles, Han- 
driettes, Paris, pharmaceutical products, seals for bottles. 
Montreuil Bros., A. Yignat and Co., 40 Boulevard 
National, Clichy, Paris, chemical and pharmaceutical pro- 
ducts ; agents — Paris, Wedeles and Co., and in Melbourne, 
Schmedes, Erbsloh and Co. Mothes, Lamouroux and Co., 68 
Rue J. J. Rousseau, Paris, capsules, Mothes. La Cie. des Eaux 
de Pestrin, Perbrin, natural mineral waters of Pestrin (acidu- 
lated, ferruginous, arsenical, &c). A. Pontois, Montbard, Cote 
d’Or, quinapontois, prepared with quinquina calysaya, and the 
rind of the shaddock, &c. Poulenc and Son, 7 Rue Neuve St. 
Merri, Paris, chemical products, for photographers, chemists, 
and for commerce. E. de Ricqles and Co., 41 Rue Richer, 
Paris, and 9 Cour d’Her Bouville, Lyons, alcohol de Menthe 
de Ricqles. Roseau & Co., 57 Rue Rambuteau, Paris, insect- 
destroying powder. Solvay and Co., Yarangeville Dombasle, 
Meurthe et Moselle, carbonate of soda manufactured by E. 
Solvay’s process, soda crystals manufactured from Solvay’s soda. 
(Annual production of this firm equals 50,000,000 kilog. of 
pure carbonate of soda. Diploma of Honour, Vienna, 1873 ; 
Medal, Philadelphia, 1876 ; Grand Prize, Grand Medal, Paris, 
1878. Agents, Arlbs, Dufour and Co. — Surun, 378 Rue St. 
Honore, Paris, Seguin’s quinquina wine. Thessier-Fevre, 398 
Rue St. Honors, Paris, apparatus for making seltzer water at 
home. C. Torchon, 19 Rue Jacob, Paris, chemical and 
pharmaceutical products. 

( To be continued.) 


THE CHEMIST AND DBUGGIST. 


CT. BOSISTO 

Desires to direct the Medical Profession and Pharmaceutical Chemists to his 

Special Chemical and Pharmaceutical Preparations from Australian Vegetation. 


OL. EUCALYPTI ESS. 

Obtained from, the Amygdalina Odorata species : the 
Eucalyptus Oil of Commerce. This Essential Oil of the 
Eucalyptus family is now recognised in the Hospitals of 
Europe as an antiseptic of great power. A few drops 
sprinkled on a cloth and suspended in a sick room 
renders the air refreshing ; and for disinfecting and 
deodorising, a tablespoon ful of the Oil added to two or 
three pounds’ weight of sawdust, well mixed and distri- 
buted, will speedily produce a purifying effect. It is 
also employed as a valuable Rubefacient in all Rheumatic 
Affections, as a Basic Odour in aromatising Soaps, and 
as a Sol vent of Resins difficult of solution. 

Note. — To ensure the certainty of obtaining this 
Oil is by purchasing it from the Wholesale Houses in 
packages or bottles, bearing the certificate and signed “ J. 
Bosisto and Co.,” together with the trade mark — Parrot 
Brand, yellow ground. 

SYRUPUS ROSTRATI. 

Prepared from the Inspissated Juice of the Red Gum 
Tree. A delicate mucilaginous astringent, employed in 
all affections of the mucous membrane, particularly in 
Diarrhoea and Chronic Dysentery. In bottles of 1 lb. each. 

OL. EUCALYPTI GLOBULI ESS. C 12 , H 40 , 0. 

Anthelmintic — By Enema 30 to 60 minims in mucilage 
of starch. Internally — Dose 3 to 5 minims in gum mucil- 
age, syrup, or glycerine. Tonic, Stimulant, and Anti- 
septic. A small dose promotes appetite ; a large one 
destroys it. In stronger doses of 10 to 20 minims it first 
accelerates the pulse, produces pleasant general excite- 
ment (shown by irresistible desire for moving about) 
and a feeling of buoyancy and strength. Intoxicating 
in very large doses, but, unlike alcohol or opium, the 
effects are not followed by torpor, but produce a general 
calmness and soothing sleep. A strong cup of Coffee 
will at once remove any unpleasantness arising from an 
over-dose. 

EUCALYPT0L. C 12 , H 20 , 0. 

From Eucalyptus Globulus. Therapeutic use. For 
Inhalation in Bronchial Affection. Quantity employed 
—From half to one teaspoonful with half a pint of hot 
water in the Inhaler. 

TINCT. EUCALYPTI GLOBULI. 

Stimulant, Tonic, Antiperiodic, and Antiseptic. Em- 
ployed in purulent Catarrhal Affections of the Urethra 
and Vagina in dilution ; and for Disinfecting the Dress- 
ings of wounds. 


CIGARETTES OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. 

Recommended for Bronchial and Asthmatic Affections, 
and also for the Disinfecting and Antiseptic Properties. 

Note. — T he Cigarettes are numbered 1 and 2. No. 1 
are without Tobacco : No. 2 contain a small quantity, 
and are recommended for general smokers. 

EUCALYPTENE : from Eucalyptus Globulus. 

The Tonic or bitter principle in an amorphous condi- 
tion ; employed in Low Fevers in doses of one to three 
grains. 

LIQUOR EUCALYPTI GLOBULI. 

The Fever and Ague Remedy. Dose — For Ague and 
Dengue Fever 30 to 60 minims in half a wineglassful of 
mucilage and water, or glycerine and water, with the 
occasional addition of two minims of Eucalyptol every 
two or three hours during the paroxysms of Ague. In- 
compatibles— The Mineral Salts. 

UNG. EUCALYPTI VIRIDIS. 

Antiseptic Emollient ; rapidly sets up a healthy action. 
In lib. jars. 

0L. ATHER0SPERMA M0SCHATA ESS. 

The physiological effects of this Oil, in small doses, 
are Diaphoretic, Diuretic, and Sedative, and it appears 
to exert a specific lowering influence upon the heart’s 
action. As a medicine it has been introduced into the 
Colonial Hospitals, and employed successfully in cases 
of Heart Disease. Administered in one or two drop 
doses at intervals of six or eight hours. 

LIQUOR ATHER0SPERMA M0SCH. 

Employed in Asthma and all affections of the respira- 
tory organs. 


The following Articles are prepared ready for the Counter 
Trade : — 

EUCALYPTUS OIL, in Bottles Is., 2s. each. 

OINTMENT, in Pots Is. each. 

PILLS, in Bottles 2s. each. 

* CIGARETTES, in Boxes 2s. each. 

LOZENGES, RED GUM, in Boxes Is., 

2s. each. 

SYRUP, RED GUM, in Bottles Is. 6d., 

2s. 6d. each. 

ATHER0SPERMA, in Bottles Is. 6d., 2s. 6d. each. 

Each bears the Trade Mark — Parrot Brand, 


J - BOSISTO, 

MANUFACTURING PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMIST 

(LABORATORY : RICHMOND, MELBOURNE), 

By whom the Eucalyptus Preparations were first introduced, both in Australia and in Europe, and to whom 
has been awarded the Silver Medal of the Society of Arts, London, and Special Medals of Merit from 
the various European and Australian Exhibitions, dating from the first of his investigations in 1853 
and Colonial^ m ^ Transactlons of t]ie Ko y al Society of Victoria, and other publications, European 

WOTE.-The Medical Profession and Pharmaceutical Chemists are 
requested when ordering through Wholesale Houses to state distinctly that 
Bosisxo’s PniPABATioss are wanted. 



WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS, 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO., 



MELBOURNE 


5 


M4NTTIOf.TTTRFRS 01? STTTPffTTRTn \ ¥0 WFPTmn 4PTLS PT^rr T>TTTrn? fMPPQV -fin 







Mins m ,u ; ; 

Pt&tf, Aum* U ^ TupochCKf&CAJl <JnM^- W ** V, 3 AU'hvn*'*^ p*** ' Vlc %; /ttofo , /~£ 

MnUi M V. t dc(4c AL+W4PO' «l*d% *» tiau ,*80 

^ a. *LjJ M«d 'man ft n - /y r^ 1 '**°- ' 


AmvLCi 

1 


/V„ X /oU^Jld M* 


CJ&4 i* fihtu ,*80 Jiujfo 

«X /SSo — ' f >a. p . ) ,' 


INDEX 


: Australasian Supplement to ©umtiat anb flnujgist. 


VOL. II. 

FROM JUNK, 1870, TO MAY, 1880. 


All letters to the Editor 


mill he found arranged under the head of Correspondence. 


PAGE 


American Quinine 1 

Atoms 14, 40 

'Arithmetical Dog “ Kepler” 10 

Ammonium Nitrate, Formation of .. ..20 

■Agriculture, Socrates on . . . . . . 20 

? Apollo Candle Company ’s Works. . .. ..20 

Analysis of Sugar Confectionery 26 

Annual Dinner, The 35 

Annual Dinner Pharm. Society of Victoria . . 43 
Agricultural Chemistry— It. W. Maclvor . . 49 
Appointment of Returning Officer .. ..49 

Alteration of Terms by Wholesale Houses . . 51 
A Visit to Mr. Edison’s Laboratory . . 55 

Alcohol, The Detection of Minute Quantities in 

Water 02 

Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society 

of Victoria 76 

Analysis of Tea 80 

Acids, Detection of Free 81 

Anti-fat 86 

Australian Health Society, Half-yearly Meet- 
ing of 91 

Aquarium, My First, by C. A. Atkin . . . . 95 

Books Received . . . . 8, 16, 24, 28 

Blackett. C. R., Return to Parliament of . . 9 

Beer in Britain 30 

Bread 30 

Ballarat Correspondent . . 45, 62, 58, 70, 77, 86, 94 

Ballarat Poisoning Case 46 

Bile, Test for, in Urine 54 

Butter, To Distinguish from Beef Fat, Lard, Ac. 65 

Benzine, To Deodorise 65 

Bond’s Marking Ink 60 

Beer Poisoning Case 70 

Bottles, To Cleanse 71 

Ballamt District Chemists’ Association . . . . 86 

Binge v. Berndt 10 

Blood Stains, Detection of 11 

Benevolent Asylum Inmates and the Dispenser 16 

Counter Practice, New Phase of 6 

Currie Powder 6 

Cremation . . 12 

Correspondence, 7, 16, 23,32, 38, 48, 60, 7i,S0, 87, 97 
Cod Liver Oil Emulsion— Wm. Gilmour . . 14 
Concentrated Fluid Extracts — Wm. Johnson . . 17 

Confectionery, Examination of 18 

Cork Tree, The 25 

Cold, How to Stop a 29 

Corks, Wooden 29 

Croosote as a Disinfectant 30 

Convalescence . . . . . . . . 30 

Convalescent Hotel Company . . . . . . 38 

Cement for Sealing Bottles 66 

Coating Copper with Iron 55 

Counter Practice in New South Wales . . . . 56 

Cod Liver Oil, The Production of, in Norway. . 60 
Chemists and Druggists’ Diary for 1880 . . 67 

Cinchona Alkaloids, How to Administer . . 69 
Cinchona Fibrefuge— Baron von MUeller X, 70 

Can a Chemist Prescribe ? 7.1 

Citric Acid, Impure 71 

Carbolic Acid a Deodoriser 71 

Cork, Corks, and Corkscrews— H. G. Glass- 

73, 89 

Chilblains, Remedy for 89 


PAGE 
.. 6 
.. 6 
.. 7 
.. 15 
.. 21 
.. 49 
.. 49 
.. 68 
.. 87 

.. 2 
.. 5 

.. 6 
.. 7 

.. 9 
.. 14 
.. 40 
67, 70 
.. 77 
.. 84 


Modified Examinations 
kMUeller, Baron von 
Medical Society of Victoria, Meetings of, 
Milk and the Health Committee . . 
Medical Defence Association 
Modified Examination Papers 
Milk Adulteration 

Morphia in Opium, Rapid Estimation of 
Myriogyne on the Genius . . 

Metric System in Medicine, The . . 
Medical Practitioners’ Statute, Breach 
Magnesia, Granular Citrate 
Milk, A New Test for Watered . . 
Mineral Gum 


PAGE 

Liquid Fire 65 

Lemons, About 55 

Lemonade, Analysis of 67 

Laboratory' Notes 71 

Lectures, &c 93, 94 

Lolium Temulentum— Graham Mitchell . . 97 


2, 27, 52 
.. 2 
8, 9, 18,57 
.. 3 
.. 10 
5, 32 
20, 79 
.. 22 
.. 28 
.. 33 
.. 37 
.. 69 
.. 67 
.. 81 


Diamond, Distinguishing the 
Dispensing Memorandum . . 

Dyspepsia, Treatment of . . 
Diphtheria, What to do in Cases of 
Duboisin, Sulphate of 
Deputation to Minister of Lands.. 
Donations to Benevolent Fund .. 
Detection of Strychnine 
Drugging of Animals Act 

Elementary Chemistry Lectures . . 
Elastic Crayons . * . . . . s 

Eucalyptus for Cold in the Head 
Eucalyptus Cigars 
Exhibition, The Sydney 
Examination in re J. Longstaff .. 
Ethyl Bromide, Preparation of . . 
Election of Pharmacy Board 
Exhibition, The Intercolonial Juvenile 
Exhibition Awards in Sydney 


Feeding Bottles, Infant 

Fruit Essences . . 22 

Formula 31, 38 

Flower Farming in South Australia . . .31 

Forestry and Forest Culture 61 

Fruit J uices, To Keep 65) 

Florida Water 80 

Fern Pictures, To Make 89 

Frosted Tin SK) 

Glass Cement . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Germ Theory ll 

Glycerine in Pills 74 

Glycerine J elly 80 

Glue, Liquid 81 

Gluten Flour for Diabetes 82 

Glycerine Cream . . . . 88 

Health Society’s Lectures 1, 18, 26 

Harness Soap . . . . . . » . . . . . . 6 

Hypodermic Injection of Ergotine . . . . 6 

Hydrocyanic Acid, Strength of- A. J. Owen .. 8 

Hiccough, Treatment of .. .. .. ..29 

Hospital Election . . . . . . . . 30 

Hard u. Soft Water . . . . . . . . . . 55 

Household Perils . . . . . . . . ' . . 72 

Hospital, A Paying 87 

Indiarubber 5 

In re Joseph Longstaff .. .. .. ..14 

Inquest on Dr. Eaton .. .. .. ..21 

Indigo Soluble 29 

Inauest on Mrs. Harrington .. .. ..40 

Inaustria Memoranda . . . . 73 

Iodide of Bismuth, A Simple Method of Pre- 
paring ..88 

Juvenile Exhibition at Sandhurst .. .. 5 

Juvenile Exhibition, The Intercolonial . . .. 77 

Keep Your Milk Cans Clean 11 

Laboratory Apparatus for Sulphuretted Hydro- 
gen— E. L. .Marks 21 

Loose Leech es .. ... .. .. ..21 

Legal and Magisterial . . 21, 30, 63, 71, 78, 95 


Man, Antiquity of .. .. .. ..81 

Meeting of Creditors of W. H. Ford .. ..84 

Miscellaneous Formula) 88 

Microscopical Society' of Victoria .. ..91 

My First Aquarium — C. A. Atkin . . . . 95 

Notes and Abstracts, 5, 11, 20, 28, 36, 48, 64, 60, 69, 

81, 86, 96 

New Insol v'ents .. .. .. ..38 

Notices of Books . . . . . . 28, 63 

Nitre, Sweet Spirits of . . . . . . . . 39 

Nitrogen, Preparation of Pure . . . . . . 65 

Obituary Notice J. S. Shcrrard .. .. ..7 

Oleate of Zinc .. .. •• ..11 • 

Orange Wine .. .. • • ..37 

Olive Oil, Manufacture of . . . .. ..98 

Preliminary Examinations. . - 3, 28, 52, 66, 78 


Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, 3, 11, 19, 27, 


34, 50, 68, 84, 92 

Pharmacy Board of Victoria, 3, 19, 29, 34, 43, 50 

57, 68, 84 

Prosecution of an Unregistered Chemist ^4, 5)6 
Preliminary Examination Papers 5, 32, 66 

Paste which will Adhere to any Substance .. 5 

Peuritus Pudendi . . • . - • .. Q 

Platinised Iron . . . . 6 

Pharmaceutical Education . 8 

Presentation to Mr. H. Shillinglaw .. ..18 

Popular Lectures, Fruits of . . . . . . 20 

Porous Plasters in Court .. - • • ..24 

Pharmacy Act in the States •• • ..25 

Petition to Parliament in re Duty on Drugs .. 26 
Patent Medicines, Duty on .. .. ..41 

Pharmaceutical Society, Annual Dinner of . . 43 
Poisons, Sale of, in India .. .. ..48 

Poisoned by Reuter’s Life Syrup . . . . 53 

Pharmacy Board, Election of .. .. 57,70 

Poisoned by Beer .. .. .. .. ..70 

Practical Receipts .. .. .. .. 72,82 

I Pharmaceutical Register for 1879 .. ..74 

j Phy sicians and Pharmacists ... .76 

j Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, Annual 
! Meeting of .. .. .. 70 



% 


* 











INDEX — ( Continued ). 


Prescribing Chemists 

FACE 

..78 

Pharmacy in New Zealand 

. . 83 

Pomatum, Transparent 

. . 83 

Paper, Water, Fire-proof .. 

. . 89 

Poisons, Selling, to Children 

..98 

Removal of Freckles 

. . 5 

Koval Society Conversazione 

. . 25 

I tats and Mice, To Poison .. 

. . 37 

Rust in Wheat — G. F. Chamberlin 

. . 88 

School of Mines, Ballarat . . . . 2 

12, 20, 31, 36 

Scientific Summary, 1,31, 37.44,51,5 

8, t'S, 79, 85, 93 

Syrup of Croton 


Salicvlic Acid . . 

.. 6 

Stamping Ink 

. . 20 

Sulphuric Acid, Anhydrous 

. . 20 

Studio Glue . . 


Starch Polish for Linen 

. . 29 

School of Mines, Sandhurst 36, 45, 

52, 59, 78, 85 


FAGK 


Summer Drinks .. .. .. .. ..40 

i Silver Plating Liquid .. .. .. ..45 

Sydney Exhibition, Victorian Exhibits at 47, 54 

j Sodium Benzoate .. 48 

; Sale, of Poisons in India .. .. .. 48 

1 Sydney International Exhibition, by a Peripa- 
i tetic Pharmacist .. .. .. .. 5:) 

! Spermaceti, To Powder . . . . . . • ■ 02 

' Soda, Benzoate of . . . . . . . . .09 

! Select Formula) .. .. . . .. 15, 80 

! Sanitas, a late Antiseptic . . . . . . .88 

j Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Apparatus for — E. 

L. Marks . . . . . . . * . . 13 

i 

j The Monk Inquiry . . . . . . . . . . 2 

| The Royal Institution .. .. .. .. 0 

I The Sydney Exhibition 9 

| Tariff, The New 17 

i Tooth Powder 28 

I Teeth, Action of Medicine on 29 


FAGE 


The Annual Dinner of the Pharm. Society .. 35 
The New Tariff . . . . . . 35 

j The Trade and the Tariff . . . . . . . . 44 

Tartaric Acid, New Test for . .. ..45 

The Chemistry of Agriculture, by R. W. E. 

Mac Ivor .. . .. .. .. ..53 

Tartrate of Lime in Cream of Tartar .. . . GO 

The Gas Question, by I>. C. Dallas .. . • 72 

Tea, Analysis of . . . 80 

The Drugging of Animals Act .. .. ..87 

Victorian Exhibits at the Sydney Exhibition . . 47 
Vaseline Ointment .. .. .. .. ..69 

Wall Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 

Water Test, Heisen’s .. .. .. ..20 

Water, Hard v. Soft . . .. . .. . 55 

; Wheys •• - - 80 

Wheat, Rust in — G. F. Chamberlin . . . . 88 

; Waterproofing of Leather 11, 88 












Allan’s Antifat. 

Allen’s Hair Restorer. 

Battley & Watts’ Liq. Opii, &c. 
Bishop’s Citrate of Magnesia. 
Bragg’s Charcoal Preparations. 
Bosisto’s Oil and Eucalyptus Pre- 
parations. 

Calvert’s Carbolic Acids. 

Churchill’s Syrups (Swann’s). 

Collis Browne’s Chlorodyne. 
Farina’s No. 4 Julich’s Platz Cologne. 
Farina’s No. 4711 Cologne and Soaps. 
Gallup’s Floriline. 

Gallup’s Mexican Hair Renewer. 
Gosnell & Co.’s Perfumery. 

Hall’s Balsam for the [Lungs. 


Hockin’s Preparations. 

Holman’s Liver Pad Company. 
Hunter’s Disinfectant. 

James’s Blister Ointment, Genuine. 
Dr. D. Jayne’s Medicines. 

G. B. Kent & Co.’s Brush ware. 
Maltine Co.’s Preparations. 

Moller’s Cod Liver Oil. 

Nestle’s Lacteous Farina. 

A. & F. Pear’s Perfumery and Soaps. 
Pepper’s Taraxacum and Podoph. 

and Sulpholine Lotion. 

Powell’s Balsam of Aniseed. 
Rigaud & Dusart’s and Grimault’s 
Preparations, Dusart’s Syrups, 
&c. 


Rowland & Sons’ Macassar and 
Perfumery. 

Row’s Embrocation and Josephson’s 
Ointment. 

Rossitter’s Hair Restorer. 

Savory and Moore’s Preparations. 
Schweitzer’s Cocoatina. 

Seabury & Johnson’s American 
Plaisters. 

Seigel’s Curative Syrup and Pills. 
Steedman’s Powders. 

Whelpton’s Pills. 

Whiffen’s Quinine, Strychnine, &c. 
Woodcock’s Wind Pills. 

Wright’s Coal Tar Preparations. 
Zoedone Company’s Zoedone. 


1/ 1/ ^ es*' ' 


[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] 


IT*/,. 1 -no /JUrcA. mi. 


WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 

(Published under direction of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria,) 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & C<? 

SH|oIcsaIe Jlntqgists & ||];mufactiiriitg Chemists, 

MELBOURNE. 


Stores anb Offices : 

31 AND 33 

FLINDERS LANE WEST. 

Comical Works anb 
^aboratorg : 

JEFFCOTT STREET, 

WEST MELBOURNE. 


;|nb anb^mmoma 
Works : 

INGLIS ST., SANDRIDGE. 


(Hass §offie Works: 

GRAHAM STREET, 

SOUTH MELBOURNE. 


WHOLESALE AGENTS IN VICTORIA FOR- 


-Kj- o r i Published on the 15tii 1 
INO. Ot). \ of every Month. $ 
Registered for Transmission as a Newspaper. 


MARCH, 1881. 


(■Subscription, 15s. per Annum, 
\ including Diary, Post Free. 


Printed and Published by Mason, Firth & M‘Cutcheon, 51 & 53 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne. 




V- 3. no. 3 r ; Si -89 C 


March, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


81 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 


Leading Article— 

The School of Pharmacy 81 

Meetings — 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 81 
The Pharmaceutical Society of New 

South Wales 82 

Sandhurst 82 

Scientific Summary 82 


PAGE 

In Memoriam— 

Prosper Vincent Ramel 83 

John Steniiouse, F.R.S 83 

Fire at St. Arnaud 83 

Personalities 84 

Notes on a hitherto Undefined Species 

of Encepiialartos 84 

Correspondence 85 


page 


Annual Cricket Match 85 

A New Method for Examination of Coffee 86 

Dust, Rain, and Fog 86 

Vapours for Inhalation 86 

Contributions to the Examination of Wine 86 

Melbourne International Exhibition 87 

Preparation of Olive Oil 87 

Notes and Abstracts 88 


©fje ©ftemtst antr Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

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Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer — not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


MARRIAGES. 

Blanche — Aughtie. — On the 5th March, at the Wesleyan Parsonage, Mel- 
bourne, by the Rev. W. L. _ Binks, Thomas William, eldest son of J. F. 
Blanche, teacher, Tullamarine, to Elizabeth Laura, eldest daughter of 
E. S. Aughtie, chemist, Yarrawonga. Home papers please copy. 

Stodd art— -Frith. — On the 9th March, at Upper Hawthorn, by the Rev. 
W. H. Fitchett, A. L. Stoddart, chemist, to Jennie, daughter of the late 
Joseph Frith, formerly of Geelong. 


THE SCHOOL OF PHARMACY. 

This month will be marked in the history of pharmacy in 
this colony as one of great event — namely, by the 
establishment of the School of Pharmacy in connection 
with the Technological Museum. The Pharmaceutical 
Society not having been successful in obtaining a grant 
of land for the purpose of erecting thereon a suitable 
building, with lecture -hall, laboratories, rooms for 
museums and offices, &c., and the Board of Pharmacy 
having likewise failed to induce the senate of the 
Melbourne University to establish a chair for pharmacy, 
it was proposed by a member of the Pharmacy Board 
to try to arrange with the trustees of the Technological 
Museum, who willingly gratified the wishes of the Phar- 
macy Board. The large lecture-hall, as well as the 
laboratories and apparatus, are available ; and efficient 
and experienced lecturers will be nominated by the Phar- 
macy Board, under whose guidance, in connection with 
the scientific superintendent of the Industrial and Tech- 
nological Museum, Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery, the institute 
will be carried on. 

The courses will comprise : — 

I. Elementary Chemistry , the introductory lectures 
of which will include the principal physical forces and 
chemical philosophy, and then the study of— first, the 
non-metallic elements and their combinations, inter se; 
second, the metallic elements and their more important 
combinations. Organic chemistry will be treated in 
connection with botany and materia medica. 


II. Practical Chemistry. — In this division the students 
will go through a full course of qualitative analysis, the 
preparation of reagents, &c. 

III. Botany. — The lectures on botany will comprise 
morphology, physiology, the proximate and ultimate 
constituents of plants ; the systems of Linnaeus, Jussieu, 
and de Candolle ; descriptions of officinal plants, and the 
diagnoses of the more important natural orders will be 
illustrated by living and dried specimens. 

IV. Materia Medica and Pharmacy will be treated 
under the following heads : — 

1. Organic materia mednca — vegetable. The study of the 
officinal substances derived from the vegetable kingdom. 

2. Organic materia medica — animal. The study of the 
officinal substances derived from the animal kingdom. 

3. Mineral materia medica. The study of the chemicals 
of the British Pharmacopoeia will include the preparation 
of them practically, and the testing of their purity and 
strength volumetrically and otherwise will be carried out. 

4. Pharmacy will comprise an explanation of the 
principles and laws upon which the operations of the 
British Pharmacopoeia, dispensing, &c., are based. 

A prospectus will at once be issued, with a full synopsis 
of the course of instruction and a syllabus of subjects for 
examination, and it is to be hoped that the council of the 
Pharmaceutical Society and others will offer prizes, and 
thereby render our new institute in its aspirations and 
design in every respect identical with that of the School 
of Pharmacy of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain. 


Mzzimqs. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The monthly meeting of the council was held at the rooms, No. 
4 Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins-street, on Friday, the 1st 
April, 1881. Present — Messrs. Blackett, Bowen, Gamble, 

Thomas, Swift, Huntsman, Francis, Baker, Jones, Hooper, 
Johnson, and Shillinglaw. 

The president, Mr. C. R. Blackett, in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Election of Office-bearers for the Year 1881. 

President. — Mr. Blackett said the next business to be 
proceeded with was the election of office-bearers for the year. 
The first on the list was the office of president, and he felt 
great pleasure in proposing Mr. William Bowen. The motion 
was seconded by Mr. William Johnson, and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Blackett — “ I have great pleasure in informing you that 
you have been unanimously elected to the honourable position 
of president of this society.” 

Mr. Blackett then vacated the chair, which was taken by 
Mr. Bowen, who said — “ Gentlemen, allow me to thank you 
very much for the honour you have conferred on me by elect- 
ing me your president. I must ask you to join me in expres- 
sing our most cordial thanks to the gentleman who has just 
retired from this chair for the manner in which he has filled 


82 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1881. 


the position during the last three years.” The vote was then 
put and carried unanimously, and Mr. Blackett briefly replied. 

Vice-President. — Mr. William Johnson proposed Mr. John 
T. Thomas as vice-president ; the motion was seconded and 
carried unanimously, Mr. Thomas duly returning thanks. 

Treasurer. — The office of treasurer was next on the list, and 
in proposing Mr. H. Gamble for that office, Mr. Blackett said 
ail the members must feel grateful to Mr. Gamble for the 
very efficient manner in which he had conserved the funds of 
the society. The motion was seconded by Mr. Bowen. Before 
the motion was put, Mr. Gamble said he desired to say a few 
words. He had now been treasurer for three years, and he 
thought that it might be desirable to allow some one else 
to take the position. 

Mr. Bowen said he believed the office of treasurer was one 
that should not be shifted from one person to another, Mr. 
Gamble had filled the position so ably that he trusted he 
would reconsider the matter and continue to act. Several 
other members followed Mr. Bowen, and urged Mr. Gamble to 
reconsider his decision. 

Mr. Gamble said he had no wish to complicate the affairs 
of the society, and as it appeared to be the wish of the council, 
he would accept the office. 

Secretary. — In proposing Mr. H. Shillinglaw as honorary 
secretary, Mr. Blackett said that it was unnecessary for him 
to refer to the very good service Mr. Shillinglaw had rendered 
to the society ; it was known to them all. 

Mr. Bowen seconded the motion, and in doing so said it 
gave him pleasure to fully endorse all Mr. Blackett had said 
of the admirable manner in which the duties had been carried 
out. 

Mr. Shillinglaw said he was in hopes that the council would 
not have again asked him to accept the position of secretary. 
There were many young members who, no doubt, would be 
glad to take the duties, with advantage to the society. He 
had held the position for three years, and he was pleased to 
find his efforts had been so highly appreciated. Still he 
thought a change was desirable ; but sooner than see the 
interests of the society suffer, he would continue the duties for 
another year. 

The motion was then put and carried unanimously. 

Correspondence. — A further letter was read from the presi- 
dent of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in refer- 
ence to the conference to be held in London in August next. 
The following letter was also received from Mr. Rivers 
Langton, resigning his position as one of the representatives 
of Victoria at the conference : — 

“ 16 Vaughan’s Chambers, 48 Queen-street, 

“ Melbourne, 31st March, 1881. 

“ Dear Sir — I must ask you to thank, on my behalf, the pre- 
sident and members of the council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Victoria for the great honour they have done me in 
nominating me as one of their representatives at the Pharma- 
ceutical Conference, to be held in London in August next, and 
to express to them my high appreciation of the compliment 
paid me. I am, however, to my great regret, compelled to 
forego the honour, as I find my business engagements will not 
permit of so speedy a return to London as I had at first anti- 
cipated. Under these circumstances I find it will be impos- 
sible for me to take any part in the approaching conference. 

I am exceedingly sorry I shall not have the opportunity of 
telling the chemists of Great Britain of the great and bound- 
less resources of your colony, and the large influence on 
pharmacy they must have in the future ; but on my return to 
London I shall be happy in any way I possibly can to recipro- 
cate the kindness shown me by the chemists of Australia dur- 
ing my visit to the colonies. — Believe me, very faithfully 
yours, “ Rivers Langton. 

“ H. Shillinglaw, Esq.” 

A communication was also read from Mr. R. J. Fulwood, 
Carlton, in reference to the recent election of the council 


complaining that he had received no proxy paper. The 
secretary was requested to refer Mr. Fulwood to Rule 21. 

New Member. — Mr. Edward Gilbert Quorn, South Australia, 
was nominated. 

Donations.— From Graves Aickin, Esq., Auckland, Trans- 

I i actions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute ; The 
Government of New South Wales, per Baron Ferd. von 
Miieller, K.C.M.G., Select Extra-Tropical Plants (New South 
Wales edition). No. 4 and 8, 1858 and 1860 ; Transactions of 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria , from J. C. Jones, 
Esq.; The Australian Medical Journal. The following publi- 
cations have also been received : — The Boston Journal of 
Chemistry , the American Journal of Pharmacy , the New 
York Druggists' Circular , Messrs. Langton, Edden, Hicks and 
Clark’s bi-monthly circular, the Chicago Pharmacist , the 
Pharmaceutical Journal. 

Financial and general business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES. 

The monthly meeting of the Pharmaceutical Council was 
held on the 1st March, at the society’s rooms, Phillip-street ; 
Mr. Senior, president, in the chair. There were also present 
Messrs. Row, Pratt, Guise, and Watt. The following were 
duly elected members of the society Messrs. H. W. 
Challinor, A. H. Melville, F. Wright, J. J. O’Reilly, A. 
Macleod, J. A. Rose, and H. H. Parsons. The secretary 
reported that the examiners (Messrs. Senior, Larmer, and 
Watt) had granted a certificate to Mr. A. J. Newling, of 
Yass, who had passed a very satisfactory examination. The 
examination of three others was postponed. The indentures 
of F. J. Thomas (to J. L. Barnett, of Inverell) were 
registered, and he was admitted as an associate. The usual 
correspondence was read, several accounts were passed, and 
the meeting closed. 


SANDHURST. 


SCHOOL OF MINES, SANDHURST. 

Under recent regulations of the Education Department 
examinations were held last Christmas in science subjects, 
the candidate for the Government certificate of qualification 
being teachers in State-schools. Amongst the students in 
chemistry, under Mr. E. L. Mark’s tuition, five teachers have 
most successfully passed, and this is gratifying, seeing that 
Mr. Marks has for over seven years held the position of lecturer 
on chemistry in Sandhurst, and that under his guidance such 
excellent results are possible. The papers set included sub- 
jects ranging over all included in Roscoe's Elements as far 
as organic chemistry. 


Scientific Summary. 


We cannot present to our readers anything very remarkable. 
There would seem to be a lull in discovery, but as the Inter- 
national Pharmaceutical Congress will meet in August, in all 
probability many workers are reserving their results. 

Dr. Squibb, at a meeting of the King’s County Pharmaceu- 
tical Society, drew attention to the varying quality of nux 
vomica seeds. The manufacturers of strychnia, it appears, buy 
up the best. Only the large silky seeds should be selected for 
making tincture and extract. While on this subject it is 
worth notice that according to some recent experiments by L. 
J. Morris and others, the active principle colchicia exists only 
in the skin of the seed, and that it is a waste of time to 
powder colchicum seeds. 

In Dr. Wallace’s paper in the Chemical News of 11th Feb- 
ruary he alludes to Dr. Anderson’s patent for the precipitation 
of the solid matter in sewage, in which sulphate of alumnia 
and lime are employed together with the best possible results. 


March, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


83 


According to the Pharmaceutical Journal , a valuable 
paper on the preparation of pepsine has been contributed 
by M. Petit, giving the results of a large number of com- 
parative experiments. He reports that, taking fresh pigs’ 
stomachs that have not undergone alteration, and using 
suitable precautions, he has succeeded in preparing pepsines 
capable of converting into albuminose one thousand times 
their weight of strongly died fibrin. Sheep’s stomachs yielded 
pepsine which was only one-tenth as active. It may be 
mentioned here that ostrich pepsine, which was vaunted to 
have a digestive power corresponding to the omnivorous 
reputation of the bird, as well as a preparation from the gizzard 
of the chicken, have been proved by the experiments of Mr. 
James to be practically destitute of the power of digestion. 

Dr. Sporer, of St. Petersburg, states that chloral in the solid 
state will relieve the most severe toothache in a few minutes, 
if a small piece wrapped in cotton wool is placed in the 
cavity of the tooth and allowed to dissolve. 

The results of some experiments upon the dialysis of ferric 
oxide dissolved in a solution of ferric chloride have been 
recently reported to the French Academy of Sciences by M. de 
la Source ( Nature , 25th November, p. 86). He represents “fer 
Bravais” by the formula 30Fe 2 O 3 *Fe 2 Cl 6 , and he states that 
after three months’ dialysis of a weak solution of this pre- 
paration the greater part of the chlorine had passed into the 
dialysate, and the proportion of ferric chloride had been 
reduced to one molecule to 116 of ferric oxide, the chlorine 
not even then having ceased to pass through. He is of 
opinion that under certain conditions ferric hydrate per se is 
soluble in water. 

It would appear that some physicians still order lig. ferric 
dialysat in combination with lig. arsentcalis, &c. It cannot be 
too much insisted on that lig. ferri dialysatic is best given 
alone or with a little glycerine. All alkaline or acid bodies 
have more or less a tendency to decompose iron in this form. 
Some recent experiments in France prove that oxide of iron 
in the colloid form is soluble in the stomach. 


In Mzmozwm. 


PROSPER VINCENT RAMEL. 

/, whose name is and will be forever associated with 
the successful planting of the eucalyptus in Europe and 
Algeria, is dead. This sad news was received by the last mail 
from Professor Baillou, the eminent botanist, who was one of 
the deceased gentleman’s most intimate friends. M. Ramel 
was in his seventy-fourth year. It is now many years since 
he resided in Australia, to which he was much attached. 
It was during his residence in this colony that the writer 
became acquainted with him ; a friendship, which has been 
terminated only by death, then sprang up. His last letter was 
dated 21st Sept., 1880, a few weeks before his death — a long 
and interesting letter, in which he descants with all his old 
enthusiasm upon the eucalyptus. He was also occupied with 
the idea of introducing the truffle into Australia, and had 
taken great trouble, in association with the late Mr. Edward 
Wilson (of the Argus) and Mons. Planchon, to make experi- 
ments and investigations, in order that this last desire of his 
life might be crowned with success.. Mr. E. Wilson’s death — 
which was a great blow to M. Ramel, and who entered warmly 
into the project — prevented the realisation of this important 
experiment in acclimatisation. In his last letter M. Ramel 
curiously said, in speaking of his health, “ Bien portant grace 
a V Eucalyptus Globulus ,” which was, in one form or another, 
his only medicine, and which he used daily. M. Ramel was 
the first to propound the opinion that i( La cause de la salubrite 
du Continent Australien ” was due to the eucalypts. He it 
was who, assisted by Baron von Mueller, caused these trees to 
be planted in Spain and Algeria, in which latter country he 
planted many thousands, under the auspices of the late 
Emperor Napoleon III.; he — to quote from the Paris corre- 
spondent of the Argus — “bent his whole thoughts upon the 
acclimatisation of ‘ his dear tree whole forests of eucalyptus 
now cover, thanks to him, the plains of Algiers.” For his 
services he was rewarded with the Cross of the Legion of 
Honour. He was a member of several scientific societies ; and 
we may apply to him the words, among the last sent to him 
by his friend, Mr. E. Wilson — 

“Though I shall be extinguished, yet shall rise 
Some other beacon from the spark I bore.” 

C. R. Blackett. 



JOHN STENHOUSE, F.R.S. 

On the last day of the old year passed away Dr. John Sten- 
house, F.R.S., in the seventy-second year of his age. He was 
a native of Glasgow, where he received his first education. 
Afterwards he was a pupil of Graham and Liebig, and became 
an unwearied investigator in the domain of organic chemistry, 
his studies being a labour of love to him. In the catalogue of 
scientific papers, published by the Royal Society up to the 
year 1871, no less than 64 papers are enumerated, written by 
him at different periods. He has contributed not a little to 
the progress of pharmaceutical knowledge, in recognition of 
which he was, in 1856, elected an honorary member of the 
Pharmaceutical Society. Aloin, oil of cinnamon leaf, thymol, 
from the seeds of Ptychotis ajowan, the crystalline deposit in 
essential oil of bitter almonds, and myroxocarpine, are a few 
of the substances he examined. Of the latter, a crystalline 
substance obtained from the white balsam of Peru, a specimen 
exists in the museum of the society. Dr. Stenhouse was a 
Royal Medallist of the Royal Society, LL.D. of Aberdeen, and 
one of the founders of the Chemical Society. On removing 
to London he was appointed lecturer on chemistry in St. 
Bartholomew’s Hospital. In 1865 he succeeded Dr. Hoffmann 
as non-resident assayer to the Royal Mint. Though labouring 
for many years past under severe physical suffering, yet he 
was not deterred from continuing his scientific investigations. 
In private life, as a Christian philosopher, as a stern denouncer 
of scientific humbug, and as a kind and sympathising friend, 
he is said by those who knew him best to have left behind 
him but few equals. — Pharmaceutical Journal. 


FIRE AT ST. ARNAUD. 

We extract from the St. Arnaud Mercury of the 30th March 
the following : — “ The inhabitants were startled from their 
slumbers at about half-past one o’clock yesterday morning by 
the alarm of fire being given through the medium of the fire- 
bell and the shouts of residents in Napier-street, and on pro- 
ceeding to the scene of the disaster it was discovered that the 
lower portion of the premises occupied by Mr. J. F. F. Grace, 
chemist, Napier-street, was in flames, in a manner similar to 
the fire which broke out in that establishment some three 
months ago. From what we can learn of the occurrence, it 
appears that a little before the hour named, Mr. F. Fearn, who 
had just left a rehearsal of the minstrel troupe held in a private 
dwelling, was proceeding down Napier-street on his way home, 
and when near the Rose, Shamrock, and Thistle Hotel, observed 
the reflection of a peculiar brilliant light in Mr. Grace’s 
window. On crossing over to see what it was, he observed 
that the shop was on fire, the flames appearing to come from 
under the window. Mr. Fearn at once gave the alarm, and 
with commendable promptitude ran across to the Rose, Sham- 
rock, and Thistle Hotel, knocked up the proprietress, and 
obtained a bucket. He then made an aperture in the window, 
and with the aid of some water running down the side-channel, 
made a desperate attempt to put the fire out, and had nearly 
succeeded in doing so, when it caught some explosive, and 
was thereby vigorously renewed. In the meantime the fire- 
bell was tolled, and Mr. Grace (who was in bed in the upper 
story) warned of his perilous position, shortly afterwards 
came down scantily dressed to endeavour to save his property. 
Meanwhile, the flames had rapidly spread, and the fire brigade 
and a crowd of spectators had put in an appearance. The 
brigade, though labouring under many difficulties through 
being short-handed and being compelled to carry on operations 
amidst darkness, rain, and mud, promptly had the hose to 
work, and quickly arrested the progress of the flames, the fire 
being extinguished in ten minutes after their arrival. The 
damage done was confined to the shop and stock, nothing else 
being injured. The origin of the fire is a mystery, Mr. Grace 
being in bed at the time of the occurrence, and the shop 
locked up some time previously apparently all secure. Strange 
to relate, although everything was insured, the reverse might 
have been the case, as Mr. Grace had only re-insured with the 
local agent the afternoon previous.” 


To Test House Drains,— In London house drains are 
tested by pouring in at the highest point of the pipes an 
emulsion of oil of peppermint and water, following this up 
with a couple of buckets of water to wash the emulsion 
through the drains. Should there be any leaks they can be 
located by the penetrating smell of the peppermint. The 
same system is, we believe, used in Boston. 


84 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1881. 


fn'Mttalitks. 


y; 


In re C. and A. E. Pulling, of Swanston-street, wholesale 
druggists, Messrs. Ecroyd, Danby and Gilmour, acting with 
the committee appointed at the meeting of creditors, invited 
tenders for the stock, &c., as per statement, in eight lots. 
The tenders were opened on the 5th April, and that of Messrs. 
Felton, Grimwade and Co., being the highest, was accepted. 
There were four tenders sent in. 

In re W. Tayler and Co., Sydney, an offer of 6s. 8d. in the 
pound has been made in this estate, which has been accepted 
by the creditors. 

Mr. W. H. Greeves, after nineteen years’ residence in 
Woodend, has left that district, having disposed of his business 
to Mr. Geo, Lorimer. Mr. Greeves goes to settle at Hobart, 
and carries with him the good wishes of a large number of 
friends. 

The business of Mr. W. Stephens, of High-street, St. Kilda, 
has been purchased by Mr. J. Brinsmead, also of High-street, 
St. Kilda. "We understand that Mr. Brinsmead will remove 
from his present premises to those lately occupied by Mr. 
Stephens. 

Mr. Edwin Sharpe, 96 Chapel-street, Prahran, has trans- 
ferred his business to Mr. F. G. Bennett, formerly of Ballarat. 

The handsome exhibit of the Crown Perfumery Company at 
the International Exhibition has been sold to Mr. William 
Bowen, Collins-street. 

Mr. Walter Rowley has just removed into his new premises, 
No. 10 Bourke-street West ; the shop, which is next door to 
the one formerly occupied by Mr. Rowley, is one of the hand- 
somest in Melbourne, and is most elegantly fitted up. 

Mr. Rivers Langton is at present in Melbourne. 

At last advice Mr. Thos. Lakeman was in New Zealand 
(Auckland). 

Mr. Forrest (Messrs. Sleeman’s, Lime-street, London) is at 
present in Melbourue. 

Messrs. Maw, Son and Thompson advise a representative on 
the way to the colonies. 

Messrs. Jones and Co., surgical instrument makers, 108 
Lonsdale-street, have just imported some of the best work- 
men from their London firm (Mathews Brothers, Carey-street, 
London), and are now in a position to make instruments of 
every description in Melbourne. 

Mr. Kempthorne (Messrs. Kempthorne, Prossor and Co.), 
Dunedin, has been in Melbourne ; he returned to New Zealand 
by the last steamer. 

We have received from Mr. E. Rowlands, 116 Collins- 
street, Melbourne, a sample of a new non-alcoholic beverage, 

“ Vigorine.” It is an elegant preparation, and will no doubt be 
much in demand in cases where alcoholic stimulants would be 
prejudicial. 


NOTES ON A HITHERTO UNDEFINED SPECIES OF 
/ ENCEPHALARTOS. 

(By Baron Feed, yon Mueller, K.C.M.G., M D , Ph D 
F.R.S.) ’’ 

Our International Exhibition, which is just drawing to a close, 
has shed on many products of nature, and on numerous works 
of art from various parts of the world, a “ flood of light,” 
which will . lead us on to multifarious new commercial 
and industrial efforts, while, simultaneously, we have gained 
much additional information on the capabilities and resources 
of the Australian colonies. 

Even among the living plants, which for decorative purposes 
were displayed, some features of interest occurred in the 
Exhibition, and thus attention will be drawn in these pages to 
a cycadeous plant of imposing aspect, which had a place in 
the Queensland court. 

The plant under, consideration belongs to the sub-generic 
group of Macrozamia, which only on geographic considerations 
can be kept apart from the older South African genus 
Encephalartos, inasmuch as merely the more or less pro- 
truding and pungent summits of the flower and fruit scales 
offer a distinction of Macrozamia in contrast to Encephalartos ; 
but this characteristic is so variable even in Australian specie^ 
that already more than twenty years ago (in the quarterly 
journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria II. 90), I 
combined the two genera. Indeed, it would be no strain on 
natural arrangement within the order of Cycadese to take 
back both Macrozamia and Encephalartos to the original 


Linnasan genus Zamia, because the restriction of the 
latter in modern sense rests solely on a distinct articulation 
between the leaf-rachis and the leaflets ; for even if the 
entire absence of woody fibres in the medulla of the stem of 
all American Zamias could be proved, that character alone 
would not be of generic value, while in the very species of 
Encephalartos now to be brought under notice the aged 
leaflets secede on their own accord from the rachis, tardily, 
it is true, yet at least some of them perfectly as in Zamia 
proper, leaving a distinct cicatrix at the point of insertion. 
Nor could a mere geographic limitation of Zamia be main- 
tained when in the order of nearest alliance, that of Coniferae, 
we have Arancaria represented as well in South America as in 
East Australia and the adjoining islands, Libocedrus in West 
America, South Asia, and New Zealand, and Fitzroya in Chili 
and Tasmania, not to speak of the occurrence of Cypresses, 
Tuxus, and Juniperusin all the lands around the northern hemi- 
sphere, and of Pinus from the Sunda Islands westward to 
California, nor to mention the dispersion of Podocarpus to all 
the great divisions of the globe except Europe, and the 
occurrence of Callitris in North and South Africa as well as 
Australia. 

Alphonse de Candolle’s suggestion (Prodromus XVI., II., 
534) of reducing Bowenia to Encephalartos, as originating, 
but on other grounds from my own writings (fragment a V. 
171), because the leaf division is as variable in Clematis, 
Ranunculus, Aralia, Begonia, Manihot, &c., as it would be in 
Encephalartos if Bowenia were added, is not applicable, inas- 
much as comparisons of this kind could only be instituted in 
orders of close affinity, otherwise the characteristic of 
invariably opposite leaves in the vast order of Rubiaceas or 
the constantly quartering division of the flowers in the large 
order of Proteaceas would at once become invalidated. 

Whether the new cycadeous plant is placed into Zamia or 
Encephalartos or Macrozamia will depend on the individual 
view of any observer, as all genera are mere artificial groups 
to facilitate classification, and aid memory, while species in 
their true sense are originally created beings, which when 
perished, as has already been the case with many of them in 
St. Helena and some other places on the earth’s surface, can 
by all our human efforts not be restored, but would require 
the godly might as much for their restoration as they did for 
their origination. 

The species to be defined now is not altogether new, but 
was much misunderstood, it being mixed from imperfect 
material in the Flora Australiensis (VI. 253) with Macro- 
zamia Miquelii ; but the last mentioned plant as originally 
described from specimens obtained at the Richmond River is 
very closely akin to M. spiralis, which differs from the stately 
species exhibited in the Queensland Exhibition court in its 
very short stem, smaller and twisted leaves, longer leaf- 
stalks, narrower and above convex rachis, lax and very 
spreading and less pungent leaflets, which do not regularly 
approach nor partly overlap each other, in the lower leaflets 
a -*sing nearly as long as the middle ones, in smaller fruit cones 
on comparatively longer stalks, and in the middle and upper 
anther-scales being more suddenly contracted into a shorter 
point. Indeed, the true M. Miquelii is identical with the 
M. Corallipes, more recently published by Sir Joseph Hooker 
in his Botanical Magazine , t. 5943. 

The undescribed species which I wish to name in honour of 
Mr. Charles Moore, who cultivates it in the Sydney Botanic 
Garden, and who first drew attention to some of its charac- 
teristics, may be recognised by the following diagnosis : — 
Macrozamia Moorei. — Tall, glabroiis, leaf-stalks very 
short, younger leaves but very slightly twisted, older leaves 
straight , elongated, rachis very rigid above, almost flat towards 
the base, dilated, leaflets but little spreading , very numerous, 
all closely approximated, regularly distichous, very stiff, opaque, 
flat, very finely nerved, sharply pungent at the apex, lower 
leaflets regularly and gradually diminishing in length , the 
lowest successively, very short, and ultimately almost toothlike ; 
male cone rather long ellipsoid (cylindric), antheriferous scales 
rhomboid (wedgeshaped), the lower pointless, those towards 
the middle of the cone short pointed, the upper antheriferous 
scales longer and gradually acuminated, fruit-cone very large, 
elongated, lower fruit-scales pointless, those towards the 
middle of the cone terminating in an acumen of about half 
the length of the diameter of the lamina, those towards the 
summit of the fruit ending in an acumen almost as long as the 
lamina. 

With certainty known from the mountainous regions of 
Queensland at the verge of the tropics. 


March, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


85 


It remains to be added that the interest attached to this 
species rests not merely on its stateliness for scenic purposes 
in horticulture, its stem (like the trunk of its congeners) con- 
taining a peculiar starch, though garden traffic ought to hold 
this Zamia too valuable to be sacrificed for technical pur- 
poses ; but the acrid principle which pervades these plants, 
and especially the alluring fruits, is so intense that fatal 
poison cases have actually occurred in these colonies from 
consuming Zamia fruits without maceration and baking, yet 
the peculiar principle of acridity has never been chemically 
ascertained, and thus awaits, perhaps for important thera- 
peutic purposes, careful elucidation. 




To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — As there are two sides to every question, so there are 
two ways of looking at facts. And I am sure your corre- 
spondent in last month’s issue, “ Sensus Communis,” will not 
find fault with a brother pharmacist because he may not have 
common-sense enough to see things in exactly the same light 
as he does. No doubt there is enough of the patent medicine 
trade in the world just now ; so there has been, and ever will 
be, whilst the orb goes round ; but that we, as a body of reason- 
able men, have any cause to grumble because certain persons 
take the trouble to place on the cover of a neatly got up 
almanac, or on the back of a pretty picture card, our name, 
without first consulting us, I fail to see. Nor do I think that 
the mere fact of our names appearing thereon makes us god- 
fathers to the preparation, whatever it may be ; and if it be 
intended (as I think it is) to give purchasers some idea of 
where the genuine article may be procured, instead of allowing 
them to seek it at the nearest huckster’s shop, my opinion is 
that, so far from complaining, we have reason to be thankful 
that the transaction was so directed. 

Patent medicines will be in demand, and quack pills and 
powders swallowed, as long as time endures. And if by the 
use of my humble name the traffic in them can be diverted 
from the contact of cheese, butter, eggs, and treacle to the 
counter of the qualified chemist, Drs. Jayne, Ayer, Holloway, 
and the rest are quite welcome to use it. — I am, sir, your 
obedient servant, Nostrum. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist, 

Sir— -As an attendant at the late annual meeting, I was much 
gratified at not only seeing so influential and numerous an 
assembly, but also at the tone of thought and unanimity 
regarding the business of the society. Of course, there was 
the usual spluttering of a pigmy volcano from simply a mis- 
conception of a few details which were effectually illuminated 
by explanation, and regarding which at future meetings I 
would like to offer a suggestion to metropolitan members 
that, if followed, would, I think, to some extent check that 
carping spirit which is so apt to germinate feelings of an 
unfavourable character, and with suitable soil make such 
rapid growth, for 

Small herbs have grace ; 

Great weeds do grow apace. 

To those desirous of advancing the interests of the society, 
and who take a vital interest in its concerns, and therefore 
are its most valued members, being at times placed in a 
decided disadvantage to other “ go-as-you-please,” lukewarm 
members, who are mere subscribing, but otherwise dis- 
interested, adherents, my suggestion is that as the society’s 
office is so centrally situated, and the courtesy of our 
able honorary secretary so proverbial, that the annual 
accounts and report . being praiseworthily circulated ante- 
cedent to the meeting, it would be politic for residents 
in and near Melbourne feeling a proper interest in its?, 
affairs, and desiring further information or details regard- 
ing the council’s statements than appear in its report, 
to wait on the honorary secretary, before the meeting, to 
obtain any explanation that may be deemed necessary, and 
which, if unexplained or thought unsatisfactory, could then 
at the meeting be better dealt with, I venture to believe, than 
by reserving all such inquiries, with all details, till the meeting 


actually takes place. Such a procedure as I suggest would 
effectually sift out all but those matters in which the general 
body of members would feel an interest in hearing discussed, 
and the introduction and importance of which would be con- 
sidered by all as desirable and praiseworthy. An honorary 
council should not, I take it, be questioned at a public meeting 
on unimportant matters of detail, as it retards progress, and is 
apt to engender an undesirable and unamiable spirit, oftimes 
affecting and lasting during the continuance of the meeting. 
But where reason and common-sense points to errors or mis- 
direction, I say impugn the ruling authorities in scorn of 
consequence. 

The council should, I think, take into their earliest con- 
sideration the advisability of making strenuous exertions for 
augmenting the number of its members. Surely a direct 
appeal by circular, enumerating the advantages to be per- 
sonally derived from joining, and the obligations of every 
pharmacist to swell the ranks, and thus add to the welfare 
of the society, would be sure to, on some, have the desired 
effect ; this, with the creditable and pleasing esprit de 
corps evinced by the heads of our wholesale houses, who, 
on proper representation, I feel, would allow their repre- 
sentatives to interest themselves in furthering the coun- 
cil’s views, who, in turn, would communicate direct to 
the honorary secretary the views of these gentlemen, to 
whom they had introduced the question, so that in time the 
council could state that almost every registered pharmacist had 
been personally asked “ to do his duty” to himself to 
advance and protect pharmacy throughout the whole of Aus- 
tralasia, and to assist and nourish a young and promising 
child of science and trade, so that its constitution may be 
built up a credit to those who nobly father it now and to those 
who may hereafter take our places in the rank and file of 
pharmacy. 

It is now many years since a determined effort was made to 
secure to all more freedom from the present unnecessary 
number of hours (of slavery) to business ; and, as our worthy 
president alluded to it in his apt address, will our new council 
again see what may be done in this direction ? — Yours, &c., 

Henricus. 


ANNUAL CRICKET MATCH. 

The annual match between the wholesale and retail chemists 
was played on the Melbourne ground on Thursday, 7th April, 
and resulted, after a very close and exciting finish, in a victory 
for the retail by two runs. There was a good attendance, and 
some interest was manifested in the match. Mr. J. Hemmons 
acted for the wholesale as umpire. The following are the 
respective scores 


Wholesale. 

Treadaway, b Ross o 

Lyons (captain), b Ross 30 

Jenkinson, b Ross 21 

Coates, st Wade, b Strutt ! .* 16 

Duff, b Ross 8 

Court, b Ross o 

Floyd, b Ross o 

Moss, c Barnard, b Lewis l 

Cherry, b Lewis o 

Anderson, b Ross o 

Fripp, not out o 

Byes i 

Leg-byes 5 

Total 82 


Bowling Analysis. — Ross, 66 balls, 31 runs, 7 wickets ; Lewis, 42 balls, 
20 runs, 2 wickets ; M‘Kie, 18 balls, 10 runs ; Strutt, 18 balls, 15 runs, 1 
wicket. 


Retail. 


Hope, b Floyd 13 

M‘Kie, b Treadaway 1 

Lewis, b Floyd 0 

Strutt, b Treadaway n 

Ross (captain), b Moss 13 

Barnard, run out 7 

Cunningham, b Floyd 18 

Atkin, c Lyons, b Treadaway 

Wade, b Treadaway 

Baker, b Floyd . . ! 16 

Cunningham, not out 

Byes ’ ’ 2 


Total 


.. 84 


Bowling Analysis. —Treadaway, 72 balls, 31 runs, 4 wickets; Floyd, 54 
balls, 20 runs, 4 wickets ; Moss, 18 balls, 9 runs, 1 wicket; Jenkinson, 12 
balls, 18 runs ; Lyons, 12 balls, 6 runs. 


In the second innings the wholesale lost eight wickets for 
105, Treadaway (60) and Moss (22) being the highest scorers. 


86 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1881. 


A NEW METHOD FOR THE EXAMINATION OF 
COFFEE. 

(By F. M. Rimmington.) 

I think it will be generally admitted that the methods in use 
for estimating the degree of adulteration in coffee are far from 
satisfactory as regards definiteness and certainty, and that 
something approaching nearer to chemical accuracy is very de- 
sirable. Little has been done in this direction since the days 
of the Lancet Sanitory Commission. 

It may, possibly, not be generally known to analysts that 
chicory, dandelion, and probably some other substances that 
are used for mixing with coffee, are readily deprived of colour 
by a weak solution of chloride of ’ lime (hypochlorite), and 
that this agent has very little action on the coffee. When this 
method is adopted a portion of the coffee should be gently 
boiled a short time in water with a little carbonate of soda, so 
as to move extractive as much as possible ; after subsidence 
the liquor should be poured off, and the residue washed with 
distilled water. When this has been sufficiently done, a weak 
solution of the hypochlorite of lime is to be added and allowed 
to remain, with occasional stirring, until decoloration has taken 
place, which will be probably in two or three hours. The coffee 
will then form a dark stratum at the bottom of the glass, and 
the chicory a light and almost white stratum floating above it, 
and showing a clear and sharp line of separation. 

The chicory after this operation is in the very best condition 
for microscopical examination, and it is not difficult to dis- 
criminate between chicory, dandelion, or other substances. 
Although the lower stratum may be dark, and have all the ap- 
pearance of coffee, other substances may be present and should 
be sought for. I have recently met with a substance that is 
entirely new to me, as a coffee substitute, that is not affected 
by this treatment. — Pharmaceutical Journal. 


DUST, RAIN, ;AND FOG. 

At a meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, an 
important paper was read on “Dust, Rain, and Fog,” 
by Mr. John Aitken, of Falkirk. The communication 
was very interesting, and was illustrated by a number of 
successful and conclusive experiments. Mr. Aitken’s results 
may be briefly summarised as follows : — A vapour does not 
condense under ordinary circumstances when cooled below its 
boiling point, except on a free surface ; that is to say, that if 
steam, for instance, be blown into a receiver filled with 
ordinary air, a white cloud is immediately formed by the 
condensation of the vapour on the innumerable particles of 
dust ; but if a jet of steam be blown into a receiver filled 
with air, which has been filtered through cotton- wool, no cloud 
is observed. The same fact was demonstrated by means of 
another experiment. A large inverted flask was fitted with a 
cork, through which passed a tube, communicating with the 
air-pump. Over the interior surface of the cork was placed a 
little water. When the flask was filled with filtered air no 
effect was produced by exhausting with the pump ; while with 
the flask filled with ordinary air a cloudiness was immediately 
apparent, which increased in density when the working of the 
air-pump was continued. By using a flask containing air not 
perfectly free from dust, an effect resembling a shower of rain in 
minute drops was produced on rapidly withdrawing a portion 
of the air. Among other things, it was shown that the fumes 
of burning sulphur (sulphuric acid will not do) have a power- 
ful effect in producing fog. Into a receiver in which a grain 
of sulphur had been burned, a jet of steam was blown. This 
instantly caused a dense fog, through which nothing could be 
seen, and which continued to fill the receiver for a much 
longer time than if the atmosphere had simply consisted of 
unfiltered air. 

From these and other observations which Mr. Aitken has 
made, he concludes that if the air were free from dust we 
should have no clouds, rain, or fogs ; but that the excessive 
moisture would slowly condense on the surface of the earth, 
on the trees and houses, keeping them constantly wet. He is 
also of opinion that the large amount of sulphur which is daily 
burned in the coal fires in London, is a principal factor in the 
production of the “ pea-soupy” fogs for which that city is 
famous .—-Pharmaceutical Journal . 


The French Government has allotted to M. Pasteur the sum 
of 50,000 francs for the purpose of enabling him to carry out 
his researches on the contagious diseases of animals. 


VAPOURS FOR INHALATION. 

The following are selected by the Monthly Magazine of 
Pharmacy from the formulas used at the Hospital for Di- 
seases of the Throat in London : — 


Vapour Caryophylli. 


Oil of cloves 

30 minims. 

Light carbonate of magnesia ... 

15 grains. 

Water 

3 ounces. 

Vapour Casslze. 


Oil of cassia 

20 minims. 

Light carbonate of magnesia 

10 grains. 

Water 

3 ounces. 

Vapour Cinnamon i. 


Oil of cinnamon ... 

20 minims. 

Light carbonate of magnesia 

10 grains. 

Water 

3 ounces. 

Vapour Creosoti. 


Beech wood creosote 

3 drachms. 

Glycerine 

3 „ 

Water 

3 ounces. 

Vapour Cubebje. 


Oil of cubebs 

2 drachms. 

Light carbonate of magnesia 

60 grains. 

Water 

3 ounces. 

Useful in laryngorrhoea. 


Vapour CuBEBiE c. Limone. 


Oil of cubebs 

lli drachms. 


„ lemon ... ... ... \ drachm. 

Light carbonate of magnesia *. 60 grains. 

Water ... ' ... ... ... ... ... 3 ounces. 


The oil of lemon is added to mask the disagreeable odour of 
the cubebs. 

A teaspoonful to be added to a pint of water at the desired 
temperature, 150° F., and an additional teaspoonful to be 
added every five minutes during the time that the inhalation 
is used. Not more than three teaspoonfuls to be used on any 
single occasion. 


CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE EXAMINATION OF WINE, 
(By V. Wartha.) 

1 . Detection of Magenta in Red Wines. 

In all judicial cases the following should be applied in suc- 
cession : — 

a. The Magnesia Test. — 20 c.c. of the wine are mixed in a 
large test-tube with excess of calcined magnesia. After well 
shaking there is added 1 c.c. of a mixture of equal parts 
colourless amylic alcohol and ether ; the whole is well shaken 
and allowed to stand for some time. 1 m.grm. magenta in 1 
litre of wine may be detected by a rose colouration of the 
supernatant stratum. In stongly coloured southern wines 
faint reactions are often masked by a yellowish or light 
brownish colouring-matter. 

b. The Sugar of Lead Test. — 20 c.c. of wine are mixed with 
10 c.c sub-acetate of lead of officinal strength, and the mix- 
ture after being well shaken is filtered into a perfectly dry 
test-tube. If moderately large quantities of magenta are 
present they will be detected by the paler or deeper rose 
colour of the filtrate. But even if it appears perfectly colour- 
less or yellowish, small quantities of magenta or aniline-violet 
may be present ; 1 c.c. of the above-mentioned mixture of 
amylic alcohol and ether is therefore added ; the tube shaken 
up, and then allowed to stand for some time. If held against 
a white background very small quantities of magenta may be 
recognised in the upper stratum. 

c. The Ether Test. — If the sample has given strong reactions 
with a and b, concentration is not necessary. If the reactions 
were slight, from 150 to 200 c.c. of the wine are evaporated 
down to one-third to one-fifth of its original volume in a silver 
capsule, which should have been slightly ignited previously. 
The concentration is effected over an open flame as rapidly as 
possible, and the residue while still warm is poured into a 
stoppered glass cylinder, which should previously be washed 
with concentrated nitric acid and rinsed with pure water. 
The wine is mixed with an excess of pure ammonia, 30 to 
40 c.c. pure ether are added, the cylinder is stoppered, and 
shaken carefully to prevent the formation of an emulsion. 
The clear ethereal stratum is then filtered through a clean dry 
filter into a perfectly clean porcelain capsule having glazed 
edges. One or two threads of clean knitting- wool, 3 to 4 c.m. 
long, which should have been previously washed and dried, 
are laid in the colourless ether, which is allowed to evaporate 


March, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


87 


in a warm "place. The wool takes a colour which may vary, 
according to the proportion of the magenta, from a faint rose 
to a red. One of the threads is then reserved in a tube, whilst 
the other is cut in two, the one half moistened with hydro- 
chloric acid, and the other with ammonia. In both these the 
red colour should change to a yellowish. If aniline- violet 
was present the threads will turn to a green. If the wine was 
pure, however deep the colour, the wool remains white. Par- 
ticular care must be taken that the ammonia employed con- 
tains no traces of organic colouring-matters. 

2. Detection of Sulphurous Acid in Wines. 

About 50 c.c. of the sample are placed in a small distilling 
flask, the lateral exit-tube of which projects into a test-tube 
cooled with moistened filter-paper. The wine is kept at a 
gentle boil till 2 c.c. have distilled over. The test-tube is 
taken off and a few drops of a neutral solution of silver nitrate 
are added. If even traces of sulphurous acid were present the 
liquid becomes opalescent or a white curdy precipitate of 
silver sulphite is formed, which is distinguished from silver 
chloride by its solubility in nitric acid. The distillate also 
reduces mercurous nitrate and decolourises starch iodide and 
weak solution of potassium permanganate. — Bcrichte der 
Deut. Chem. G e sells c haft zu Berlin^ No. 6, 1880. 


MELBOURNE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 

( Continued from page 56.) 

Italy. — A. Aguglione and Co., Turin, elixir. G. Baroni, 
Modena, mineral waters, &c. N. C. Bosisio, Milan, 12 bottles 
of elixir. T. H. Bradley, Florence, aquafortis. L. Bronehelli, 
Pisa, 24 bottles of alimentary pastiles. G. Cantomuso, 
Vicenza, castor oil. L. Ciosi, Florence, linseed oil and soaps. 
Annibale Collina, Bologne, elixir “ Persiano.” G. Controni, 
Lucca, various bottles of chemical products. G. Curato, Naples, 
chemical products. F. de Amezaga, Genoa, samples of ceruse. 
M. de Gioja, Bari, six bottles of tonic, first quality. De 
Pasquale Brothers and Co., Messina, orange, lemon, and 
bergamot essences. D. Fiore Franchini, Trani, elixir “ Fiore 
Franchini.” G. Guiffrido and Scotta, Catania, almond and 
castor oils, flour of mustard. Impresa Publici Macelli, 
Florence, glue, albumen of blood, first and second quality. 
Prof. P. Leonardi, Venice, medicinal gelatine. Guiseppe 
Luciano, Turin, essence of mint. G. Malvezzi, Venice, gum 
made of starch. Ceresina Manufactory, Treviso, samples 
“ Ceresina.” Massa, Solari and Co. , Genoa, albumen of blood. 
B. Morelli, Bari, specialty in medicine. A. Mueller, Messina, 
various essences. G. Oates and Co., Messina, samples of lemon 
and bergamot essences. G. Parenti, Siena, chemical products. 
Spadaro Cav. Placido, Catania, samples of chemical products. 
Radusa Brothers, Catania, chemical products. C. Rizzuto and 
Co., Reg. Calabria, orange and lemon essences, &c. Pilade 
Rossi, Brescia, medicinal waters and chemical products. Cav. 
Prof. Zinoro Silvestro, Naples, chemical products. G. Tiber- 
nacolo, Bari, hair restorer. 

Great Britain. — Burgoyne, Burbidges, Cyriax and Farries, 
Coleman-street, London, drugs, chemicals, pharmaceutical pre- 
parations. W. J. Bush and Co., Artillery-lane, Bishopsgate 
(works : Ash Grove, Hackney, London), essential oils, fruit 
essences, granulated citrate of magnesia, chemical and pharma- 
ceutical preparations, harmless vegetable colours for confection- 
ery purposes, white lead, dry and ground colours, metallic oxide 
paints, perfumery, toilet soap. F. C. Calvert and Co., 
Manchester, pure carbolic acid, preparations thereof for dis- 
infecting and agricultural purposes. J. Chambers and Co., 
132 Fenchurch-street, London, chemicals, drugs, colours, 
varnishes. Chassaing, Guenon' and Co., Southwark-street, 
London, pepsine wine and medicinal preparations. Chip- 
penham Annatto Works, liquid annatto. Corby n, Stacey, 
and Company, 300 High Holborn, London, pharmaceutical 
preparations. Day, Son and Hewitt, 22 Dorset-street, 
Baker-street, London, horse, cattle, and sheep medicines. 
E. Grillon, Wool Exchange, Coleman-street, London 
and Paris, “Tamar Indien ” lozenges. Herrings and 
Co., 40 Aldersgate- street, London, pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions, essential oils, &c. F. Hitchins, Chippenham, annatto, 
Hockin, Wilson and Co., 38 Duke-street, Manchester-square, 
London, seidlitz powders. Home and Colonial Sanitary Co., 
Dunstable, and Pownall-road, Dalston, London, antozone and 
carbolic disinfectants. Dr. J. Lelievre, 49 Southwark-street, 
London, and Paris, Iceland moss poultices, with india-rubber 
covering. M. Neustadt and Co., 25 Mincing-lane, London, 
chemicals used in pharmacy and photography, aniline 


dyes, &c. W. Nichols and Co., England, third annatto. 
Maltine Manufacturing Company, 92 and 93 Great Russell- 
street, and Bloomsbury-mansions, Hart-street, Bloomsbury, 
London, W.C., maltine food and pharmaceutical preparations. 
John Richardson and Co., 10 Friar-lane, Leicester, pure 
chemicals ; pharmaceutical preparations ; cod liver oil emul- 
sions ; colonists medicine chests ; pocket pharmacies, &c. Price’s 
Patent Candle Company, Limited, Belmont Works, Battersea, 
London, stearine, composite, and paraffine candles ; night 
lights, glycerine, toilet soaps, household soap, soap mixture, 
machinery oils. Wheeler and Co., Southend-on-Sea, and 40 
Aldersgate-street, London, Wenham’s lime-juice saline, and 
“chalybeate.” Thomas Whiffen, Lombard-road, Battersea, 
London, pharmaceutical preparations ; quinine sulphate and 
other quinine salts ; bark. JRigollot and Co., 49 Southwark- 
street, London, mustard leaves. T. and H. Smith and Co., 31 
Duke-street, Edinburgh, and 12 Worship-street, London, salts 
of morphia ; strychnine, and its salts. Southall Brothers, and 
Barclay, Birmingham, cod liver oil ; drugs and powdered 
drugs ; surgical dressings ; the “ aquarium” sea salt. 


PREPARATION OF OLIVE OIL. 

M. Planchon has made sundry practical experiments on the 
yield of olive oil. There is an old custom, followed in all 
olive-producing countries, of placing the olives in heaps 
directly after gathering, to induce fermentation. This method 
is adopted in Spain, Greece, Syria, and in Provence ; indeed, 
it is universal. 

The question comes — Is this an ancient prejudice or an 
empirical rule-of-thumb proceeding ; or is it really a method 
based upon judicious observation of results? We should at 
once have been inclined to vote for the wisdom of the old 
practice, for we believe in traditional experience, though a 
later and more exact chemistry has not guided its handiwork. 
Whether right or wrong, the fixed theory has been held that 
olives which have undergone a sort of fermentation give a 
better yield of oil. 

M. Planchon endeavoured to clear up the matter, and to 
discover whether the increased yield was due to mechanical 
disintregation, which would afford facility of escape to the 
fluid, or whether some more potent chemical agency might not 
be in question. All fermentation depends upon some living 
being which decomposes and transforms the substances with 
which it comes in contact ; thus some transforms sugar into 
alcohol, which in turn is seized up by the mycoderma aceti to 
be changed into vinegar. May not an analogous action be set 
up in the partial fermentation of the olive ? 

In order to arrive at a conclusion, M. Planchon collected 
some olives by his own hand, from the same tree and at the 
same hour. 

These were divided into four lots. The first, reduced to a 
pulp, dried over the water-bath, and thoroughly washed with 
sulphuret of carbon. The second was wrapped in paper, 
separated from each other, and so left without any fear 
of fermentation. The third and fourth lots were bottled 
and heated in a stove from 20 deg. to 25 deg. Those 
exposed to the air never showed a trace of vegetation. 
After 8, 15, 30, and 40 days the proportion of obtainable 
oil remained always constant. The bottled olives speedily 
became covered with green mould, which under the micro- 
scope had a close resemblance to a penicillium. In about 
15 or 30 days they exhaled an excellent odour of olive 
oil, and invariably gave 3 or 4 per cent, more oil than the 
preceding. But the same olives kept in bottle for two months 
and a half lost from 5 to 6 per cent of their original oil. The 
odour was disagreeable, and the vegetation on the surface 
yellow. 

Should this augmentation of oil be attributed to the develop- 
ment of vegetable growth, or to the germs of a ferment which 
many think pre-exist in all fruits ? In all the experiments of 
the author he had never observed any augmentation apart 
from fermentation ; and, when the olives were as usual 
exposed to stove-heat, previously having been dusted over 
with borate of soda to prevent the development of the my co- 
derm, the proportion of oil neither diminished nor increased. 
No advantage was found to be gained from operating on 
perfectly ripe olives ; they gave no better yield than that 
obtained from immature fruits. 

From all this, M. Planchon was inclined to believe that the 
heaping of the olives together after gathering, in order to 
induce fermentation, and thereby to promote the yield of oil, 
was not a vulgar prejudice. Secondly, that this fermentation 


88 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1881, 


should not be continued too long, else the yield will be 
diminished. Thirdly, that the transformation of part of the 
pericarp into oil was due to the development of a mycoderm 
of the germs penicillium on the surface of the olive. 

Lastly, the author refrains from giving practical directions 
about the manner of treating the olives for commercial purposes, 
assuring the reader that each olive proprietor will be sure to 
adopt such methods as will best suit his individual wants. — 
Sleeman's Circular. _ 

ftotes anb Abstracts. 


According to the Boston Herald , an establishment for the 
manufacture of “ bogus diplomas” has been discovered in that 
city. It is supposed to have manufactured about one hundred 
doctors, at prices varying from 100 to 145 dollars each. 

An eminent physician of Dublin, referring to “ those erratic 
medical hybrids, the lady doctors,” very justly remarks — 
“ There are some masculine woman just as there are some 
effeminate men. Neither are good types of their kind ; and 
it needs no serious argument to prove the futility of any 
attempt founded on such exceptional cases, on the part of 
either sex, to fill the place and assume the functions of the 
other.” — Journal of Science. 

When Scientists Ought to be Killed.— Professor 
Huxley says he has long entertained the conviction that any 
man who has taken an active part in science should be 
strangled at sixty. In his experience ninety-nine men out of 
every hundred become simply obstructionists after that age, 
and not flexible enough to yield to the advance of new ideas. 
They are, in short, “ old fogies,” and he thinks the world 
would be benefited by the operation he suggests. It may be 
interesting to note, by the way, that the learned professor 
himself is fifty-five. 

Castor Oil applied Externally— Mr. M‘Nicoll and 
Dr. Hilliard (British Medical Journal ) both report that they 
have found purgative results follow the inunction of castor oil. 
The latter says — “ I have frequently applied castor oil to the 
abdomen, under spongiopiline, or other waterproof material, 
in cases where the usual way of administering by the mouth 
seemed undesirable, and with the happiest results. Within 
the last few days, in a case of typhoid fever, I applied half- 
an-ounce of castor oil in this manner, under a hot- water 
fomentation, which relieved the constipation and tympanitic 
distention that had been present, without undue purging or 
irritation of the bowels.” 

Detection of Iodine in Bromine and Metallic 
Bromides. — A few drops of the bromine in question are 
placed in a small porcelain capsule, 30 c.c. of a solution of 
potassium chlorate, saturated in the cold, are added, and the 
liquid is boiled till colourless. The solution is then poured 
into a test-tube, allowed to cool, mixed with a few drops of a 
solution of morphine sulphate and a little chloroform. If the 
chloroform takes a violet colour, iodine was present in the 
sample. The morphine solution is prepared by dissolving 0*5 
grm. morphine in an excess of dilute sulphuric acid, and 
diluting to 50 c.c. In examining potassium bromide the solu- 
tion is mixed with two or three drops of pure bromine water, 
and a few c.c. of a cold saturated solution of potassium 
chlorate, and further treated as above. — Zeitschrift fur 
Amedytische Chemie. 

/ Wood Books as Botanical Specimens.— In the museum 
at Hesse Cassel there is a library made from five hundred 
European trees. The back of each volume is formed of the 
bark of a tree, the sides of the perfect wood, the top of young 
wood, and the bottom of old. When opened, the book is found 
to be a box, containing the flower, seed, fruit, and leaves of 
the tree, either dried or imitated in wax. At the Melbourne 
Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866, Col. Clamp exhibited speci- 
mens converted into small boxes of book form, according to a 
design adopted by him at the Victorian Exhibition of 1851, 
and then suggested by Baron Mueller. Australia alone could 
furnish a collection of over a thousand such books. At the 
Paris Exhibition of 1867 Russia showed a similar collection 
of wooden books, cleverly designed, showing the bark as the 
binding, and lettered with the popular and scientific names of 
the wood. Each book contains samples of the leaves and fruit 
of the tree and a section and shaving or veneer of the same. 

Alcohol a Stimulant or Narcotic.— Alcohol, says Dr. 
Wilks, in the Monthly Magazine of Pharmacy , is stated to be 
a stimulant. If a man is jaded and tired, it affords a tem- 


porary support ; a little later he is depressed, the stimulant 
lasting only a short time. It produces dilatation of the 
vessels and warmth of the surface, but at the expense of 
internal heat. The fact is, alcohol is not a stimulant at all, 
hut a depressant and a narcotic . If the name were changed 
we should get a proper notion of its character, and Dr. Wilks 
believes that such a change would tend more than anything 
else to make people cautious in its imbibition. Alcohol is 
taken for the same reason as chloral or opium in other 
countries, and if regarded as a narcotic the consequences of its 
use would be better understood. It has a sedative effect, and 
is therefore useful in severe neuralgia when chloral and opium 
fail. It benumbs the sense of touch as well as that of sight 
and taste ; but if it were a stimulant, then sense of taste 
ought under its influence to become more refined. 

Manufacture of Quinia in the United States. — An 
article in the New York Times of 13th January, which has 
evidently been written by one well informed on the subject, 
refers to the price of quinia, which last year averaged 2 dols. 
90 cents, the maximum figure being 3 dols. 25 cents., the 
minimum 2 dols. 50 cents. This is about equal to the quotations 
between 1873 and 1876, previous to the removal of duty from 
quinia. All articles essential for the manufacture of quinia 
are taxed, such as soda, fusel oil, alcohol ; by our navigation 
laws the valuable barks from the East Indian plantations are 
diverted to Europe, a discriminating duty of 10 per cent, 
being imposed upon them here. American manufacturers are 
thus compelled to use barks very poor in quinia, but richer in 
cinchondia, which latter alkaloid is protected by a duty of 
40 per cent. Prior to 1879, about 900,000 ounces of quinia 
sulphate was manufactured in the United States ; last year it 
was not over 500,000 ounces. The largest quinia manufactory 
is stated to be at Milan, Italy, carried on by a joint stock 
company, which supplies under contract East India and 
Russia, and produces annually about 1,200,000 ounces, or about 
one-third of the entire consumption of the world. — American 
Journal of Pharmacy. 

Sal- Soda Crystals by the Old and the New Process. 
— The sal-soda, made after the new ammonia process, begins 
to find its way in commerce. As it is purer than the old 
product, a 'ready way to distinguish one from the other 
from their appearance is of some interest. The sal-soda, 
made according to the old, or Leblanic, method is in hard, 
compact, heavy, and lustreless lumps. Unless much effloresced 
the crystals show 32 to 33 degrees of the alkalimetric scale, 
corresponding to 32 or 33 per cent, of caustic soda in combina- 
tion. The carbonate of soda obtained by the new or Solvay 
process is in porous, friable, light, and shining lumps. Without 
any efflorescence they mark 34 to 35 degrees. They are free 
from chlorides, sulphates, and free alkali. Their very porosity 
renders them easily freed from mother waters when they are 
drained. They consist, therefore, of almost chemically pure 
carbonate of soda. The force of habit, nevertheless, induces 
buyers to prefer the old kind of sal-soda ; they think that the 
porosity of the lumps of the new product indicates the presence 
of sulphate of soda, while, in fact, this salt is never formed at 
any stage of the process, and an intentional addition of 5 
or 10 per cent, of it would suffice to render the crystals as 
hard as those of the old kind. Others complain that they do 
not taste sharp to the tongue, while this simply indicates the 
absence of caustic alkali, another impurity almost always found 
in the old sal-soda. 


^OR SALE.— A CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST’S 
-L BUSINESS in a leading street in Melbourne. The 
present proprietor retiring from business. Price, £2000. 
To a good business man there is ample scope for extending 
business. Apply to H. T., care of Pharmaceutical Society, 
Collins-street, Melbourne. 


TJOR SALE, in consequence of the death of the pro- 
prietor, a small BUSINESS in a Good Agricul- 
tural District ; no Chemist within ten miles. A good 
opening for a steady man. Ingoing very moderate. 
Address, Mrs. BAYLISS, care Office of this paper. 

"DUSINESS FOR SALE. Income about £700 a year. 

Good Premises, New Stock, &c. Comfortable 
House, in Mining and Agricultural District, about 130 
miles from Melbourne. Price, about £450. F. F., care 
Office Pharmaceutical Society. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


Ale to ani> StaiiDub iEcb ical SHorke 

ON SALE BY 

GEO. ROBERTSON 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

BOOKSELLER & STATIONER, 

33 & 35 Little Collins Street West, 

MELBOTJR KTB . 


The Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts, Processes, and 

Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions and 
Trades, including Pharmacy and Hygiene, by Arnold J. Cooley, 

2 volumes ... ... ... ... ••• 

Beasley — The Book of Prescriptions 
Beasley — The Druggist’s General Receipt Book 

Beasley — The Pocket Formulary and Synopsis of the British and Foreign Pharma- 
copoeias 

FowneS — A Manual of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical, 2 vols. 

May lie — A Medical Vocabulary : being an Explanation of all Terms and Phrases 
used in the various departments of Medical Science and Practice, giving 
their Derivation, Meaning, Application, and Pronunciation 

Taylor — On Poisons in Relation to Medicine ... ... ... 

Bloxam — Laboratory Teaching : Progressive Exercises in Practical Chemistry, 
illustrated 

Royle — A Manual of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, illustrated 
Carpenter — The Microscope and its Revelations, illustrated 
Dicli. — Encyclopsedia of Practical Receipts and Processes, 6,400 Receipts ... 

Squire — A Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia, comparing the strength of its 
various Preparations with those of the United States and other Foreign 
Pharmacopoeias, . &c. 

Fenwick — The Student’s Guide to Medical Diagnosis, illustrated 

Savory — A Compendium of Domestic Medicine, and Companion to the Medicine 
Chest 

A COMPLETE CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL BOOKS TO BE HAD ON APPLICATION. 

GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

33 and 35 Little Collins Street West, Melbourne, 

AND AT 

SYDNEY, BBISBANB, AND ADELAIDE. 


7s. 6d. 
7s. 

7s. 6d. 
21s. 

11s. 6d. 
18s. 

6s. 6d. 
17s. 
17s. 

25s 

• 

12s. 
7s. 6d. 

6s. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


ZOEDONE 

A DELICIOUS BEVERAGE. 


The BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL says:- 

We can confidently recommend it to the attention of physicians and others who are occasionally at a loss what to 
direct their patients to take when parched by feverish thirst or depressed by exhausting ailments— notably in cases where 
alcoholic stimulants would be prejudicial. We feel that it would be found exceedingly useful in mitigating the discomfort 
orttimes experienced by those suffering from the thirst, loss of appetite, and general malaise, connected with the last stage 
oi phthisis and chronic bronchitis. 

“We would also, from our observations and experience advise its introduction into clubs, taverns, and places of 
public amusement, where it would judiciously supersede vinous and alcoholic stimulants, seeing that it contains, as its 
name implies, life-giving ingredients in a form easily assimilated.” 


A BRAIN & NERVE TONIC. 

The LANCET says 

“Zoedone contains the soluble phosphates of lime, iron, soda, and potash, in medicinal quantities. Very efficient 
and pleasant.” - J 

The MEDICAL PRESS AND CIRCULAR says:— 

“Is commendable equally for the style in which it is put up and the delicate flavour which i ipossesses, and also 
on account of its special merits as a nervine tonic.” 


Non-Alcoholic — Stimulates by Strengthening. 

Every Chemist that has introduced ZOEDONE has fpund a large and regularly increasing 
sale for it. It is put up in Champagne Bottles, and there is no trouble with 
empties, as the bottles are included in the price. Customers 
supplied with Pamphlets for distribution; also a special 
Circular for medical men, stating the formula. 

Zoedone is admirably adapted for Hot Climates. 


Patentee— DAVID JOHNSON, P.O.S. Manager— JOHN MOSS, F.I.C., P.C.S. 


Manufacturers— The ZOEDONE COMPANY (Lim.), Wrexham, North Wales. 

London Office : 25 ABCHURCH LANE, E.C. 


Solo Consignees for Victoria— 

FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO. 

31 AND 33 FLINDERS LANE WEST, 





fate . //j , n v 4 Mu ro u su 4WW ** mtJZoa‘10*^ ' j /gfo- 

^rtuK SiMj Jko n -««jd ** fy , t*80 . ' ^ /tg /r */ a - 


INDE X 

itatrakswu Supplement to Chemist nnb Jlutggbt 

VOL. in. 

FROM JUNE, 1880, TO MAY, 1881. 

All letters to the Editor mil he found arranged under the head of Correspondence. 


quarium, My first— by C. A. Atkin 
“imnonia in Water, Detection of 
Inmfiha, To Precipitate .. 

Antimony ami L> :ul, Alloys of 
pprentices and the Preliminary Examinai 
nual Dinner Phar. Society of Victoria tdC 


PAGE 
C, 14, 24 
.. 8 
.. 15 
.. 11 
rntion 17 
20, 34, 51 

"enic, On Poisoning by 28 

uatralian Health Societ)', The . . . . .34 

neri can Bogus Diplomas .. .. ..41 

Address to Students . . . . . . . . 49 

Annual Dinner of the Phar. Society of Victoria 75 
Annual Cricket Match . . . . . . 85 

Ballarat District Chcmist’R Association, 5, 14, 21, 
28, 37, 53, 58, 60. 00, 67. 70 

Botanic Gardens, The 13 

Butter, Ancient Samples of .. .. ..12 

British Medical Association 17 

itoom Received 35,48 

Botany, The latest in 80 

Correepondence, 7, 15, 23, 31, 40, 54, 64, 70, 80, 85, 94 
Answers to 

Chloride of Methyl for Extracting Perfumes .. 20 
Chemists and Druggists’ Cricket Club . . . . 38 

Commercial Synthesis of Indigo Blue . . . . 39 

Chemically pure Hvdriodic Acid . . 4e 

Costless Ventilation . . . . 54 

Chemical cause of the Poisonous Nature of 
Arsenic . . . . . . . . . . 80 

Contributions to the Examination of Wine . . S6 

Castor Oil applied Externally 88 


page j 

Hasty and Sensational Journalism . . . . 65 

Iron Rust from Clothing. Ketuo\ al of .. .11 

Illegally Prescribing .. ..30 

In Mem -riam — Prosp> r Vincent Kamel .. 83 
Iodine in Bromine and Metallic Bromides, 
Detection of . . . . . . . . . . 88 

Lunatic Asylum, Paying Patients in . . 2 

Legal and Magisterial . . . . 4, 27, 30, G1 ! 

Liver Pads .. .. .. .. .. ..11 

London Purple B0 t 


Modified Examination, Candidates Passed at, 3. 20, 

f-3, 70 

Modified Examination, Papers Lsed at .. 5, ‘’2, 79 
Morten son, Edward, Charged with Manslaughter 4 
Mucilage of Gum Arabic. Preservation of* .. 7 , 

Microscopical Society of Victoria ..10 

Melbourne International Exhibition, 44, 56, 78, 87 
Medical Society of Victoria . . . . . . 5S , 

Maerozamia Moorci . . .. .. .. ..84 


Deputation to Minister of Lands 
Druggists and their Poisons 
Determination of Theine in Tea . . 
Drunkenness cured by Bark 
Dust, Rain, and Fog 

Formula 

Fucus Vesiculosus in 1826 . . 
Flower Fanning 
Fire at St. Arnaud 


. 2 
. 7 
. 64 
. 72 
. 86 

. 16 
. 12 
. 69 
. 83 

. 12 
. 31 
. 35 


! Notes and Abstracts, 1 1 . 19, 30, 39, 47, 55, 72, 80, 88. 93 ; 

Notice of Book .. .. .. .. ..21 

I Notes on Nitrite of Amyl. . . .. ..65 

New School of Pharmacy in Paris, The .. 72 j 
XNotts on a hitherto Undefined Species of En- 
| cephalartos— -by Baron K. von MUeller .. 84 

New Method for the Examination of Coffee— by 
F. M. Rimniington . . . . . . . . 80 

Organic Chemistry, Recent Advances in . . 13 
Olives and Olive oil . . .. .. .. . 38 • 

Olive and Almond Oils 3s 

Obituary Notice— Mr. Patching 80 

Olive Oil, Preparation of 87 : 


Glass, Drilling 

Gelatine Suppositories 

Glue, To Prevent from Cracking 

Hydrogen Sulphide Gas in Nitrous Fumes, 
Combustion of . . ■ . . . . . . ..11 

Homooopathy in Brooklyn 31 


PAGE 

Poisoning C’a«e at Colac. Accidental . . . . 22 

Police Magistrates’ Justice 25 

Plants in Sleeping Rooms . - 30 

Process for Detecting Nitrogen, Sulphur, and 
Chlorine in Organic Compounds .. ..31 

Polygraph Composition and Ink .. 40 

Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand 43, 59 
Phosphate of Lime for clarifying Muddy Water 47 
Palm Oil .. .. .. .. .. ..55 

Pharmaceutical Society of Queensland . . . . 69 

Pharmaceutical Education 71 

Phylloxera Vastatrix . . . . . . . 04 

Pinus Insignus .. .. .. .. ..72 

Pharmacy in New Zealand .. .. ..91 

Pharmacy in Spain . . .. .. .. ..94 

Quillaia Tooth wash . . .. .. .. ..72 

Quinia in the United States, Manufacture of .. 88 

Red Prussiate of Pottassa, To Prepare . . . . 39 

Relation between M< dicine and Pharmacy, The 57 
Raw Oysters . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 

Refining Sugar .. .. .. .. ..95 


42, 40. , 
70. 91 ' 
50, 59, 
81. 91 ; 
liia 3 
T9 : 


i Pharmacy Board. Meetings of 2. 10. 18, 27. 

50. 07 

! Phann. Society of Victoria, 2, 10, 18. 26, 34. 

06, 07, 74. 

j Poisoning by Subcutaneous Injection of Morp 
i Preliminary Examination, 3, ft, 10, 20, 32, 53, 70, 

Pill Coating .. .. .. .. 7 : 

Pharmacy Act in New Zealand, The . . 7, 33 

Photographs, Prussian Blue .. ..8 

: Phosphorescence, A recent Application of .. 13 
i Paraffine, Some of the Uses <>f .. . . 12 j 

Prosecutions under “ Poisons A et ” .. 18,27 ; 

! Pharm. Society of New South Wales .. 18, 82 I 


Storekeepers’ Drugs 

Shellac. To Pulverise 

Scientific Summary . . 11, 35, 62, 77, 

School of Mines, Sandhurst . . . . 14, 

School of Mines, Ballarat .. 17, 21, 37, 43, 
Syrupus Guaiaci, Some Remarks on 
Stills, To Clean and Deodorise . . 

Social Science Congress 

Santonin Contaminated with Strychnia 

Soulan’s Process for Capping Bottles . . 

School of Pharmacy . . . . . . . . 66, 

Show Bottles, A Brilliant Purple for 

Sham Veterinary Surgeons 

Safety for Cheques 

Tin-plate, Improvement in Crystallising 
Titrations, Perception of Colour Change in 
Testing Spices 


.. 7 

.. 8 
82. 92 
61,82 
53, 60 
.. 29 
.. 40 
46, 53 
.. 47 
.. 64 
81, 89 
.. 74 
.. 93 
.. 93 

.. 11 
.. 29 
.. 39 


Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati, Note on 20 
University Constitution Amendment Bill .. 38 


Veterinary Medical Association 
Vapours for Inhalation 


Yan Yean Water 


3, 9 
.. 86 


32, 73 



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illy , 


“v r< 1,^7 

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(lapTs'J) - 


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INDEX 


Australasian (Supplement to Chemist anti Jlruggist 


VOL. III. 

from JUNE, 1880, T O MAY, 1881. 


letters to the Editor will he found arranged under the head of Correspondence . 


PAGE 

Aquarium, My first— by C. A. Atkin . . 6, 14, 24 
Ammonia in Water, Detection of . . . . 8 

Alumina, To Precipitate 15 

Antimony and Lead, Alloys of .. . ..11 

Apprentices and the Preliminary Examination 17 
Annual Dinner Phar. Society of Victoria 26, 34, 51 

Arsenic, On Poisoning by 28 

Australian Health Society, The 34 

American Bogus Diplomas . . . . . . 41 

Address to Students . . . . . . . . 49 

Annual Dinner of the Phar. Society of Victoria 75 
Annual Cricket Match 85 


PAGE 

Hasty and Sensational Journalism . . . . 65 

Iron Rust from Clothing, Removal of . . . . 11 

Illegally Prescribing 36 

In Memoriam — Prosper Vincent Ramel . . 83 

Iodine in Bromine and Metallic Bromides, 
Detection of 88 

Lunatic Asylum, Paying Patients in . . . . 2 

Legal and Magisterial . . . . 4, 27, 36, 61 

Liver Pads n 

London Purple 30 


Ballarat District Chemist’s Association, 6, 14, 21, 
28, 37, 53, 58, 60, 66, 67, 76 


Botanic Gardens, The . . 13 

Butter, Ancient Samples of 12 

British Medical Association . . . . . . 17 

Books Received 35, 43 

Botany, The latest in 80 

Correspondence, 7, 15, 23, 31, 46, 54, 64, 70, 80, 85, 94 
,, Answers to .. .. ..8 

Chloride of Methyl for Extracting Perfumes . . 20 
Chemists and Druggists’ Cricket Club . . . . 38 

Commercial Synthesis of Indigo Blue . . . . 39 

Chemically pure Hydriodic Acid . . . . 48 

Costless Ventilation 54 

Chemical cause of the Poisonous Nature of 
Arsenic . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 

Contributions to the Examination of Wine . . 86 
Castor Oil applied Externally 88 

Deputation to Minister of Lands . . . . 2 

Druggists and their Poisons 7 

Determination of Theine in Tea 64 

Drunkenness cured by Bark 72 

Dust, Rain, and Fog . . ' 86 

Formula 16 

Fucus Vesiculosus in 1826 12 

Flower Farming 69 

Fire at St. Arnaud 83 

Glass, Drilling 12 

Gelatine Suppositories . . . . . . . . 31 

Glue, To Prevent from Cracking . . . . 35 

Hydrogen Sulphide Gas in Nitrous Fumes, 

Combustion of 11 

Homceopathy in Brooklyn . . . . . , 31 


Modified Examination, Candidates Passed at, 3, 26, 

53, 76 

Modified Examination, Papers Used at . . 5, 82, 79 
Mortenson, Edward, Charged with Manslaughter 4 


Mucilage of Gum Arabic, Preservation of . . 7 
Microscopical Society of Victoria . . . . 10 

Melbourne International Exhibition, 44, 56, 78, 87 
Medical Society of Victoria . . . . . . 58 

Macrozamia Moorei . . 84 

Notes and Abstracts, 11,19,30,39,47,55,72,80,88,93 

Notice of Book 21 

Notes on Nitrite of Amyl 55 

New School of Pharmacy in Paris, The . . 72 
Notes on a hitherto Undefined Species of En- 
cephalartos — by Baron F. von Mueller . . 84 

New Method for the Examination of Coffee— by 
F. M. Rimmington 86 

Organic Chemistry, Recent Advances in . . 13 

Olives and Olive Oil 38 

Olive and Almond Oils 38 

Obituary Notice— Mr. Patching 80 

Olive Oil, Preparation of 87 


Pharmacy Board, Meetings of 2, 10, 18, 27, 42, 46, 

50, 67, 76, 91 

Pharm. Society of Victoria, 2, 10, 18. 26, 34, 50, 59, 
66, 67, 74, 81, 91 

Poisoning by Subcutaneous Injection of Morphia 3 
Preliminary Examination, 3, 8, 16, 26, 32, 53, 76, 79 


Pill Coating .. .. 7 

Pharmacy Act in New Zealand, The . . 7, 33 

Photographs, Prussian Blue 8 

Phosphorescence, A recent Application of . . 13 

Paraffine, Some of the Uses of 12 

Prosecutions under “ Poisons Act” . . 18, 27 

Pharm. Society of New South Wales . . 18, 82 


PAGE 

Poisoning Case at Colac, Accidental . . . . 22 

Police Magistrates’ Justice 25 

Plants in Sleeping Rooms 30 

Process for Detecting Nitrogen, Sulphur, and 
Chlorine in Organic Compounds . . . . 31 

Polygraph Composition and Ink .. .40 

Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand 43, 59 

Phosphate of Lime for clarifying Muddy Water 47 

Palm Oil 55 

Pharmaceutical Society of Queensland . . . . 59 

Pharmaceutical Education 71 

Phylloxera Vastatrix .. . .. ..64 

Pinus Insignus 72 

Pharmacy in New Zealand 91 

Pharmacy in Spain 94 

Quillaia Toothwash 72 

Quinia in the United States, Manufacture of . . 88 

Red Prussiate of Pottassa, To Prepare . . . . 39 

Relation between Medicine and Pharmacy, The 57 

Raw Oysters 93 

Refining Sugar 95 

Storekeepers’ Drugs 7 

Shellac, To Pulverise . . . . . . . . 8 

Scientific Summary . . . . 11, 35, 62, 77, 82, 92 

School of Mines, Sandhurst . . . . 14, 61, 82 

School of Mines, Ballarat . . 17, 21, 37, 43, 53, 60 
Syrupus Guaiaci, Some Remarks on . . . . 29 

Stills, To Clean and Deodorise . . . . . . 40 

Social Science Congress 45, 53 

Santonin Contaminated with Strychnia . . 47 
Soulan’s Process for Capping Bottles . . . . 64 

School of Pharmacy 66, 81, 89 

Show Bottles, A Brilliant Purple for . . . . 74 

Sham Veterinary Surgeons 93 

Safety for Cheques 93 

Tin-plate, Improvement in Crystallising '. . 11 
Titrations, Perception of Colour Change in . . 29 
Testing Spices 39 

Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati, Note on 20 
University Constitution Amendment Bill . . 38 

Veterinary Medical Association .. .. 3,9 

Vapours for Inhalation 86 

Yan Yean Water 32, 73 



’ — “ 










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.. 









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INDEX 


^Mtratokrt (Supplement tu Chemist anb ilntggist 

VOL. IY. 

FROM; JUNE, 1881, TO MAY, 188S. 


All letters to the Editor will be found arranged under the head 


of Correspondence . 


PAGE 

Australian Medical Gazette . . . . 2, 42 

Annual Meeting Pharmaceutical Society of 
New South Wales . . . . . . 3 

Awards and Medals at International Exhibition 6 

Animal Vaccine Lymph 9 

Answers to Correspondents . . 12, 30, 34 

Alstonia Barks 16 

Assistants and Apprentices, Qualification of . . 17 

Apprentices 22, 66 

Arrowroot, Cultivation of, in Australia . . 22 

Asparagus, How to Cook 23 

Alum Well at Harrowgate, The ancient .. 24 

Adelaide Exhibition, The 32 

Atropine, Poisoning by 36 

Adulteration of Food and Drink . . . . 38 

Absorption of Gases by Solids, On the— by J. B. 

Hannay, Esq 62 

} Australian Plants, Definitions of some New — by ^ 

Baron F. von Mueller (68 ; 

Australasian Veterinary Journal .. .. 7l 

Adulterated Spirits, Sales of 79 

Anaesthetics, Administration of 96 

Annual Dinner of Pharmaceutical Society of 
Victoria 50 


Ballarat School of Mines, Annual Report 18, 20, 90 


Bage, Mr. Edward 9 

Bottlewasher, A Careless 23 

Books Received .. . . 27, 40, 48, 75, 82, 90 

Bailey, The late Mr. E. L 31 

Bromide of Potassium 36 

Bird, Dr 50 

Blackett, Mr. C. R 58 

Bowen, Mr. W., Fire at Shop of 74 

Brown Brothers, Messrs., Fire at Shop of ..74 

Ballarat 61, 75, 76 

Chlorodyne, included in Sale of Poisons Act . . 2 
Chemists and Druggists, Meeting of, to Discuss 

Tariff .. .. ..5 

Correspondence . . 8, 11, 22, 30, 37, 71, 80, 94 

Colouring for Tooth Powder . . . . . . 8 

Compromise between Physicians and Phar- 
macists of Antwerp 13 

Calderon, Home of 22 

Carlsbad Artificial Salt j 23 

Carbon Points, for Splitting Glass . . . . 24 

Colour of Flowers 24 

Carlyle, Lecture on— by Mr. C. R. Blackett .. 26 

Catgut for Ligatures 35 

Cologne 

Cement for Mending Pestles 40 

Cooley, Death of Mr. A. J. 71 

Cricket Match, Annual, Wholesale v. Retail . . 74 

Clezj r , Mr. James .. .. 74 

Chemist, Homoeopathic, Charged with Larceny 78 

Colouring White Flowers 80 

Carrots treated with Arsenic for the Extermina- 
tion of Rabbits 82 

Cycas, Notes on a hitherto Undefined Species of, 

—by Baron F. von Miieller %jj 

Chloroform, Purity of — by M. Yvon .. ..89 

Cox, Mr. Thomas, Death of 90 

Casuarina, Remarks on a New — by Baron F. 
von Miieller 

Duboisina 8 


Dixon’s Gas 9 

Donation from Mr. Thomas Wiffen, of London 10 

Disinfectants 13 

Drug Adulteration, An American Definition of 23 

Disease Germs 36 

Deville, Prof. Sainte Claire, Death of . . . . 38 

Donation to Museum, from J. Bosisto, Esq., 

M.L.A .. .. .. ..42 

Distinguishing Spurious Money, Method of I 44 
Dinner, Annual, of Pharm. Society of Victoria 50 

Donations 53, 64 

Doctor, A, How Created 64 

Dispensary, The New Free 82 

Deputation from the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Victoria to the Minister of Lands . . . . 91 

Examinations i # 82 

Errata 12, 56 

English Sparrows 16 

Erasure of Name of J. E. Wall from Pharma- 
ceutical Register of Victoria 83 

Economy of Fuel, and Smoke Abatement — by 

Mr. C. R. Blackett 93 

Elastic Adhesive Plaster . . . . . . . . 96 

French Association for the Advancement of 

Science is 

Fiji, Pharmacy in ’’ 44.. 

Felton, Mr. Alfred, Accident to .. 62, 71, 74, 82 

Freckles, Removal of 63 

Felton, Grimade, Messrs. . . . . . . 74 

Fomentations, Ready Method of Preparing .. 80 

Glycerole of Thymol . . . . . . . . 20 

Glucose as an Excipient for Pill Masses . . 40 

Glycerine 45 

Glycerinum Acidi Gallici, Note on— by T. E. 

Thorpe >70 

Glass, Simple Mode of Tempering 
Gelatine Blasting 

Holmes, Dr. Oliver Wendell, at Medical 

Dinner . . . . 

Harding, Suicide of Rev. A. F. !. 


90 


International Exhibition, Medals Awarded at . . 2 
International Pharmaceutical Congress 2, 10, 34 
Impartial Justice in Germany . . . . 23 

Illingworth, Mr. Frank “50 

Imagination, Cure by 63 

International Medical Congress and Vivisection 64 


Iron, To Colour Black 

Interlopers ** ’93 

Inquest on W. F. Wilkes '. . . *. ' * 96 

{Jasmine from Samoa, Remarks on a New— by ~ 
Baron F. von Miieller . . . . . . (29 

Justice, Failure of ,] . ’ fg 

Kastner v. Poulton 29 

Kerosene, Non-explosive . . . . . 48 

Kilpatrick, Edward, Trial of .. .. !.* 59 

Knowledge under Difficulties, Pursuit of !! 71 

Kruse, Mr. John 74 

Kernot, Mr. Charles, Death of . . .! ‘ . 92 

Legally Qualified Medical Practitioners 10, 19 


PAGE 

Legal and Magisterial . . 29, 37, 54, 59, 70, 77 

Leech Farm, The only American . . . . 45 

Library Amended Rules and Catalogue of Books 58 

Laughton v. Bickford 61 

Lead against Corrosion, To Protect . . ..64 

Liquor Ammonise, Accident with . . . . 70 

Melbourne International Exhibition, Medals 
and Awards at . . . . . . . . 6, 14 

Meeting of Suburban Chemists 11 

Melbourne Milk Supply Company .. ..31 

Masters and Apprentices . . . . . . . . 33 

Mackay, Late Mr. John 16 

.. 40 

.. 56 

.. 63 

.. 80 

.. 80 

.. 82 

.. 89 

.. 90 

.. 90 


Melanopathy . . 

Mosquito Fumigating Pastilles . . 
Malic Acid, New Test for 
Mahogany Cherry, Stain for 
Metallic Oleatesand Oleo Palmistates 
Mitchell, Mr. Graham 
Milk infected by Typhoid Fever . . 
M‘Lean, Mr. P., New Shop 
Microscopical Society, Meeting of 


Notes and Abstracts 8, 16, 23, 35, 56, 63, 80, 88, 96 

New Insolvents 3, 27, 58, 82 

Newspaper Scientific Knowledge, Specimen of 42 
Nervous System, The, Lecture by Mr. James 


Smith 

New Zealand, Pharmacy in 


42 

84 


Ordinance issued by Government of Fiji . . 18 

Obtaining Money by False Pretences . . 30, 74 

Oat Phosphorus Rabbit Poison, Capt. Raymond’s 36 
Orchid, New, of Victoria, Notice concerning a 
—by Baron F. von Miieller 44/ 


54 


64 


Pharmaceutical Education 

Poisons, Advice for Marking 

Pastilles, Medicated Fumigating 
Phthisis Developed by Inoculation from 
Animals Suffering from Tubercle, Possibility 

of 64 

Poisons in Form of Patent Medicines, Sale of . . 65 
Pharmaceutical Register of Victoria . . . . 66 

Pharmaceutical Study, Modern, Remarks upon 

— by H. J. Moller, Esq 69, 88 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain . . 71 
Pharmacy Laws, Transatlantic Offences against 72 
Preparation, What is a . . . . . . . . 73 

Pharmaceutical Society, Nomination for Mem- 

„ * bers of Council 74 

80 'fPalm from Queensland, A New, Defined by ^ 


Baron F. von Miieller . . w 

Pharmacy Act, Breach of . . . . . . . . 77 

Permanganate of Potassa as an Antidote for 

Snake Poison 80 

Pharmaceutical Education and Pharmaceutical 
Examination . . . . . . . . . . 81 

Pharmacy School, New Session of .. ..82 

Pharmaceutical Society, Deputation from, 

to Minister of Lands 82 

Poisons in Open Surgeries, Sale of . . . . 87 

Pharmacist, Reminiscences of — by Mr. J. B. 

Mummery 87, 94 

Paper for Silverware 88 

Prizes offered by Royal Society of New South 
Wales 9 


PAGE 

.. 46 
54, 70 
.. 60 
.. eo 
60 


Paints, Manufacture of . . 

Pharmaceutical Register of Victoria . 

Plaster of Paris Bandages, Removal of 
Poisons by Plants, Absorption of 

Pyrogallic Acid, Use of 

Purchase by Pharmaceutical Society of Build 

ing known as County Court 61 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, Annual 

Dinner 62 

X Plants, Leguminous, Notes on some— by Baron 

F. von Mueller . . 12 

X Plants, Notes on some Leguminous— by Baron 

F. von MUeller . . 64 

Pharmaceutical Study, Some Remarks upon 

Modern— by H. J. Moller 67 

Proprietary Medicines, The Prescription of . . 69 
Pharmacy Board Nominations . . . . . . 70 

Pharmacy and Pharmacies, Some Notes on 
Foreign— by Mr. J. Brinsmead 73, 81. 95, 103 

Parchment Paper Impervious to Water . . 74 
Poisonous Colours . . . . . . . . 74 

Pharmaceutical Conference, An Australasian' 77 

Pharmacy, School of 77 91 

Pharmacy Board Election *79 

Pharmacy Act, Prosecution under . . ] . 80 

Pharmacy Act and Regulations. . . . . . 3 

Poisons Act and Regulations . . . . . . 3 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, Meetings 
° £ / • ■ • 3, 11, 22, 32, 47, 55, 71, 92, 101 

Poisoning Cases . . . . 5. 19, 30, 42, 64, 95 

Pharmacist, Reminiscences of a— by Mr. J B 
Mummery . . 6, 16, 28, 35, 52, 58, 66, 75, 83 

Poisons as Patent Medicines, The Sale of . . 9 

Pharmaceutical Conference, British . . 16 100 

Pharmacy Board of Victoria, Meetings of 10, 22 
m _ 31. 46, 65, 70, 78, 91, 101 

Pharmacy Board of New Zealand . . li, 30, 79 


INDEX, Vol. V. — ( Continued ). 


VAliK 

Pharmaceutical Society of New South Wales 11, 23 
30, 39, 47, 56, 71, 93, 100, 102 
Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand 12, 33 
Pharmacy Board of Victoria— Quarter! v Exam- 
inations of, Candidates passed at 13, 40, 64, 91, 95 
Prosecution under Pharmacy Act . . 15 

Pharmaceutical Curriculum" for Great Britain 18 

Powder, Anti-asthmatic 18 

Pellagra . . . . . , . . . . . . 19 

Prosecutions under Poisons Act . ! ' 26 
Preliminary Examinations, Papers used at 27, 64, 
™ . , 67, 95 

Photographers, Meeting of 30 

Poisons Statute, Sale of 30, 90 

Queensland, Charge of Manslaughter at 
Queensland Pharmacy Bill 
Quinologist, the Celebrated Dutch 


Russian-Jewish Relief Fund, The 

Reid, Mr. G. M 

Rigneyj Mr. A. A 

Replies to Correspondents 
Row, Mr. Edward, Resignation of 
Richardson, Mr. Edward, Suicide of 
Rocke, Tompsitt & Co., Messrs. 

Retrospect, A 

Ross, Mr. John, Resignation of 
Randerson, R. S., Death of 
Regulations to Pharmacy Act, Amended 

Spicer, Mr. F. B., Death of 
School of Mines, Ballarat 

Scene, An Amusing 10 

Sydney . . 11, 23, 39, 47, 55, 64, 71, S3, 102 

Sandhurst School of Mines Science Societv 13, 

39, 64 


43 

45 

67 

4 
10 
10 
18 
11 
36 
39 
42, 52 
54 
78 
82 



Saliva Spots, How to Distinguish 
Snake Bites, Remedy for 
Strychnine, Antidote to . . 

, (Solan um, Notes on a New— by 
Mueller 

Secret Remedies 
Sticky Fly Paper 
Sand Bath, Substitute for the 

Tea Culture . . 

Technical College 
Tea, Analysis of 
Tariff Commission, The 
Thrift and Science . . 

Tow, Prepared 

Technological Museum Lectures 

Towl, Mr. C. E., 

The Doctor and the Druggist 

Vermilion, Chinese Method of Manufacturing 4 
Vaseline, Examination of . . .. .. ..65 

Veratrine and Potassium . . . . . , ’ ' 93 

Warrenheip Distillery Company . . . . 2 

Water, Impure .. .. .. g 

Watch Oil ’ ' [ ‘ 28 

Wilson, Mr. George, Death of .. .. .'. 38 

Worms, Remedy for .. .. . . ..44 

Wattle Bark.. .. .. .. .. '..45 

Wohler, Professor Dr. Frederick, Death of 58 , 73 

Watt, Mr. A. J * 77 

Warts, Removal of . . . . . . . , i . 84 

Water, Sanitary Quality of . . . . 97 

Watkins, Mr. W. J. (Evans, Lesher and 
Webb) 

Zinc, To Pulverise 



1 





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October, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


41 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Leading Article — 

Unqualified Assistants 41 

Tiie Month 42 

Meetings— 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria .... 42 

Pharmacy Board of Victoria 43 


Pharmacy in New Zealand 43 

Pharmacy in Fiji 44 


Notice Concerning a New 

toria 

Personalities 

Poisoning Cases 


Orciiid of Vic- 


44 

45 
45 


Glycerine 45 

The Only American Leech Farm ”.'.’..’!.’.'! 45 

Quack Medicine 46 

Plants in their Relation to Health .... 4G 

Non-Explosive Kerosene 48 


Cfic ©fiemtst aittr Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 

Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST- 
Published on the 15th of each Month . 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do. . . . . 5 0 0 I Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, .Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

. No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer— not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith 


NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

ATEMBERS whose subscriptions for the current year 
remain unpaid are respectfully requested to forward 
the same at their earliest convenience. 


LIBRARY NOTICE. 

AT EMBERS who have books from the library are 
1TX respectfully requested to return them at once. 
September 28th, 1881. 


UNQUALIFIED ASSISTANTS. 

It has for some time been apparent that the employment 
of unqualified assistants in pharmacies is too common. It 
is in the interest of the public that only examined persons 
should dispense prescriptions and sell poisons. The em- 
ployment of unqualified or imperfectly educated assistants 
as juniors under the strict supervision of the principal, or 
of a qualified senior-assistant, may not be so objectionable, 
although we venture to think that even that is to be 
deprecated on many grounds, for it holds out an encour- 
agement to many young men to be lazy ; it also is an 
injustice to those who have, by commendable effort, quali- 
fied themselves and passed the necessary examinations. 
In England it has long been felt to be an anomaly that 
assistants can in the present state of the law be employed 
without having any qualifications whatever. This subject 
is now engaging the earnest attention of the leaders of 
pharmaceutical education in Great Britain, and there is 
no doubt but that a still further amendment of the Phar- 
macy Act will soon be made in order to bring the educa- 
tion of pharmacists in England as far as possible up to the 
high standard of the great continental states. In a 
valuable report, very ably drawn up by a special com- 
mittee appointed by the Pharmaceutical Society, the whole 
subject of education and examination is exhaustively 
treated, and recommendations are suggested which, if 
carried out, will go a long way in this direction. One of 


the changes urged by the committee is that the pre- 
liminary examination must be passed before apprentice- 
ship. This has, we are happy to say, been done by our 
Pharmacy Board, and will, we are sure, be fraught with 
the most beneficial results in the immediate future. 
Daring the debate at Bloomsbury -square upon the adop- 
tion of the committee’s report, Mr. Andrews made the 
following observations, with which we agree ; and, indeed, 
we have frequently expressed ourselves to the same 
effect : — u With respect to the second communication, 
that the preliminary examination, or its recognised 
equivalent, be passed prior to apprenticeship or pupil- 
age, it stated that this could be insured by pro- 
hibiting a candidate from presenting himself for the 
minor examination until three years after he had 
been certified to have passed the preliminary. Now 
this could not be insured, as he would show, for a very 
painful case had lately come under his notice. A youth 
was apprenticed to a pharmaceutical chemist of standing, 
and before his indentures were signed — and, by the way, 
he might say that the usual form of indentures was, in his 
opinion, perfectly unsuited to their business— the chemist 
said to his friends that he had great doubt about this 
youth passing the preliminary examination. The friends, 
however, said they were quite sure he could pass easily, 
and he was bound. The result was, he never had passed 
the preliminary up to the present time, and he was now a 
man of thirty years of age ; he was acting as an assistant , 
and was a very good assissant , but he had never passed the 
preliminary examination , and never would , and, conse- 
guently, he never could come up for the minor examination. 
He did not see how the object the council had in view 
could be insured unless there were a provision that the 
indentures should be cancelled if the apprentice failed to 
pass the preliminary in due time. The chemist in ques- 
tion would have been quite willing to cancel the indentures, 
but he could not do so, as the boy’s friends held him to his 
bargain. There were a large number of young men in the 
trade who were in precisely the same position, and unless 
some arrangement were made stronger than that proposed 
to ensure the preliminary examination being passed before 
apprenticeship, this difficulty would always be cropping 
up. Mr. Young seemed to think it would be to the 
youth’s own benefit that he should not be compelled to 
pass previously ; but he thought it would be very much to 
his benefit, and to that of his friends, to know whether he 
was fit or unfit for the occupation before he entered upon 
it. He had been informed by a member of the council 
that there were men throughout the country who took 
apprentices and occupied them almost as porters, not 
caring one atom as to their future prospects ; what they 
wanted was cheap labour, and they took these youths on 
that account. It was to prevent such a practice as that 
that he called particular attention to the second recom- 
mendation.” 


October, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


42 


In Germany the young man must pass the 1 1 gehtilfen- 
prtifung,” corresponding to the English minor examina- 
tion, before he can act as an assistant. 

As the Pharmacy Board has power to permit the widows 
of pharmacists to carry on the business of her deceased 
husband under qualified management, it is important that 
this question should be thoroughly understood, and no 
injustice or evasion of the law allowed. 

^he iftontlr. 


In the Ballarat Evening Post of 30th September, in an article 
upon careless dispensing and the sale of poisons, occurs the 
following : — “Mr. Francis Taylor, a surgeon, was summoned to 
attend a Mrs. Smyth, at Romsey. He prescribed salicite ( sic ) 
(bark of the willow), but unfortunately the druggist substituted 
strychnine.” This is a specimen of newspaper scientific 
knowledge and intelligence. In another part of the same 
article we find the following remark, apropos of chlorodyne : — 
“ No duly qualified medical practitioner would venture to 
subscribe (sic ) such a mixture without careful reference to 
the patient’s symptoms and idiosyncracy, and yet any one 
can purchase it, not only at the druggist’s, but at ordinary 
stores.” Surely the State-school has not yet done much for 
some of our scribes ! 


In this issue will be found a contribution by Baron F. von 
Mueller on a new orchid of Victoria. We regret to have to 
announce the death of Mr. Bentham, the great botanist and 
co-worker for so many years with Baron F. von Mueller, to whom 
the news was communicated by the director of the Botanic 
Gardens, at Florence. This news has not been yet confirmed. 
As Mr. Bentham is above eighty years of age, his decease would 
not be unexpected, yet we may cherish the hope that he still 
lives. 

A large audience assembled in the Young Men’s Christian 
Association Hall on the 3rd instant, when the fourth of the 
present series of health lectures was delivered by Mr. James 
Smith, who chose as his subject, “ The Nervous System ; its 
Use and Abuse.” In clear and incisive language Mr. Smith 
described the constitution of the brain and the operations of 
the nervous system. He deprecated the prevalent system of 
“ cramming” in schools as most injurious and detrimental to 
the healthy development of children, and the imprudence of 
young ladies of fashion who waste their vital forces in the 
ballroom was also commented upon. The lecture was 
followed with close attention by a very appreciative audience. 

We have received the first number of the Australasian 
Medical Gazette , the official organ of the combined Austral- 
asian branches of the British Medical Association. It is 
excellently printed, and contains a well-arranged summary of 
medical intelligence. In the inaugural editorial address, the 
conductors promise to “ follow as near as they can in the foot- 
steps of the British Medical Journal .” It is to be issued 
monthly from Sydney, Drs. Neild and Jamieson being the 
Melbourne editors. 


The arrangements for the annual dinner, to be held on the 
16th November, are progressing in a very satisfactory manner, 
and there is every prospect of a very large attendance. Mem- 
bers of the Society intending to be present will oblige by send- 
ing in their names to the hon. secretary at least a week before 
the date. 


We have to acknowledge, with thanks, from Mr. Bosisto, 
M.L.A.,the following donation to the museum : — Specimens of 
gums and resins, and other products of Australian vegetation. 

The second course of lectures at the School of Pharmacy 
Technological Museum will commence on the 6th February, 
1882. It has been resolved that the lectureships shall be annual 
appointments, and applications will shortly be invited for the 
positions. 


ittcctings. 


PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the council was held at the rooms, 
100 Collins-street, on Friday, the 7th October, 1881. 

Present— Messrs. Bowen, Gamble, Blackett, Thomas, Hooper, 
Huntsman,. Swift, Baker, Best, Jones, and Shillinglaw. 

The president, Mr. William Bowen, in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Mr. E. M. Rogers, Emu Bay, Tasmania, was elected a 
member, and Mr. Charles G. Hill, of Adelaide, was nominated. 

Vacancy in the Council— M y. Robert Nicholls, of Emerald 
Hill, was elected a member of council, vice Mr. H. Francis, 
resigned. 

Medal for School of Pharmacy.— Mr. Blackett submitted the 
design for the gold medal to be given to the student who shall 
pass the best, examination in materia medica , botany, and 
chemistry, which was, after some discussion, agreed to. 

Grant of Land from Government. — Some time since, when 
a deputation waited on the Commissioner of Lands on the 
above subject, he stated that if no objection was made by the 
Public Works Department to the occupation of the site applied 
for on the Eastern Hill, it would be granted. The Commis- 
sioner of Public Works having offered no opposition, the 
Minister of Lands has therefore been asked to carry out his 
promise. 

Correspondence.— A letter was read from Mr. R. J. Poulton, 
Bourke-street, Melbourne, forwarding his resignation as a 
member of the society ; the resignation was accepted. A com- 
munication was submitted from the secretary of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Great Britain, stating that the letter 
addressed to them in reference to the pharmaceutical journal 
being supplied to members of the society in Victoria, would be 
dealt with at the next council meeting, in October. 

A number of letters of no special public interest were dealt 
with,, which, with financial business, brought the council 
meeting to a close. 


SPEcrAL Meeting. 

At the close of. the meeting of council a special meeting was 
held. The meeting was called by requisition, for the purpose 
of altering and amending certain rules, and more especially 
to alter the mode of voting for members of council from proxy 
to ballot. 

In addition to the members of council, Messrs. Ross, 
Dunn, M‘ Far lane, Brownscombe, Nicholls, and Pendlebury 
were present. 

Mr. Wm. Bowen in the chair. 

Mr. J. C. Jones submitted the amendment prepared by Mr. 
Ross and himself. No important alterations were made until 
clause 9 was reached, which was altered, making it necessary 
for persons wishing to become members of council to be nomi- 
nated by two members of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

Upon clause 17 being read— “ There shall be a Benevolent 
Fund, to consist of donations and subscriptions made for the 
purpose of relieving distressed persons who are or have been 
members of the society, their widows or orphans, aided by 
such appropriation of a portion of the general funds as the 
society at their annual meetings shall think necessary, two 
trustees for which shall be appointed by the counsel during 
pleasure”— Mr. Jones said he begged to propose that an addi- 
tion be made to this clause, giving the council power to grant 
out of the interest of the Benevolent Fund a sum not exceed- 
ing £5, to be applied in the relief of distressed persons, whe- 
ther they have been members of the society or not. 

Mr. Nicholls thought the sum so small that he feared that it 
would be of little use. 


October, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST ^lND DRUGGIST. 


43 


Mr. C. R. Blackett said — I desire to offer a few remarks in 
reference to Mr. Jones’s proposition, and, although it may 
seem very hard not to be able to afford relief to all applicants, I 
cannot think that the council are acting fairly to apply money 
subscribed by the members of the society to the relief of 
persons who have not contributed one shilling towards it. If 
it became known that the Benevolent Fund was available to 
any person who applied for assistance, and who was not, and 
had never been, a member, there would be a number of appli- 
cations that could not well be refused. 

Mr. J. T. Thomas suggested it would be well to establish a 
special fund to meet cases of this sort. A small contribution of 
6d. or Is. a- week would soon form a sufficient amount to relieve 
any casual cases that might be found worthy of assistance. 

After some remarks from Messrs. Ross, Best, and Browns? 
combe, 

It was moved, as an amendment to Mr. Jones’s motion, that 
clause 17 remain unaltered, and that no money be voted to 
any persons who are not or have not been members, their 
widows or orphans. The amendment was put and carried. 

Mr. Ross said — The next clause (22) is one that is of the most 
importance, as it is proposed to substitute voting by ballot 
instead of by proxy, and I therefore move that clause 22 be 
rescinded, and the following be substituted : — “ If the number 
of persons nominated to fill the vacancies in the council is 
greater than the number of persons required to fill such vacancy 
a poll shall be taken, and the secretary shall cause voting- 
papers to be printed in the form given in the second schedule 
hereunto, and shall sign and number each of such papers, and 
cause one to be enclosed in an envelope, not fastened, with the 
name and address of the secretary printed thereon, and one of 
such voting-papers shall be sent by post, under a fastened cover, 
to the address of each and every member of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society at least seven days before such election. 
The secretary shall, on the day named, proceed, in the presence 
of the president and scrutineers appointed at the meeting, to 
open the envelopes with his printed address thereon, and which 
have been returned to him, and to take out the voting-papers 
therein contained, and he shall proceed to ascertain the number 
of votes for each candidate, and shall declare the candidates 
that have received the greatest number of votes to be duly 
elected.” 

“ Clause 23. — If any voter shall suffer to remain upon any 
voting-paper a greater number of names not struck out than the 
number of members to be elected, or shall fail to attach his 
signature thereunto, the vote given on and by such paper shall 
be void and of no effect. The voter shall enclose such voting- 
paper in an envelope, furnished to him with the printed 
address thereon, and shall post the same so that it shall be 
received by the secretary in course of post before four o’clock 
p.m. on the day fixed for holding such election. Each candi- 
date shall be entitled to appoint one scrutineer, to be present 
when the secretary shall open the envelopes containing the 
voting-papers.” 

Mr. Blackett : Considering the lateness of the hour and the 
importance of the alterations, I will move that the meeting 
adjourn until the 4th November. This will give an opportu- 
nity to publish the proposed alterations in the journal, for 
the information of members. 

The meeting then adjourned. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the board was held at No. 4 
Mutual Provident Buildings, on Wednesday, the 12th 
October ; present — Messrs. Bosisto, Lewis, Holdsworth, Bowen, 
and Owen. An apology was received from Mr. Brind. 

The president, Mr. J. Bosisto, in the chair. 

Before the commencement of the business, the registrar 
stated that he had received a return from Mr. A. T. Best, 
returning officer under the Act, declaring Mr. C. R. Blackett 
elected as a member of the board, vice Mr. J. Kruse, resigned. 
Mr. Blackett then took his seat. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

Applications for Registration. — The following applications 
for registration as pharmaceutical chemists were passed : — 
Millard Johnston, Windsor, passed major examination ; 
Samuel Breaden, Launceston, an assistant before the passing 
of the Act ; and Hugh Chalmers Rose, George-street, Sydney, 
in business in Victoria before the passing of the Act. 

Apprentices' Indentures Registered. — George Thos. Whit- 
ford and J. A. M. Pearson, Melbourne ; Thos. Edward Turner, 
Belfast. 


Erasure of Names from the Register . — Lane Mid worth, 
Sydney, and James Gerrard, Walhalla, deceased. 

Design for certificate major examination was finally agreed 
to, and the registrar was authorised to have it engraved on 
copper. 

Correspondence. —From Edward Reeve, Rutherglen, for- 
warding his indentures of apprenticeship for registration, the 
term being for three years. The indentures were illegal, and 
could not therefore be registered. From Mr. C. H. Yeo, hon. 
secretary Pharmaceutical Society of Queensland, forwarding 
copy of the Queensland Pharmacy Act. From the police, 
Drouin, Colac, Emerald Hill, and Numurkah. From Mrs. 
Summers, stating that Dr. M. W. O’Sullivan was now carrying 
on her business. From the Hon. the Commissioner of Rail- 
ways, stating that under the new regulations which restrict 
the issue of passes the Commissioner of Railways is unable to 
continue the issue of such tickets to the members of the 
Pharmacy Board. 

A case where the widow of a chemist who was granted 
permission to carry on business came under notice, there being 
no bona-fide registered chemist resident on the premises. It 
was resolved that unless in one week a qualified resident 
assistant be placed in charge, the permission to carry on 
business be cancelled. 

A number of reports were received from the police, and after 
some discussion the following resolution was carried unani- 
mously : — “ In consequence of the numerous cases of evasion 
of the Pharmacy Act by unqualified persons, and of the 
difficulty of getting the local police to take action upon the same, 
it was moved that the president and secretary of the Pharmacy 
Board wait upon the Chief Commissioner of Police, with the 
view of pointing out to him the necessity of preventing the 
same.” 

On the motion of Mr. Bowen, it was resolved that, the next 
meeting of the board falling on the 9th November (a public 
holiday), the meeting be postponed until the following Wednes- 
day, the 16th November. 

Financial and general business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


PHARMACY IN NEW ZEALAND. 

Each of the four pharmaceutical cities has had, or is about to 
have, the usual annual meeting of members. Dunedin has led 
off, and a new vice-president and council have been elected in 
that energetic southern capital. On Wednesday last, the 7th 
inst., a well-attended annual meeting was held in Auckland. 
The retiring vice-president, Mr. Graves Aickin, gave a valedic- 
tory address, in which he congratulated the society upon the 
passing of the new Pharmacy Act. This, however, he con- 
sidered to be only the precursor of a better one — an amended 
Act, which should provide for the technical training of appren- 
tices, and a preliminary examination similar to the provisions 
of the Victorian Act. The ethics of this legislation he took to 
mean that higher education being made compulsory, higher 
aims would follow. Scientific inquiry and superior knowledge 
would render the pharmacist a better man, socially and intel- 
lectually. There was a brighter, a better side to our business 
or profession. The mere “ greed of gain,” or accumulation of 
wealth, should not be an only “ end and aim.” Beyond this is the 
consciousness that whilst acquiring a competence for ourselves 
we are also ministering to the necessities of “suffering, sad 
humanity ; afflicted ones, steeped to the lips in misery,” each 
of us having opportunities of benefiting those around us, 
and not unfrequently the only requital being the 
consolation that in our sphere and generation we had 
had the means of “doing good in the world.” The 
necessity for educating those who may choose pharmacy 
as a profession was dwelt upon forcibly, and the hope held out 
that before long the provincial district of Auckland may enjoy 
the advantages of a local university, with the usual medical 
school and kindred classes in materia medica, practical phar- 
macy, &c. The vice-president, who is also a member of the 
Pharmacy Board, then reported that registration had been 
nearly completed ; and read a notice from Mr. Allen, the sec- 
retary, to the effect that, beyond a certain date, delinquents 
would be liable to the penalties of the law. The speaker 
also referred to his visit to the sister colonies, and urged 
the members to foster friendly feelings, social harmony, 
and mutual assistance. These excellent qualities had 
made Victorian pharmacists the model for others to imitate. 
A ballot for new members was taken, which resulted in 
the election of the old members. Thanks were voted to the 


44 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


October, 1881. 


Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria for their monthly journal ; 
and to the American Pharmaceutical Association for their 
annual volume of proceedings. At the subsequent meeting of 
the local council, Mr. James P. King was elected vice-president 
for the year, and Mr. James W. Henton, hon. secretary. Since 
last correspondence, Mr. Rivers Langton passed through this 
colony. In Auckland he succeeded in obtaining large orders — 
far beyond his anticipation, I fancy ; he certainly made a 
favourable impression. Mr. Lane, who represents the American 
house of Wm. R. Warner and Co., and Mr. M‘Cord, Seabury 
and Johnson’s traveller, were here together, and did a good 
business. Some of Dr. Lane’s clients wonder at his lengthy 
silence ; he was to have opened up a “ big trade” here. Mr. 
C. A. Gosnell and Mrs. Gosnell have been combining business 
with pleasure. It is quite a brilliant idea of theirs to take a 
honeymoon trip round the world. They finish their tour in 
two years or so, and will then have surveyed the chief ethno- 
logical features of the globe — ethnological, because the “poor 
Indian, with his untutored mind” will be taught the civilising 
influence of “ cherry tooth paste” and “ trichosaron hair 
brushes.” Mr. Gosnell’s chart of travel is a curiosity — a 
diploma for any G. T. Mr. Morgan, the proprietor of the 
Chemist, and Druggist , has been the most recent visitor. He is 
laying up a fund of information in reference to our colonies, 
with the view to their coming to the front one of these days 
in the British Parliament. He intends to contest a metro- 
politan seat at the first general election in the Liberal interest. 
As the General Council meets next December at Dunedin, I 
hope to give you an interesting and hopeful account of the 
future of pharmacy in this colony in my next. 

Auckland, 12th September, 1881. 


PHARMACY IN FIJI. 

We extract the following from the Fiji Times of the 30th J uly : — 

“ With reference to the editorial contained in our issue of 
the 13th instant, we are informed that it was not contem- 
plated by the framer of Ordinance 14, 1881, to subject phar- 
maceutists holding colonial certificates to an examination 
before registering them as persons qualified to practise in this 
colony. It is held that they come within the meaning of the 
words * any person holding a diploma or certificate entitling 
him to practise in any of the capacities aforesaid in the United 
Kingdom,’ occurring in section 3. In accordance with this 
view, the practice has been to hold them exempt from the 
necessity of examination, and to register them upon their satis- 
fying the chief medical officer of their identity with the person 
mentioned in their diploma. Although we thoroughly concur 
in the good policy and general propriety of the practice 
adopted, our conviction that it is opposed to the wording of 
the ordinance remained unchanged ; therefore, to determine 
the matter we have submitted the question to counsel, with 
the following result : — 

“ ‘ Question for the opinion of counsel. — Under Ordinance 
No. 14 of 1881, are pharmaceutists holding colonial diplomas 
only required to pass the examination as provided for in sec- 
tion 7 before registration, or do they come within the meaning 
of the words “any person holding a diploma or certificate 
entitling him to practise in any of the capacities aforesaid in 
the United Kingdom,” occurring in section 3 V 
“ [opinion.] 

“ ‘ Re Ordinance No. 14 of 1881. 

“ ‘ I have perused the provisions of this ordinance with re- 
ference to the question submitted for my opinion — namely, 
whether pharmaceutists holding colonial diplomas only re- 
quire to pass an examination under clause 7. 

“ ‘ Such persons “would clearly have to pass such examina- 
tion ; the diplomas of recognised colonial universities are 
limited to those of doctor or bachelor of medicine or master of 
surgery, and by omission excludes those of pharmaceutists 
from recognition. I may also point out that even colonial 
pharmaceutists’ diplomas recognised in the United Kingdom 
would not enable the holder to practise in the United King- 
dom without registration there, a condition extremely difficult 
to comply with in the majority of cases, and impossible in the 
residue. “ ‘ J. H. Garrick. 

“ ‘ Chambers, July 29, 1881.’” 


Method of Distinguishing Spurious Honey. — A solution 
of twenty pints of honey in sixty of water mixed with alcohol 
gives a heavy white precipitate of dextrine, if glucose has been 
added ; whilst genuine honey, if treated in the same manner, 
merely becomes milky. — Chemical Neivs, 


NOTICE CONCERNING A NEW ORCHID OF 
VICTORIA. 

(By Baron Ferd, yon Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. and Ph. D,, 
F.R.S.) 

Among a number of orchideous plants collected this spring by 
John M'Kibbin, Esq., near the Upper Loddon, occurs a Thely - 
mitra which cannot be referred to any described species. 
That in a colony so much traversed already for botanical pur- 
poses still an absolutely unknown plant of conspicuous beauty 
should hitherto have been overlooked, even in the neighbour- 
hood of a flourishing town, receives its explanation readily 
enough by the circumstance that this pretty orchid from out- 
ward appearance might by a passing collector of flowers 
readily be taken for a small form of Thelymitra longifolia, 
or T. ixioides. Irrespective of this deceptive external resem- 
blance, the new Thelymitra may be as rare or local as it is 
ephemeral, and may thus during the short period of its 
blooming time — when in spring the ground is gay with flowers 
— easily escape attention anywhere. In this way also we 
became aware only during this spring, through Mr. Nancarrow’s 
circumspection, that the lovely Caladenia coerulea occurs as a 
companion of C. deformis — in its sisterly resemblance long 
unnoticed — towards the Lower Murray River, in the whip- 
stick scrub. Facts like these should encourage residents in 
every district to collect methodically the plants of their 
vicinity ; and this is particularly to be recommended to pharma- 
ceutic gentlemen, settled now in numerous places of Australia, 
especially as they would thereby raise their scientific standing, 
and as through their profession they are interested in a flora but 
scantily as yet investigated as regards the medicinal proper- 
ties of plants. Of this even the present case is a demonstrative 
instance, inasmuch as but few of the very many tuberous terres- 
trial orchids of Australia have been examined for therapeutic 
purposes. The tubers of any kinds, not having a bitter taste, are 
likely as valuable for their mucilage as those of several species 
of orchids, especially the British 0. morio and 0. mascula y 
which yield principally the salep-root, a drug undeservedly 
sunk into oblivion. 

The new tubers soon formed after the flowering time of the 
plants, are thrown for a moment into boiling water, then 
briskly and perfectly dried by artificial heat, and finally 
reduced to powder, which must be preserved in a closed glass 
vessel. To prepare the salep-mucilage as a very pleasant 
vehicle for active medicaments in a mixture, one scruple of 
the powder of salep-root is used for two ounces of boiling 
water. The mucilage thus instantly obtainable has formerly 
been used by itself in infantile diarrhoea with very good results. 
The aborigines were in the habit of utilising the tubers of our 
terrestrial orchids for food. 

The new Thelymitra , which with its congeners should also 
be tested for salep, has been dedicated to its discoverer, and 
may be characterised as follows : — 

Thelymitra M'- Kibbinii. 

Quite glabrous, rather dwarf; basal-leaf very narrow, chan- 
nelled, stem-leaf bract-like, solitary ; flowers two, rarely one; 
sepals acute, faintly streaked by subtle veins ; the outer violet- 
coloured, the inner as well as the slightly shorter labellum 
more deeply blue ; terminal appendage on each side of the 
column bright yellow, straight, nearly oblong, almost sessile, 
minutely papillular-fringed, reaching only as high as the 
anther ; crest between the rather widely disconnected ap- 
pendages much shorter than the anther, yellow, hardly den- 
ticulated ; column from below the crest light blue ; anther 
pale yellow, almost smooth, rather blunt. 

Among quartz gravel on hills along the Upper Loddon 
River, near Maryborough ; John M‘Kibbon, Esq. 

This well-marked species belongs to the section Biaurella ; 
from the blue-flowering kinds of that section — namely T. 
venosa and T. cyanea — our new congener is at once distin- 
guished by the appendages of the column, neither twisted nor 
smooth, nor close to each other ; furthermore by the anther 
not acuminated. It verges in some respects to 1. MacmiU 
lani, with which it is associated on the Loddon, as now shown 
by Mr. M'Kibbin; but the latter plant has the stem more 
slender and also more flexuous, and provided with two bract- 
like leaves ; its outer sepals, in the earlier state, are brownish 
purple outside and yellowish at the margin, while the inner 
sepals and labellum are pale yellow, thus far resembling in 
colouration those of T. antennifera, but all sepals turn finally 
more or less red ; furthermore, the appendages of the column 
visibly overtop the anther, by which means also the sepals 
extend not very much beyond the column. T. Macmillani , as 


October, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


45 


surmised before, may be a hybrid, perhaps arisen from T. 
antennifera and T. earned. The wide severance, colour, 
shape and papillar roughness of the column-appendages 
mark T. Macmillani at once as different in all its stages from 
T. antennifera: , which at the Loddon is also its companion. 
In T. earned the column overreaches the anther, the middle 
space of the summit being nearly at a level with the very short 
lateral appendages. T. APXibbinii is in flower towards the 
end of September and in the beginning of October. 

Incidentally it may be here observed that Mr. Benthamhas, 
in one of the very last of his glorious researches, reduced the 
genus JRampMdia , of which one species at least occurs in 
Queensland, to the older Etaeria or Hetaeria. 



Mr. Samuel H. Heald is about to commence business at 
Numurkah. 

Mr. Edward Thorby Noakes, who was formerly assistant to 
Messrs. Ford and Co., has purchased the business formerly 
carried on by Mr Geo. F. Chamberlain, at Rochester. 

Mr, Geo. Wm. Francis, son of Mr. II. Francis, has gone to 
England to finish his pharmaceutical education. Mr. Francis 
accompanied his son to Adelaide to see him off. 

Mr. 0. V. Morgan was entertained at dinner by Mr. W. 
Johnson, at his residence, Windsor, prior to his departure from 
Victoria. Amongst the gentlemen present were Mr. Bosisto, 
president of the Pharmacy Board ; Mr. Wm. Bowen, president 
of the Pharmaceutical Society ; Mr. C. R. Blackett, Mr. R. 
Langton, &c. Mr. Morgan spoke very warmly in praise of the 
hospitality shown to visitors in Melbourne, which he con- 
sidered the most metropolitan city he had seen since leaving 
London. 

Mr. Wm. Bowen, Toorak, has been appointed to the com- 
mission of the peace. 

Dr. Cecil Jackson was sued in the Maryborough County 
Court for medicine supplied by Mr. Ogle, chemist, to lodges of 
which he was medical attendant. Ogle deposed to a statement 
by Jackson : — “ I have taken all the lodges, and I will take 
jolly good care I will not prescribe anything expensive for the 
beggars.” Mr. Samuel suggested — “ He would give them salts 
and the scourings of kerosene tins instead of quinine.” 


POISONING CASES. 

A SAD case of poisoning took place on the 10th inst., by 
which a little girl named Julia Crocker, aged four, living as 
the adopted daughter of May Anderson, of Sturt-street, Balla- 
rat, lost her life. It appears that the deceased found a bottle 
containing some caustic potash at the head of an old stair- 
case, the bottle, it is said, being placed there by Richard 
Waller, the previous occupant of the house, who found it 
about the premises. The deceased, with the usual curiosity of 
a child, drank some of it, and shortly afterwards Mrs. Ander- 
son noticed the child lying on the floor. She immediately 
picked her up and took her to the hospital, where Dr. Owen at 
once pronounced it to be a hopeless case. Antidotes were, 
however, administered, but without success, and the little 
sufferer expired in the greatest agony. From the evidence 
adduced at the magisterial inquiry held touching the death of 
the child Julia Crocker, it is palpable that tradesmen and 
others should exercise great care so that bottles and other 
vessels containing poisonous substances should not be left 
carelessly about. It was apparent that the poor child acci- 
dentally met her death through drinking poison she had found 
in a bottle which, presumably, had previously been bestowed 
there. The evidence also disclosed that a playmate of the 
deceased, nearly three years old, had partaken of the contents 
of the bottle to a slight degree, but not dangerously, as it 
appears she did not like the taste, and spit the substance out. 
A witness stated that when she heard the deceased screaming 
after the dose, and perceiving her foaming at the mouth, with 
' her tongue perfectly black, she thought the poor little thing 
had drunk some ink, but not observing any other bottle about 
except the one which caused the mischief she took it up and 
applied it to her lips. She stated the mixture was of 
“saltish flavour,” upon which a premonition came upon her 
that it was poison, and immediately snatching up the child 
she carried it to the hospital. If the mixture had been a rank 
poison instead of an irritant poison, it will at once be seen 
that three lives would have been sacrificed. It is well known 


that if a chemist or druggist neglects to label bottles contain- 
ing deleterious substances with the word “poison” the law 
takes cognisance of the fact, and the offender is prosecuted. 
The question naturally arises, why are not other trades or 
professions using poisonous substances subjected to the same 
penalties for not labelling the bottles containing them ? It can 
be plainly seen that poison, when left about, conduces to more 
danger than when securely kept on a druggist’s shelf. 

Another fatal case of poisoning occurred on the 14th instant, 
the victim being a little boy named O’Connor, son of Mr. 
O’Connor, produce merchant, of Doveton-street North. It 
seems that about six years ago Mr. O’Connor bought some 
strychnine, and hid it, as he thought, safely in the stable. 
About two years ago, when another case of poisoning occurred, 
he looked for it to put it away in a safer place, but it was not 
to be found. He gave no further thought to the matter, think- 
ing that it had been got rid of. On Friday, however, the little 
fellow was playing about in the stables, when his mother came 
in and told him that she wanted him to go out. He said that 
he was sick, and could not walk, and that he had eaten some- 
thing out of a paper he had found. His mother looked at the 
paper, and recognised it as the one that had contained the 
strychnine. She immediately sent for Dr. Usher, who set out 
without delay, but by the time he arrived the child was dead. 
He had expired in very little pain. 


GLYCERINE. 

Notwithstanding- the low price which now prevails for almost 
every description of raw produce and manufactured goods, there 
are a few articles which form notable exceptions. Perhaps one 
of the most remarkable of these is refined glycerine, which 
within the last two year§ has advanced from about £30 to £130 
per ton avoirdupois for 30° B. This enormous advance is 
due partly to increased consumption, diminished production, 
and the influence of speculation working on a market devoid 
of stocks. In view of the present position of the article, and 
the prospect of a continuance of high prices for a considerable 
time to come, the attention of soapmakers is now being turned 
to the utilisation of their waste “ leys, ” and various new pro- 
cesses for recovering the glycerine contained in these liquors 
have lately been tried with more or less successful results. 
Apart from minor impurities, waste soap “leys” are generally 
found to contain glycerine, carbonate of soda or caustic soda, 
chloride of sodium, gelatin, and albumen. One of the pro- 
cesses for recovering the glycerine which promise to be the 
most economical and the most successful begins with concen- 
trating the liquor until the salts contained therein begin to 
crystallise. The liquid is then cooled and filtered to rid it of 
gelatin and albumen. It is afterwards made to absorb carbonic 
acid, which precipitates bicarbonate of soda, and first is 
separated from the liquor in the usual way. After undergoing 
this process the liquor is then made to absorb gaseous hydro- 
chloric acid until what remains of carbonate of soda has been 
converted into chloride ; and further, until all, or almost all, 
the chloride of sodium has been precipitated and separated 
from the liquor in the usual manner. Arrived at this stage, 
the liquor contains water, glycerine, and hydrochloric acid. 
The acid is then evaporated entirely and absorbed in water, 
for using afresh. The dilute glycerine remaining can be 
purified by filtering it through animal charcoal, or by concen- 
trating and distilling it in the usual way. 


THE ONLY AMERICAN LEECH FARM. 

In 1841 Mr. H. Witte established a small leech farm in Kent 
Avenue, Williamsburg, L.I. In course of time this small 
establishment was abandoned, and one of thirteen acres was 
established near Newtown, L.I., and to him the writer is 
indebted for the following information and description of the 
only leech farm in America. The breeding ponds consist of 
oblong squares of one and a-half acres each. The bottoms of 
these ponds are of clay, the margins of peat. In J une the leeches 
begin forming their cocoons on the peat margins of the pond. 

The greatest enemies to the young leeches are musk-rats, 
water-rats, and water-shrews, who dig the cocoons out of the 
soft peat breeding margins. Next to rats and shrews is over- 
heating of the peat or the water of the pond ; in fact, nothing 
is so fatal to leeches as a too high temperature. Mr. Witte 
says he has had leeches frozen in solid ice, but by slowly dis- 
solving the ice and gradually increasing the temperature of the 
water the leeches sustained no injury. The depth of the water 


46 THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. October, issi. 


in the ponds during the summer is three feet ; in winter time 
the depth of water is increased, to avoid freezing. 

The leeches are fed every six months on fresh blood placed 
in thin linen bags, which are suspended in the water. The 
leeches, as soon as they smell the blood, assemble from all 
parts of the pond, and attaching themselves to the outside of 
the bag suck the dissolving coagulated blood through the 
linen. Digestion proceeds very slowly with the leech, during 
which time the blood remaining undigested in the stomach of 
the leech is in a fluid state as if just taken in. The excremen- 
tal deposits are of a grass-green colour. The best substance 
for packing leeches in is the peat of their natural ponds made 
into a stiff mud. Water containing tannin, tanic acid, lime, 
salt, or brackish water must be guarded against always ; iron 
is not objectionable, but is an advantage in small quan- 
tities. 

The demand for leeches in the last few years has somewhat 
fallen off in the Eastern and Southern States. The Western 
States and California are now the heaviest buyers. Mr. 
Witte’s sales alone average a thousand a day. The number of 
leeches imported into the United States amounts to about 
thirty thousand yearly. 

The custom of stripping and salting leeches, to cause them 
to disgorge after having been applied, has passed away, as many 
well established cases have occurred of infectious diseases 
having been communicated on the application of the same 
leech to a seQond party. A very popular error exists that a 
leech when applied takes only the bad blood (whatever that 
may be) and rejects the good ; this is a mistake. With a leech 
blood is blood, be it the cold blood of a fish or the warm blood 
of a human being, no matter how diseased that human being 
may be. So long as blood is not tainted or putrid the leech 
will thrive on it. A friend of mine, who was the proprietor 
of a large leech-breeding establishment atthefoot of the Hartz 
Mountains, when wishing to feed his leeches was in the habit 
of hiring poor labourers, at six cents per day, to stand in the 
water for half an hour nearly up to their thighs that the 
leeches might obtain a full gorging of human blood. 

In the marshy lands of Roumania the wild leeches are cap- 
tured by means of men entering the water and allowing the 
wild leeches to fasten on to their naked bodies. The leech 
fisher then strip them off after reaching the shore. 


QUACK MEDICINE. 

At Warwick recently Henry Norman, called a cheap jack, who 
travels from town to town, was brought up on remand, charged 
with having obtained Is. by false pretences from John Magee, 
a valet, of Yardley-terrace, Warwick, on the 26th August. The 
evidence taken at the previous examination was read over. 
On the day named Inspector Hall visited the prisoner’s pavilion, 
where two or three hundred persons were assembled. Prisoner 
produced a Chinese tea-chest, which he proceeded to break 
open. Then he descanted on the wonderful genius of the 
Chinese, and producing from the chest the bottles, which were 
carefully packed in sawdust, said — “These have come all the 
way from China.” They contained, he said, “Chinese mala- 
chite,” a great medicine, which was a specific for rheumatism, 
shortness of breath, and various other maladies. He said he 
would give them “ a treat for that night only,” and would sell 
it at Is. a bottle. Then he sold a number of bottles, and 
Magee, who suffered from tightness in the chest, bought one, 
which he subsequently handed to the police. He had been 
unable to test its efficacy, as his wife refused to allow him to 
take it. Henry Watts, of Coventry, who had been in the 
prisoner’s employ about seven weeks, and, according to his 
own story, left voluntarily, because he could not stand the 
prisoner’s “swindling,” stated the prisoner made the “mala- 
chite” himself, and packed it so as to pretend it had just 
arrived from China, and labelled it up as if it bore the Govern- 
ment stamp. It was made of “ Chili pods, aniseed, cloves, 
cinnamon, cayenne pepper, and black sugar.” The cost would 
be only about a farthing a bottle, and prisoner would sometimes 
sell 1200 or 1300 bottles. Mr. Hugo Young, Midland Circuit, 
in addressing the bench for the defence, contended that the 
accused was entitled to call his medicine Chinese malachite, 
the same as any concoctor of medicine gave them distinctive 
names. Magee never heard the alleged statement, but thought 
the malachite was a patent medicine, and bore the Government 
stamp, and consequently was not thus deceived. The bench 
at once dismissed the case without comment. The result was 
received with immense cheering, repeated outside the court. — 
Morning Post. 


PLANTS IN THEIR RELATION TO HEALTH. 

(A lecture delivered by Mu. C. R. Blackett before the Av . s - 
tralian Health Society.) 

One of the most characteristic and satisfactory movements of 
the present day is that which is so energetically supported by 
health societies. In former days, in consequence of the general 
ignorance of all classes of the people of the physical sciences, 
more particularly chemistry and physiology, little or no atten- 
tion was paid to the physical laws by which the universe is 
governed. In the days of our ancestors such questions as 
drainage, sewage disposal, ventilation, purity of air, tree 
planting, forest conservation, suitability of clothing and diet, 
were not thought of much importance ; certainly very little 
interest was manifested in such subjects, concerning which 
very imperfect and often extremely erroneous notions were 
entertained. 

It had, however, long been known that residents in the 
country districts enjoyed better health, and a longer average 
duration of life, and a greater immunity from many diseases, 
than inhabitants of cities ; that crowded centres of population 
were much less salubrious generally. The poet Cowper said — 
God made the country, man made the town. 

It is now well known that much of the disease which afflicts 
mankind is preventible; and although, notwithstanding our 
greater scientific knowledge, there is much to puzzle us, and 
often baffle our most earnest and intelligent efforts, yet a 
great advance has been made in matters relating to the proper 
methods for preserving health and preventing disease ; and 
when we consider the importance of the science of sanitation, 
in its bearing upon the physical and moral well-being of the 
people, we cannot employ ourselves better than in availing 
ourselves of every addition to our knowledge, and applying it 
immediately in active efforts towards the improvement of the 
health of our population ; for, as Lord Derby observes, “ Don’t 
fancy that the mischief done by disease spreading through the 
community is to be measured by the number of deaths that 
ensue ; that is the least part of the result. As in battle the 
killed bear a small proportion to the wounded, it is not 
merely by the crowded hospitals, the frequent funerals, the 
destitution of families, or the increased pressure of public 
burdens that you may test the suffering of a nation over which 
sickness has passed. The real and lasting injury lies in the 
deterioration of the race ; in the seeds of disease transmitted 
to future generations ; in the degeneracy and decay which are 
never detected till the evil is irreparable, and even then the 
cause remains often undiscovered.” Our national vigour and 
energy, our social and domestic well-being and happiness, our 
progress generally, depends upon a wise attention and obe- 
dience to those universal, inexorable, and beneficent laws 
by which the life of the animal is regulated. 

The relation which exists between the animal and vegetable 
world is one of surpassing interest, and a clear conception of 
the mutual adaptations involved in that relationship is of great 
utility. We shall see that the two great kingdoms of nature 
existing upon the earth, living upon the soil, and in the atmo- 
sphere, are involved in one ceaseless and mutually dependent 
revolution. The soil, the animal, the plant, every atom, has 
its fate determined by fixed and unerring laws. 

The visible universe is made up of matter and force, equally 
indestructible. “ The amount of force which is in operation in 
the earth (and probably in the solar system) is as definite as 
that of the material elements through which its existence is 
made known to us.” 

E.g., a pound of charcoal when burned in air combines with 
2§ lbs. of oxygen, and produces 3| lbs. of anhydrous car- 
bonic acid. This chemical combination is attended with the 
extrication of a definite amount of heat ; and if it be applied 
without loss, is sufficient to convert 12£ lbs. of water at 15° C. 
(59° F.) into steam at 100° C. (212° F.). Associated with each 
pound of charcoal there must be, therefore, a certain 
amount of energy or force, which is brought into action when 
the charcoal is burnt ; in the same way, when phosphorus, sul- 
phur, hydrogen, zinc, and copper, &c., are burnt or oxydised. 
(The lecturer here conducted several illustrative experiments.) 
Further, there is no such thing as destruction of force — ex. gr ., 
Joule’s Law of the J\J echanical Equivalent of Heat. The 
carefully conducted experiments of Dr. Joule show that the 
actual quantity of heat developed by friction is dependent 
simply upon the amount of force expended, without regard to 
the nature of the substances rubbed together. He found, as a 
mean of forty closely concordant experiments, that when 
water was agitated by means of a horizontal brass paddle 
wheel, made to revolve by the descent of a known weight, 


October, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


47 


the temperature of 1 lb. of water was raised 1° F. by the 
expenditure of an amount of force sufficient to raise 772 lbs. 
to the height of one foot. The conclusion arrived at was that 
the quantity of heat capable of raising the temperature of 
1 lb. of water (between 55° and 60°) by 1° F. requires for its 
evolution the expenditure of a mechanical force sufficient to 
raise 772 lbs. one foot (Phil. Trans., 1859). (Chemical 
affinity, heat, light, magnetism, and electricity were here 
briefly touched upon.) 

Matter (the various substances of which the universe is com- 
posed) is resolvable into simple elementary bodies. Iron, 
gold, silver, oxygen, &c., are simple bodies; and so on to some 
61 undecomposed substances. Water (II 2 0) is a compound 
body. Of these elementary substances only 14 occur in large 
quantities: — C, H, O, N, P, S, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na., Al., Cl., Si. 
(The lecturer here made remarks on the soil and atmosphere 
and the above constituents of plants and animals.) Organised 
beings have been arranged under two heads, two great divisions 
— animals and plants ; and, although the lowest genera in each 
division approximate so closely that it is almost if not quite 
impossible to fix where one begins and the other ends, yet in 
their general relationships they are widely different, and 
opposed to each other in the functions which they discharge 
in the order of nature. The operations of vegetable life are 
complementary to those of animal life in the nicely adjusted 
balance of organic life, each affording support and nourishment 
to the other, and mutually dependent. (The contrast between 
animals and plants was explained by diagrams.) 

There are observers of repute who maintain that there are 
certain organisms which are animals at one period of their 
lives and plants at another, and vice versa. The recent investi- 
gation of De Bary have an important bearing upon this question. 
He describes certain fungi, the spores of which, when germinat- 
ing, give rise to a body undistinguishable from the ameba, one 
of the lowest forms of animal life. However, we know that 
plants have a place in nature intermediate between minerals 
and animals, and derive their nourishment from the earth 
and atmosphere, and that plants alone have the power of 
converting the inorganic, or mineral, matter into organic. 
Animals live on organic matter, and reconvert it into in- 
organic. Animals cannot produce protoplasm. Professor 
Huxley, in his work on the Physical Basis of Life , says 
“ that a unity of power or faculty, a unity of form, and 
a unity of substantial composition pervade the whole living 
world.” The attempt to define or explain the phenomena of 
life in plants or animals has been made, but we are not called 
upon to detail the various metaphysical and scientific definitions 
here. Of one thing we are certain — that all the pheno- 
mena of life in plants are due to solar radiance. The 
undulations of the sun’s heat penetrate the soil, and set 
in motion the atoms of the rootlet, and enable them to 
shake hydrogen atoms out of equilibrium with oxygen 
atoms, which cluster about them in the compound molecules 
of water. The swifter undulations are arrested by the leaves, 
and enable them to dislodge atoms of carbon from the carbonic 
acid in which they move. These disturbances of equilibrium 
cause a series of rhythmical motions in the form of the alter- 
nately ascending and descending sap. Cells and fibres are then 
developed. Plants are “ the air-woven children of light.” As 
only in special physical conditions can vegetable life exist, so 
it is also with the animal. In that collection and combination 
of substance which constitutes an animal there is a per- 
petual introduction of fresh matter, and a constant departure 
of the old material. The permanence of the individual 
depends upon the permanence of external conditions. As 
they change, so it changes, and a new form is the result. 
That which we call life is the display of the manner in which 
the force thus disengaged is expended. As has been said by 
Draper, a scientific examination of animal life must include 
two primary facts — it must consider in what manner the stream 
of material substance has been derived ; in what manner and 
whither it passes away; and since force cannot be created from 
nothing, and is in its very nature indestructible, it must deter- 
mine from what source that which is displayed by animals has 
been obtained, in what manner it has been employed, and what 
disposal is made of it eventually. As pointed out before, the 
force expended is originally derived from the sun. 

Plants are the intermediate agents for its conveyance. The 
inorganic saline material of which they are composed is derived 
from the soil in which they grow, and also the greater part of 
the water so essential to their existence. The organic matter 
of plants is derived from the air ; and so we may say, to use 


the words of Mottschut again, “ they are the air- woven children 
of light,” condensed from the air. 

The chemical explanations of vegetable physiology rest 
principally upon the discovery of oxygen by the illustrious 
Priestley, carbonic acid by Lavoiser, and the composition of 
water by Cavendish and Watt. 

When the sun shines the leaves of plants decompose carbonic 
acid, one of the ingredients of atmospheric air ; this substance 
is composed of the two elements, carbon and oxygen. The 
carbon is appropriated by the plant, and enters into the com- 
position of the sap, from which organic products, such as starch, 
sugar, wood-fibre, &c., are made. The oxygen now liberated 
from the carbon is for the most part refused by the plant, and is 
returned to the air , and as the process goes on, fresh portions 
of carbonic acid CO 2 are ready to be absorbed and decom- 
posed. The leaves are trembling in an atmosphere warmed by 
the sun’s rays, and over their surface warm currents are con- 
tinually passing. 

The plant’s function, then, is to separate the combustible 
carbon from the air. Carbon is thus obtained from carbonic 
acid C0 2 and H from water H 2 0. Plant life is, chemically 
speaking, an operation of reduction. Plants decompose in a 
similar way ammonia into its constituents, nitrogen and 
hydrogen ; and sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid are made 
to give up their oxygen, the phosphorus and sulphur being 
appropriated. The whole vegetable world has thus been and 
is the result of the solar radiance, formed of matter once 
united to oxygen. In the wonderful series of decompositions 
which take place in the plant, force or energy, in the form of 
light, has disappeared and become incorporated with the 
organic matter of the vegetal organism. This force is ready 
to be given up again when oxidation takes place — e.g ., coal in 
our fires. Vegetable products constitute a magazine of force 
ready for our use ; hence their adaptation to our wants as 
food, and for the production of warmth. The plant in the 
secondary geological periods locked up the carbon in its 
tissues for future ages ! ! Oil, fat, wax, &c., like coal, 
have all derived their carbon, or force-giving properties, 
from the sun. “When one takes,” says Professor Fiske, 
“a country ramble on a pleasant summer’s day, one may 
fitly ponder upon the wondrous significance of this law 
of the transformation of energy. It is wondrous to reflect 
that all the energy stored up in the timber of the fences 
and farmhouses which we pass, as well as the grindstone and 
the axe lying beside it, and in the iron axles and heavy tires 
of the cart which stands tipped by the roadside ; all the 
energy from moment to moment given out by the roaring 
cascade and the busy wheel that rumbles at its foot ; by the 
undulating stalks of corn in the field, and the swaying 
branches of the forest beyond ; by the birds that sing in the 
tree tops, and the butterflies to which anon they give chase ; 
by the cow standing in the brook, and the water which bathes 
her lazy f:et ; by the sportsman who passes, shooting in the 
distance, as well as by the dogs and guns ; — that all this multi- 
form energy is nothing but metamorphosed solar radiance, and 
that all these various objects, giving life and cheerfulness to 
the landscape, have been built up into their cognisable forms 
by the agency of sunbeams, such as those by which the scene 
is now rendered visible. We may well declare with Professor 
Tyndall that the grandest conceptions of Dantd and Milton 
are dwarfed in comparison with the truths which science 
discloses. But it seems to me that we can go further than 
this, and say that we have here reached something deeper than 
poetry. In the sense of illimitable vastness with which we 
are oppressed and saddened as we strive to follow out in 
thought the eternal metamorphosis we may recognise the 
modern phase of the feeling which led the ancient to fall 
upon his knees and adore — after his own crude symbolic 
fashion — the invisible Power, whereof the infinite web of 
phenomena is but the visible garment.” 

The lecturer alluded to the sanitary influences produced by 
plants, the purification of the air, the disintegration of the 
soil by the roots of trees, the drainage of the soil, the import- 
ance of the conservation of forests, the disastrous results which 
had ensued in many parts of the world through the wanton 
and ignorant destruction of forests ; and, in conclusion, made 
the following remarks upon the exhalation of water by leaves 
and the preservation of forests : — 

A common sun-flower, 3^ feet high, with a surface of 5’ 616 
square inches, exhaled 20 ounces a day (Hales). If 
such a large amount of fluid be thus given off by a single 
plant, what an enormous quantity must be exhaled by 


48 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


October, 1881. 


the whole vegetation of the earth. It can easily be understood 
that the air of a thickly wooded district will be always in a 
damp condition, while one with a scanty vegetation will be 
dry ; and hence we conclude that a country to be perfectly 
healthy should have the proportion of plants carefully pre- 
served. It has also an important bearing upon the fertility of 
the soil, and thus, indirectly, upon the health of the inha- 
bitants. Many regions, once remarkable for their fertility, 
now are barren wastes through neglect of these facts. 

To quote the forcible language of our eminent botanist, 
Baron von Mueller — “ The existence of many an invalid might 
be prolonged and rendered more enjoyable, while many a 
sufferer might be restored to health, were he timely to embrace 
the patriarchic simplicity of forest life, and were he to seek 
the pure air, wafted decarbonised in delicious freshness 
through the forest, ever to invigorate strength and restore ex- 
hilaration and buoyancy of mind. Let us regard forests as an 
inheritance given to us by nature, not to be despoiled or 
devastated, but to be wisely used, reverently honoured, and 
carefully maintained. Let us regard the forests as a gift 
entrusted to us only for transient care, to be surrendered to 
posterity as an unimpaired property, increased in riches and 
augmented in blessings ; to pass as a sacred patrimony from 
generation to generation.” 


NON-EXPLOSIVE KEROSENE. 

Very frequently of late we have received from correspondents, 
east and west, samples of “ stuff” sold them by peddlers, with 
the assurance that when a little of these preparations are 
mixed with the poorest burning oil the latter is rendered per- 
fectly safe. Of course one of the chief inducements to use 
these compositions is the assurance that with them a much 
cheaper oil of equal illuminating power can be used safely. 

This fraud is a very dangerous one, and perhaps the best way 
to stop it is by the diffusion of a little practical information 
respecting these oils. 

In the first place, there is nothing that can be added to or 
mixed with poor kerosene oil that will in the least affect its 
dangerous qualities, or make it any safer to use in lamps. The 
danger with such oils arises solely from the presence in them 
of light, easily volatilised, and very inflammable hydro-carbons, 
such as naphtha, the vapour of which, when mixed with air, 
explodes on contact with flame. 

Kerosene and naphtha, or benzine, are derived by a process 
of distillation from the same substance — petroleum. The 
lighter oils — gasoline, naphtha, benzine, &c. — are first vola- 
tilised and condensed. As the products distil over they are 
tested from time to time with a hydrometer, and when it is 
found that the stream of distilled oil marks about 58 deg. 
(Baume’s hydrometer), what follows is turned into another 
tank, until it is found that the gravity of the oil coming over 
has risen to about 40 deg., then the stream is deflected into 
another tank. The oil distilled between 58 deg. and 38 deg. is 
called kerosene or burning oil. 

In this process about 15 per cent, of the light oils are pro- 
duced, and, as there is comparatively little demand for them, 
they are very cheap. Naphtha costs from two to five cents a 
gallon, while good kerosene costs from twenty to twenty-five 
cents. As great competition exists among the refiners, there 
is a strong inducement to turn the heavier portions of the 
naphtha into the kerosene tank, so as to get for it the price 
of kerosene, or to cheapen the latter. They change the 
direction of the stream from the still when it reaches 65 deg. 
to 60 deg. B., instead of waiting until it reaches 58 deg.; and 
thus the volatile inflammable naphtha or benzine is allowed to 
run into the kerosene, rendering the whole of the latter 
dangerous. It has been shown that one per cent, of naphtha 
will lower the flashing point of kerosene ten degrees, while 
with 20 per cent, of naphtha the same oil will flash at 8 deg. 
(Fahr.) above the freezing point of water. It is, therefore, 
the cupidity of the refiner that leads him to run as much ben- 
zine as possible into the kerosene, regardless of the conse- 
quences. 

The specific gravity is not a safe guide respecting the 
character of such oils, as a poor, dangerous oil may be heavier 
than a safe oil. Astral oil illustrates this. While it does not 
flash below 125 deg. Fahr., its gravity is 49 deg. B. Poor 
kerosene flashes at 86 deg. Fahr., but has a gravity of 47 deg. B. 

Kerosene when properly refined is nearly colourless by trans- 
mitted light and slightly fluorescent by reflected light. Its 
density should be about 43 deg. B. At ordinary temperatures 
it should extinguish a match as readily as water, without 


becoming inflamed or flashing , and when heated it should not 
evolve an inflammable vapour below 110 deg. Fahr., and should 
not take fire below 125 deg. to 140 deg. Fahr. 

As the temperature in a burning lamp rarely exceeds 100 
deg. Fahr., such an oil would be safe. It would produce no 
vapours to mix with the air in the lamp and make an explo- 
sive mixture, and if the lamp were overturned or broken the 
oil would not take fire. 

The standard which has generally been adopted by law as a 
safe one fixes the flashing point at 100 deg. Fahr., or higher. 

Professor Chandler, president of the New York city board 
of health, says : — “ Out of 736 samples of kerosene oil tested 
by me, only 28 were really safe, all the rest evolving inflam- 
mable vapour below 100 deg. Fahr.” In his paper on the 
temperature of oil in lamps ( American Chemist. August, 1872, 
p. 43), Dr. Chandler has shown that in some cases the 
temperature of their contents often rises above 100 deg. Fahr. 
— Scientific A merican. 


Varnish for Preventing Rust.— A varnish for this pur- 
pose may be made of 120 parts resin, 180 sandarac, 50 gum 
lac. They should be heated gradually until melted, and 
thoroughly mixed, then 120 parts of turpentine added, and 
subsequently, after heating, 180 parts rectified alcohol. After 
careful filtration, it should be put into tightly-corked bottles. 

Certain Facts towards the History of Phosphores- 
cence. — Phosphorus in an atmosphere of pure oxygen is not 
luminous, but the introduction of a bubble of ozone sets up 
phosphorescence for a moment. Oil of turpentine prevents 
phosphorescence, and it possesses the property of destroying 
ozone. The illumination of phosphorous in oxygen by means 
of ozone is a means of detecting the presence of the latter. — 
J Clwppuis. 


Boohs , J'c., Received. — The Australian Medical Journal for 
October ; the American Journal of Pharmacy ; the Drug- 
gists' Circular , New York; the Pharmaceutical Journal; 
the Australasian Medical Gazette ; and Messrs. Langton, 
Edden, Hicks and Clark’s “ Market Report” of 26th August, 
which states that the dulness of trade which characterised 
produce and chemical markets at the date of our last issue has 
given way to some extent, and a slight activity is noticeable, 
and more especially in the latter. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

T HEREBY give notice that at an Election of a Member 
of the Pharmacy Board of Victoria, vice John Kruse, 
resigned, held before me at No. 4 Mutual Provident 
Buildings, Collins-street, Melbourne, on Monday, the 
10th of October, 1881, Cuthbert Robert Blackett, Esq., 
of Gertrude-street, Fitzroy, was duly elected unopposed ; 
and I therefore declare the said C. R. Blackett a Member 
of the Pharmacy Board of Victoria. 

ALLAN THOMAS BEST, 

Returning Officer. 

Dated at Melbourne, the 10th October, 1881. 


1J\ H E ANNUAL DINNER 
Of the 

PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA, 

In Aid of the 
BENEVOLENT FUND, 

Will be held at 

CLEMENT’S CAFE, SWANSTON STREET, 
On Wednesday, the 16th Nov., 1881, 

At Eight o’clock p.m. 


Tickets, One Guinea each, can be obtained on applica- 
tion to Mr. Shillinglaw, at the Office, 100 Collins-street, 
or from any member of the Council. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


He to anii <§>tanbarb JEebical (Iltork# 

ON SALE BY 

GEO. ROBERTSON 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

BOOKSELLER & STATIONER, 

33 & 33 Little Collins Street West, 

M ELBOUR ISTJEm . 


The Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts, Processes, and 

Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions and 
Trades, including Pharmacy and Hygiene, by Arnold J. Cooley, 

2 volumes 47s. 6d. 


Beasley — The Book of Prescriptions ... ... ... ... ... ... 7s. 6d. 

Beasley — The Druggist’s General Receipt Book ... ... ... ... 7s. 

Beasley — The Pocket Formulary and Synopsis of the British and Foreign Pharma- 
copoeias . 7s. 6d. 

FOWIieS — A Manual of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical, 2 vols. ... ... 21s. 

Mayne — A Medical Vocabulary: being an Explanation of all Terms and Phrases 
used in the various departments of Medical Science and Practice, giving 
their Derivation, Meaning, Application, and Pronunciation ... ... ll s . 6d. 

Taylor — On Poisons in Relation to Medicine ... ... ... ... ... 18s. 

Bloxam — Laboratory Teaching: Progressive Exercises in Practical Chemistry, 

illustrated ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ‘ ’ 6s. 6d. 

Royle — A Manual of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, illustrated ... ... 17s. 

Carpenter — The Microscope and its Revelations, illustrated ... ... ... 17s. 

DlCk— Encyclopaedia of Practical Receipts and Processes, 6,400 Receipts ... ... 25s. 

Squire— A Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia, comparing the strength of its 
various Preparations with those of the United States and other Foreign 
Pharmacopoeias, &c. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 

Fenwick — The Student’s Guide to Medical Diagnosis, illustrated ... ... 7s. 6d. 

-Savory — a Compendium of Domestic Medicine, and Companion to the Medicine 


A COMPLETE CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL BOOKS TO BE HAD ON APPLICATION. 

GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

33 and 35 Little Collins Street West, Melbourne, 

AND AT 

'SYDNEY, BRISBANE, -AJSTJD lYIXIAIjlYIIJIA 

A v — . 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


TRADE NOTICE. 


REDUCED LIST 


FOR 


INDIA RUBBER GOOD 


BREAST RELIEVERS — Maw’s Green 

Ordinary, Green 
White 

Elastic Gum Bougies, 1 to 12 
„ Catheters, 1 to 12 
Chest Expanders 

Flat, silk covered 


2 oz., 30/-; 4 oz., 36/-; 6 oz., 50/- pi 

' 24/-, 30/- 

... ... 3 oz., 21/- 


7/- 


No. 2, 22/-; 3, 28/-; 4, 36/- 
45/- and 60/- 
' ' " 33/- 


36/- 

48/- 

56/- 


45/- 


ENEMAS — Higginson’s Green ordinary, in cedar boxes, with Elastic Gum Pipe and Shield 
?? ?? Export, with disconnecting mounts 

» ?? Family, complete 

» ,? Perfection, Male and Female Pipes 

» » Complete, in polished cedar box, as Fig. 14, Maw’s 

» „ Moulded, seamless, in cedar boxes ... 

Ingram’s seamless, in Black, White, and Red Rubber, best quality, ova' 
morocco covered cases 

Higginson’s White Barrel 

Feeding Bottle Fittings— Black and White, Tube, Teat, and Cork to fit any Bottle 

Feeding Bottle Tubing — Black, best quality 

Red „ ... ... ... ... ... ... 

p » White 

Gum Rings — Extra quality and thickness, Drab and Black 

Ice Bags— Chapman’s, all rubber 10 in., 8/6; 14 in., 10/6; 18 in., 14/-; 22 in., 17/6 < 

Injection Bottles — Black and Green, assorted mounts, Clyster, Ear, and Urethra, 1 oz., 12/-; 

. 2 oz., 16/-; 3 oz., 18/-; 4oz.,23/-; 6 oz., 27/-; 8 oz., 30/-; 10oz.,33/-; 12oz.,40/-; 16oz.,50/- 
Martin’s Bandages — Best selected pure Para Rubber, 19 gauge, 3 in. wide, 10^- ft., 78/-; 15 ft., 


72/- . 
24/- 
48/- p 

10/6 p 
12/- 

4/9 

3/- ; 




102/-; 21 ft., 150/- per doz. 

21 gauge, 3 in. wide, 10 J ft., 60/-; 15 ft., 84/-; 21 ft., 114/- 

30/- 

... ... ... Black, 4/6; Drab, 3/6- 

Black, 45/-; Red Galantes, 9/- | 

No. 1, 7/6; No. 2, 11/6; No. 3, 14/-; No. 6, 21/- j 

No. 1, 7/6; No. 2, 11/6; No. 3, 14/- . 

No. 1, 4/6; No. 2, 7/6; No. 3, 11/6; No. 6, 21/- 

The above are Best Quality, in One Dozen Boxes. 

Teething Pads — Black and Red, on 1 doz. Cards ... ... ... ... ... 3/- doz.; 33/- 

„ and Rings ’ 49 L 

Urinals — Male and Female, plain and cloth covered ... ... ... ... from 5/- to 15/- 


„ I.R. Knee Caps 
Nipple Shields — Best thin 
Spray Bellows 

Teats — Best quality — Black . 
,, Red . 

„ „ White . 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & i 


31 FLINDERS LANE WEST, MELB OURNE. 




■ / U& . '(-t /-yy/j fiiSvC. thAs* / r x - cO~s\C WA t^A^. HC^'Vrvfl^ >'W^i stlc t**-' '/l +■ 

[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] ' ~ 



£/e^. UDnuyf ■ 


M. i -**. +3j n- St (ticnr. /*r/L 4 

(Lhptst w Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 

("Publislied under direction of tlie Fliarmacentical Society of Victoria,) 


THE 



>r a of Published on the 15th 1 
IN 0. -Ip. \ of every Month. ) 
Registered for Transmission as a Newspaper. 


NOVEMBER, 1881. 


^ Subscription, _ 15s. per Annum, 


including Diary, Post Free. 


I O E. 


=-*-= 


REGISTRATION 


OF 


MOTHER SEIOEE'S SYRUP 


VICTORIA. 


Extract from. The Government Gazette, Friday 0 th January, 1880. 

APPLICATION FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ONE TRADE MARK— No. 271. 

To the Registrar-General, Melbourne. 

I ANDREW JUDSON WHITE, of 34 and 40 Ludgate Hill, London, patent medicine vendor, apply to be registered 
9 as proprietor of a trade mark being an oblong label having the words “ Mother Seigel’s” on an extended ribbon 
crossing an American shield surrounding an oval band bearing the words 
“Curative Syrup” “Operating Pills” and at base another extended ribbon 
similar to the first bearing the words “ Extract of American roots.” Within 
this oval band a sketch of an old woman dressed as a quakeress seated 
at a table with an open book thereon and (supposed to be) giving directions 
to a girl standing with a cup and spoon, one in each hand, on the other side 
of table. Without the oval band the words “ A. J. White ” and “ London,” 
the oval band having on the left but removed thereform a ribbon carried on 
two supports or rods bearing the words “ for impurities of the blood ” and on 
the rivht but removed from the oval band or ribbon carried similar to the 
last but bearing the words “ for dyspepsia and liver complaints,” thus : — 

I desire that the said trade mark may be registered in respect of the description of goods following, contained in class 3, 
that is to say : — Patent Medicines. A. J. WHITE. 

Witness — D. H. McLauchlan, 67 Strand, W.C. 

EDWARD WATERS, Agent for Applicant. 







Extracted from White’s Almanac foe. 1882, now issued throughout the Colonies. 

NOTICE TO CONSUMERS OP MOTHER SEIGEL’S SYRUP. 

“ I have Registered the Trade Mark Label in all the Colonies, and I shall protect the 
public from imitations. 

“ The Wholesale Agents, whose names are printed in this book, receive their supplies direct 
from me in America, and the public can rely upon the article being genuine.” 


Melbourne— FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO.; Sydney— ELLIOTT BROS.; Brisbane— ELLIOTT BROS. & CO.; 
Adelaide— A. M. BICKFORD & SONS ; Hobart— A. P. MILLER ; Dunedin, Christchurch, Wellington, 
Auckland— KEMPTHORNE, PROSSER & CO.’S NEW ZEALAND DRUG CO. LIMITED; 
Launceston— L. FAIRTHORNE & SON. 

A. J. WHITE LIMITED, 

21 FARRINGDON ROAD. LONDON, E.C. 



To guard against Imitations, Note the above facsimile of Label, as printed in 

“THE GOVERNMENT GAZETTE.” 


Printed by Mason, Firth & M'Outcheon, 51 & 53 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne. 






THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


. 


PEARCE’S LAVENDER 



With Musk. 


T his is a well-known fragrant 
Perfume, and from its cheap- 
ness may be used lavishly. 

Sprinkled about the Room, or 
used in a Bath, it will be found 
most refreshing and invigorating. 

As a perfume for the handker- 
chief, its peculiar fragrance and ex- 
quisitely penetrating odour, so de- 
lightfully refreshing in hot climates 
and grateful to the invalid, render 
it one of the Standard Perfumes 
of the day. 


PROPRIETORS: 


HEMMONS, LAWS & C? 


WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS. 


• 9 





THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


49 


U-f no. 4- S'. 


November, 1881. 


QiW’t 



INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 


Leading Article — 

A Failure of Justice 49 

Tiie Month 50 

Meetings— 


Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria .... 50 


page 

Tiie Annual Dinner of tiie Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria 50 

Pharmaceutical Society’s Medal in Gold 53 
Definition of a New Tree from East 
Australia 53 


PAGE 


Personalities 53 

Legal and Magisterial — 

Charge of Murder 54 

Notes and Abstracts 56 


Cijc ©fiemtat antr Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to Tiie Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards ..200 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer— not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

Members whose subscriptions are unpaid on the 31st 
December, 1881, are respectfully informed that in 
accordance with Rule 14 their names will be omitted 
from the list, and after that date they cease to be 
Members of the Society. 


THE LIBRARY. 

The Library is open to Members daily, from 9.30 a.m. 
to 4.30 p.m. 


BIRTH. 

Marshall.— On the 8th November, at *251 Chapel-street, Windsor, the wife 
of W. J. Marshal], pharmacist, of a daughter. 

DEATH. 

Thomas. — On the 5th November, at Albert-street, Windsor, Hugh Roberts 
Thomas. 


A FAILURE OF JUSTICE. 

The horrible tragedy at Sandhurst, which resulted in the 
death of an unfortunate young woman, excited throughout 
the colony a feeling of disgust and indignation ; and when 
it became known that the punishment meted out to the 
wretched impostor who perpetrated the foul deed which 
ended so fatally, was so absurdly inadequate, every right- 
minded person felt that justice had not been done. The 
notorious J. E. Wall, who has for years been practising 
as a medical man illegally and ignorantly, has escaped 
almost “ unwhipt of justice.” The true story of this 
man’s life will never be known ; could it be, we have no 
doubt but that horrors upon horrors would accumulate. 
All the details of the case of the Queen v. Wall are so 
disgusting that it is most painful to read them, bringing 
disgrace upon our common humanity; and, moreover, 
that this convicted quack and murderer is on the roll of 
registered pharmaceutical chemists causes us deep regret 
and indignation. We trust that the Pharmacy Board 
will at once take steps to remove Wall’s name from the 


register which he has so disgraced. We have no doubt 
but that the Board will resolutely do its duty. 

The remarks made in a forcible leader in the Bendigo 
Independent are so thoroughly in accordance with our 
feelings upon this case, that we have no hesitation in 
quoting them. The italics are our own : — 

“Here we have had in our midst for twenty-nine long 
years a man who, without legal qualifications to act as a 
medical practitioner, has nevertheless usurped the func- 
tions conferred by law on men who have, by years of 
previous training, fitted themselves to perform the humane, 
honourable, and responsible duties of a doctor of medicine, 
or of a surgeon. Pursuing his calling — we cannot call it 
his profession — for nearly thirty years, how has he 
contrived to live ? Holding for many years the position 
of a registrar of births, marriages, and deaths, the mind 
shudders at the thought of this man’s life history being 
one day laid bare. But the true history of his life will 
probably never be written, or, if written, would never find 
a publisher. From what little we know as facts, his 
unknown deeds can easily be surmised. On several 
different occasions he has been called on to answer for 
his malpractices. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to say 
that he has lived in continual fear of the law, but 
until now he has contrived to escape punishment; yet 
when conviction at last overtook him, to what did it actually 
amount? Tried for murder, for one of the foulest crimes 
ever perpetrated in the district, the jury retitrns a merciful 
verdict of manslaughter, and the judge sentences the culprit 
to a year's imprisonment — less by six months than the 
sentence inflicted in the same court only two days before on 
a man for stealing a few shillings' worth of sheepskins. It 
is the old story — crimes against the person are of little 
regard in the eyes of the law ; it is blasphemy of the 
rankest to interfere with the rights of property. With 
another judge presiding this — to use the politest language 
— excessively mild sentence might, according to recent 
precedents, have been expected ; but when in dealing 
with the Mitiamo shooting case — rising out of a 
drunken quarrel — His Honour Judge Williams, addressing 
the prisoner Sugrue, stated that offences against the 
person were more heinous than offences against property, 
and should be punished accordingly, we scarcely antici- 
pated that Mr. Williams would be found outdoing in 
unwarrantable leniency the decision of Judge Holroyd at 
the recent sittings of the Central Criminal Court, to which 
we referred in last Monday’s issue. This time next year 
James Egan Wall will again be loose on society, his odious 
calling well advertised by the trial throughout the length 
and breadth of Victoria and of the neighbouring colonies. 
Granting that he possesses some medical skill, will his 
twelve months’ incarceration change the past character of 
the man? In other words, will he, when he emerges 
from the Sandhurst gaol, come out a changed being, 
determined to use whatever knowledge he has in a manner 


50 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1881. 


morally, if not legally, right, or will he revert to his old 
practices, calculating that the danger is counterbalanced 
by the increased profits ? Approaching three-score and 
ten, can reformation be expected 1 ? We think not. And 
in the sentence recorded, what is there to strike fear 
into the depraved hearts of others of his calling — who 
are, there is reason to believe, to be readily found 
in all centres of population 1 There is no crime more 
difficult to prove than the one for which James Egan 
Wall was convicted ; there is no crime more immoral, 
both in a religious and a physical sense ; none more cal- 
culated to encourage the meanest, most selfish form of 
vice to which poor corrupt human nature is susceptible — 
yet, with all this, the convicted felon — one whose practices 
were, by a whole generation of Sandhurst residents, 
regarded as notorious — escapes with punishment such as 
is every day in ordinary police courts meted out for the 
most trivial offences.” 

Our readers will remember that Mr. Mortensen was 
sentenced to a year’s imprisonment -for accidentally 
poisoning a person. A lamentable affair, and, no doubt, 
the result of carelessness somewhere, but there was no 
wickedness; it was “ death by misadventure.” In Wall 
we have a cold-blooded quack, recklessly causing the 
death of a human being, and a vile abortionist ! and yet 
the judge thinks twelve months’ imprisonment enough. 


elite itTonth. 


The annual dinner of the Pharmaceutical Society, held on 
the 16th of this month, was the most successful gathering of 
the sort that has ever taken place in the colony. The attend- 
ance was very good, and the dinner — an excellent one — reflects 
great credit on Mr. Clements, the caterer. The company 
seemed to thoroughly enjoy themselves. 

In consequence of the pressure on our space, we are compelled 
to hold over several reports and letters. 


At the next quarterly meeting of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, which will take place on the 2nd December, Mr. 
C. R. Blackett will read a paper on “ Lolium Temulentum.” 


We believe that Dr. Bird is a candidate for the appointment 
of lecturer on medicine in the University, in place of Dr. 
James Robertson. It is almost needless to add that Dr. Bird’s 
qualifications for the position are of the first order. Dr. Bird’s 
appointment to the chair of medicine would render necessary 
his resignation of the lectureship on materia medico , which he 
has held for many years. There are sure to be a good many 
applications for this position, inasmuch as, financially, it has 
the advantage of the lectureships of the more advanced years 
in the Medical School. And as it is proposed to separate the 
subject into two divisions — namely, materia medico proper 
and therapeutics and hygiene — it would be necessary to 
appoint two lecturers to succeed Dr. Bird. The question of a 
lectureship on pharmacy, which has been several times before 
the council and the faculty of medicine, may also probably 
come up again. 

Mr. Frank Illingworth (Jones and Co., 108 Lonsdale-street) 
has been appointed the sole instrument maker to Melbourne 
Hospital. 


Messrs Rocke, Tompsitt and Co. are the successful tenderers 
for the supply of drugs, &c., to the Melbourne Hospital for the 
current year. 


The next session at the School of Pharmacy will commence 
on the 6th February, 1882. 


The quarterly general meeting of the society will be held at 
the rooms on Friday, the 2nd December. 


Jftcetwg*. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The monthly meeting of the Council was held at the rooms, 
100 Collins-street, on Friday evening, the 4th November, 1881. 
Present : Messrs. Bowen, Blackett, Gamble, Huntsman, Nicholls, 
Baker, Jones, and Shillinglaw. The President (Mr. Wm. Bowen) 
in the chair. The minutes of the previous meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

New Members. — Mr. Charles G. Hill, of Adelaide, was elected 
a member, and the President of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Queensland, an honorary member. 

Gold Medals to Students at the School of Pharmacy. — Mr. 
Blackett submitted the conditions under which the medals to 
be given by the Society to the student who shall pass the best 
examination in materia medica, botany, and elementary and 
practical chemistry, which were adopted. 

The Tariff Commission . — At the suggestion of Mr. George 
Lewis, it was resolved that action be taken by the Society to 
ensure some uniformity in the questions to be sent in to the 
Commission, and the President of the Society (Mr. W. Bowen) 
was appointed as a delegate to represent the trade before the 
Commission. 

Lectures at the School of Pharmacy . — It was resolved 
to advertise for lectures at the school on materia medica , 
botany, and elementary and practical chemistry for the year 
1882. 

Amendment of the Sale and Use of Poisons Act . — A com- 
munication was received from the Pharmacy Board, asking 
the Society to consider the advisability of revising the Poisons 
Act, and a sub-committee, consisting of Messrs. Bowen, 
Blackett, Johnson, and J. C. Jones, be appointed to deal with 
the matter, and to report at the next meeting. 

Correspondence . — From Mr. Grounds, Levuka, Fiji, stating 
that the Government had agreed to accept the certificate of 
the Pharmacy Board as a qualification to carry on business as 
a pharmaceutical chemist in Fiji. From the Secretary for 
Lands, in reference to the granting of a piece of land on the 
Eastern Hill. 

At the conclusion of the Council meeting, the adjourned 
special meeting for the alteration and amendment of the rules, 
See., was held. The principal alteration was in the voting for 
members of the Council by ballot instead of proxy, and the 
amendments, as published in the last number of the Chemist 
and Druggist , were passed. The meeting then adjourned. 


THE ANNUAL DINNER OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL 
SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

The annual dinner was held at Clements’ Cafe on Wednesday, 
the 16th November. There was a very good attendance, and 
the manner in which the dinner was served reflected great 
credit on Mr. Clements. 

The president of the society, Mr. Wm. Bowen, occupied the 
chair ; on his right was seated Dr. J. Robertson, president of 
the Medical Society of Victoria, and on his left, Dr. Neild, 
president of the Victorian branch of the British Medical 
Association. At the same table were also Drs. Gillbee, Thomp- 
son, and Henry, Baron F.von Miieller, and Messrs. Grimwade, 
Brind, Johnson, Harriman, and Blackett. The vice-chairs 
were occupied by Mr. John T. Thomas, vice-president of the 
society, and Mr. J. Bosisto, M.L.A., president of the 
Pharmacy Board. Amongst the visitors present were Messrs. 
Rivers Langton, W. M. Rogers (Tasmania), J. P. Isaac, W. 
T. Bowen, Daniel Wilkie, B. C. Harriman, Grimwade (jun.), 
Goodridge, Bates, Millard Johnson, W. H. H. Lane, Fripp, 
and D. A. Simpson. 


November, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST A.ND DRUGGIST. 


51 


The country districts were represented by Mr. Henry Blind 
and Mr. J. T. Macgovvan (representative of the Ballarat Dis- 
trict Chemists’ Association), Ballarat; Mr. A. J. Owen, Geelong. 
Letters of apology were received from Mr. Frank Senior, presi- 
dent of the Pharmaceutical Society, N.S.W.; Drs. Girdlestone, 
Bird, and Allan; Messrs. Geo. Lewis, H. Wheeler and J. Whittle, 
Ballarat; Hewlett, Carlton; W. Anderson, Windsor ; T. M. 
Blackett, Williamstown ; H. J. Long, Melbourne ; J. W. Don, 
Richmond; C. Marston, Collingwood ; John Jackson, West 
Melbourne ; — Walton, Fitzroy ; B. Prosser, New Zealand ; 
David Jones, Melbourne ; S. S. Strutt, East Melbourne ; 
— Holds worth, Sandhurst ; J. C. Newbery. 

The president proposed the usual loyal toasts in suitable 
terms, and they were drunk with musical honours. 

Dr. Robertson proposed “ The Pharmaceutical Society of 
Victoria.” He spoke of the close relationship existing between 
the medical profession and pharmacists, and said that meet- 
ings like the present one did much towards fostering and 
diffusing kindly feelings. It gave him great pleasure to pro- 
pose the toast entrusted to him, and to couple with it the name 
of the president of the society, Mr. Wm. Bowen. (Applause.) 

Mr. Bowen, who was received with cheers, said : — On 
behalf of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, I beg to 
thank you for the cordial manner in which you have been 
pleased to respond to the last toast ; and in replying thereto I 
will ask your forbearance for a few moments while I endeavour, 
in accordance with the usual custom on occasions like the 
present, to review briefly the principal events which have 
occurred during the past year, interesting to the pharmaceutical 
chemist, and to show the systematic progress which pharmacy 
is making throughout the various countries of Europe and in 
the United States of America. Without doubt, the most 
important is that of the International Pharmaceutical Con- 
gress, which assembled in London during the month of August 
last. When I reflect upon the circumstance that it is just thirty 
years ago since the first International Exhibition was held in 
London— 1851 — prior to this date, many present will probably 
bear me out, that Englishmen knew virtually nothing of the 
continental countries beyond the number of their standing 
army and the strength of their naval forces. I well 
remember at that great world’s fair the effect produced 
upon the minds of my countrymen by the many beautiful works 
of art, machinery, and other elements of progress brought 
together by these continental countries to the astonishment 
and delight of the British public. 

I have no hesitation in declaring that I know of no circum- 
stance which marks the progress of civilisation more than this : 
That within the space of thirty years, socially speaking, from 
our first acquaintance with the inhabitants of these European 
nations, that a congress should assemble in the metropolis of 
the world, of delegates from nearly every country of Europe, 
the United States of America, and even Victoria — for our little 
colony had her delegate — a colony not even in existence at the 
time referred to. I say that nothing marks this progress 
more than that a congress should be assembled to discuss a 
subject like that of pharmacy. At this congress one of the 
principal subjects for discussion was the desirability of 
establishing an international pharmacopoeia ; and when we 
consider the marvellous rapidity of communication— the tele- 


graphic, postal, and railway systems existing throughout these 
various countries — when we remember that besides 
the vast number of persons who avail themselves of 
such communication for business and pleasure, there 
is likewise a large proportion who travel for recreative 
purposes, in search of health — it will at once be apparent the 
necessity which exists for uniformity in the preparation of 
medicines which such travellers may require. At this con- 
gress many excellent papers were read, among which I observe 
one by Mr. Peter Squire of a practical character, containing, 
as it does, a number of tables showing the comparative 
strength of the various preparations used in these several 
countries. I have selected a few of the more potent to illus- 
trate my statement : — 

Tinct. aconite 1 and 1 to 1 and 10 


Tinct. belladonna 
Tinct. colchicum 
Tinct. digitalis 
Tinct. nuxvomica 
Tinct. opium 


1 and 1 to 1 and 18 
1 and 5 to 1 and 10 
1 and 1 to 1 and 10 
1 and 3 to 1 and 10 
1 and 6 to 1 and 20 


Although I do not anticipate the immediate success of the 
movement in establishing an international pharmacopoeia, still 
I have every confidence that some degree of uniformity as 
regards the more potent of these preparations will be the 


result. The consideration of these papers will show the 
importance of another subject brought before this congress — 
that of pharmaceutical education; and I think you will readily 
admit the grave responsibility devolving upon pharmaceutical 
chemists when such difference of strength exists in the phar- 
macopoeias of European countries. But, gentlemen, I contend 
that the duty of a dispenser is not complete when he simply 
dispenses accurately the prescription of a medical man with 
pure and the best of medicines, but consider that another and 
equally important duty devolves upon him — to read, copy, and 
carefully examine every prescription brought before him, and 
to satisfy himself that the doses therein prescribed are in 
accordance with the latest information. With regard to 
pharmaceutical education in Victoria, you will probably 
remember that our late president, Mr. Blackett, informed us 
that an application had been made to the Melbourne 
University authorities, requesting them to appoint a lecturer 
on pharmacy, and that this august body occupied a period of 
two years in discussing the subject, and at the end of which 
time sent an acknowledgment of the communication, declining 
to comply with our request. 

I have often endeavoured to satisfy my mind as to the cause 
of this extraordinary circumstance, and can only arrive at one 
conclusion. You will probably remember that the late Mr. 
Buckle, in his book, The History of Civilisation (a book 
which will be regarded as a standard work so long as the 
English language may continue), has established the rule 
“ that the climate of a country determines and controls 
to a very large extent the character of its species ;” and 
when I remember that the shores of our Australian con- 
tinental home are washed by the waves of the broad Pacific 
Ocean, the home of the cephalopoda, a species not remarkable 
for hasty locomotion, but rather for the tenacity of its grip, 
I can only arrive at the conclusion that the Melbourne Uni- 
versity has become acclimatised. But, gentlemen, however 
unsatisfactory and discouraging this reply was to the Pharma- 
ceutical Society, I am glad to inform you that it has not 
proved an unmixed evil ; for there is a remarkable feature in 
the British character — a determination to overcome difficulties 
and to remove obstructions in its path — for within a period of 
two months the Pharmaceutical Society established a school 
of pharmacy, with a complete staff of lecturers, under the 
able superintendence of Mr. Cosmo Newbery — a school which, 
I am proud to anticipate, will occupy no mean position among 
the educational establishments of Victoria. 

At the last meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society it was 
resolved to offer three gold medals annually to the most profi- 
cient among the students, and I have much pleasure in antici- 
pating the results of this incentive to perseverance ; but I 
would warn the students that it will be an unfortunate circum- 
stance on their part, when passing the board of examiners, 
should they be unable to define the difference between opium 
and assafoetida. 

There is one feature in the schools of Europe which might 
well be adopted in our Victorian schools, that of microscopical 
study ; and I have every confidence that when this subject 
has been considered by the authorities the same will be 
recommended. (Applause.) 

Dr.Neiid next proposed “ The Pharmacy Board.” He congra- 
tulated the society on the success of the Pharmacy Act. Like 
all useful measures, he said, it was not passed without a great 
deal of trouble, and much praise was due to Mr. Bosisto for 
his untiring exertions in connection with it. (Applause.) The 
Act was the result of the collective deliberations of the two 
professions, and he was pleased to say it worked admirably. 
He wished the medical profession had half so good an Act. 
With reference to the chairman’s remarks respecting the refusal 
of the University authorities to appoint a lecturer on phar- 
macy, he desired to say something as to how there came to be 
a failure with respect to the application. Numerous commu- 
nications on the subject passed between the council and the 
faculty, and there was some doubt as to what was compre- 
hended by “ a lecturer on pharmacy.” The medical faculty 
did not decline to take the question up ; but, somehow or other, 
he could not exactly tell how, it fell through. (Laughter.) The 
Pharmacy Board had done a great deal of good, and he was 
sure it was a source of satisfaction to all concerned. He 
concluded by asking the company to honour the toast of “ The 
Pharmacy Board,” coupled with the name of Mr. J. Bosisto, 
the president. (Applause.) 

Mr. Bosisto, who, on rising to respond, was received with 
much warmth, returned thanks on behalf of the Board, which, 
he said, knew its duty and endeavoured to perform it. 


52 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1881. 


Although the members were elected by the pharmaceutical 
chemists of Victoria, they were responsible to the Chief 
Secretary of the colony for the working of the “ Pharmacy 
Act and so well had it worked, he was pleased to say, 
tbat during the five years it had been in force there had 
not been a single hitch. Some persons had attempted to 
commence business as chemists without proving their capa- 
bility ; but they had been stopped, and he would take this 
opportunity of stating that the police of the colony did their 
duty well in quickly prosecuting for breaches of the Act. The 
members of the board were the overseers of the rising students 
in pharmacy, and they felt their responsibility. He would say 
now, without egotism, that the examination was equal to that 
in Great Britain. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Johnson, Mr. Blackett, 
and their humble servant each strove in their respective 
departments to so rigidly examine, that no certificate should 
issue from the board unless the applicant had fully proved 
himself entitled to it. (Applause.) In these days there was a 
great deal being said about the adulteration of food and every- 
thing else, and there was no doubt that the men to deal 
thoroughly with such subjects must come from pharmaceutical 
chemists. (Applause.) 

Mr. F. S. Grim wade proposed *• The Pharmaceutical Society 
of Great Britain, and Kindred Societies,” and said that in May 
last the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain held its 
fortieth annual dinner. The main object of the society was 
the promotion of the science of pharmacy. How well it had 
carried out the intention of its founders could be estimated by 
comparing the position of pharmacists of the present day with 
that of forty years ago. Members of the Pharmaceutical 
Society were connected with the Boyal Society, Society of 
Chemists, the Institute of Chemistry, and in fact more or less 
were connected with nearly all the scientific societies. Speak- 
ing of the Pharmaceutical Society, a whole host of names 
crowded one’s memory — Jacob Bell, Allen, Pareira, Hanbury, 
Fownes, Sandford, Dean, Burtley, Redwood, Greenish, 
Schacht, and others who had distinguished themselves. The 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain should be revered 
and honoured by pharmacists in all parts of Her Majesty’s 
dominions. (Applause.) The more honour we paid to the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and the names cele- 
brated in connection with it, the more should we appreciate 
our own society, and as time rolled on, we, too, should have 
the names of men who had distinguished themselves. We had 
our Johnson, Bosisto, Blackett, Bowen, and others, who would 
be held up as examples to our coming pharmacists of men who 
had laboured hard to promote the best interests of their pro- 
fession in this country. He called upon the company to 
honour the toast, coupled with the name of Mr. W. Johnson. 
(Applause.) 

Mr. Johnson briefly returned thanks, and caused some 
amusement by relating his experiences during the time he was 
an apprentice, when he had much “ dirty work ” to perform ; 
work with “ good honest dirt,” he said, which no man need be 
ashamed of, but which the apprentices of the present day were 
not expected to undertake. 

Mr. C. R. Blackett proposed “ The Medical Society of Vic- 
toria, and Kindred Societies.” He said the medical profession 
in Victoria was worthy of its great origin. What profession, 
he asked, could be more noble ? The healing art was the most 
noble of all. He placed it above divinity. (Hear, hear.) 
Very soon, he believed, the art of medicine would become a 
fixed and positive science. It was necessary to constantly 
bear in mind that the professions must be kept apart, each 
working in its own line. They were distinct from each other, 
and the aim of all should be to keep pharmacy to itself and 
medicine to itself. That there were those who did not 
endeavour to do this was evident from an advertisement which 
appeared in the last nnmber of The Australasian Medical 
Gazette , published in Sydney. He would read the advertise- 
ment : — “ An experienced pharmaceutical and consulting 
chemist wishes to hear of an opening. A country district pre- 
ferred, where there is no opposition, and, if possible, no 
medical practitioner residing in the neighbourhood. Address 
— ‘ J.G.,’ Australasian Medical Gazette Office.” (Loud 
laughter.) It was much to be regretted that such an adver- 
tisement was allowed to appear. He concluded by coupling 
with the toast the names of Dr. Robertson and Dr. Neild. 

In the absence of the former gentleman, who had been called 
away, 

Dr. Gillbee responded for the Medical Society of Victoria, 
and said that he and his fellow medical men in the colony 
placed the utmost confidence in the pharmacists. 


Dr. Neild replied for the Victorian branch of the British Medi- 
cal Association. He referred to the advertisement brought under 
the notice of the company by Mr. Blackett, and said the only 
way he could account for its appearance in the Gazette was that 
it had escaped the notice of the editor. The enterprising spirit 
of the publisher of a newspaper was always in excess of the zeal 
of the editor. (Laughter.) 

Baron von Mueller responded for the Royal Society. 

The next toast was “ Our Visitors,” proposed by Mr. 
A. T. Best. 

Mr. Rivers Langton (Great Britain) replied. He thanked 
Mr. Best for the flattering reference he had made to him in 
proposing the toast of the visitors, and begged to assure him 
that no language he could command would express half the 
pleasure and astonishment he had felt at what he had seen 
during his visit to the great Australian colonies. The pre- 
sident in his speech had alluded to the International Exhi- 
bition of 1851, which had aroused in Englishmen a desire to 
travel and become personally acquainted with the continental 
cities of Europe, and he was sure the splendid exhibition 
recently held in Melbourne would attract Europeans to visit 
the colonies. At present at home there was the greatest ignor- 
ance as to the boundless resources of Australia, and English- 
men had only to come and experience their delightful climate, 
and have their eyes opened as to what really was taking place 
at the antipodes. He was glad to see such a gathering of the 
medical profession, and to notice the good feeling and una- 
nimity which existed between them and the Pharmaceutical 
Society ; and he had no doubt there was a bright future before 
the rising pharmacists. It required an educated man well up 
in his profession to properly dispense drugs, and it was gratify- 
ing to observe that in these colonies the medical profession 
appreciated the labours of the pharmacists. In his younger 
days he had been dazzled and delighted with the charming tales 
in the Arabian Nights ; but no tale of wonder and romance 
in that entertaining book could compare with the history 
of this beautiful city of Melbourne. There was a splendid 
future before the great Australian continent. He had 
travelled much, and visited the centres of industry in 
many lands, but the most metropolitan city of all, to his mind, 
was Melbourne (applause), and he did not know which to ad- 
mire most, the beauty of the city, or the perseverance and 
energy which had created it. But perseverance and energy 
were inherent in the British nature, and always made their 
way to the front, as exemplified in the career of the great 
statesman whose life was so recently closed, who, with the 
disadvantages of birth and prejudice, raised himself to the 
proud position of Prime Minister of England. The story of 
this wonderful city of the goldfields would yet form the 
theme of the poet’s song and delight, and enrapture genera- 
tions yet unborn. It had been a peculiar pleasure to him to 
be present at this gathering this evening, having experienced 
so much kindness and courtesy, not only from the pharmacists 
of Victoria, but throughout the whole of the Australian colo- 
nies ; nor could he forget the high compliment paid him by 
the society in electing him as one of their delegates to repre- 
sent the colony in the congress held so recently in London, 
and a similar compliment was paid him by the sister colony of 
New South Wales ; and it had been a matter of great regret to 
him that his business engagements had prevented his being 
present. He congratulated the society on the able address of 
their president, and was sure the chemists of Australia would 
play a part worthy of the glorious future of these great 
colonies. 

Mr. W. H. H. Lane (America) said — Mr. President and 
gentlemen of the Pharmaceutical Society — I have much 
pleasure in saying a few words in response to the toast you 
have so highly honoured ; but, after the remaks of my worthy 
friend, Mr. Langton, and his eulogistic compliments to the 
United States, I can say but little on our own behalf. There is 
an old and true saying, that “ birds of a feather flock together,” 
and you will find it verified the world over. When I came here 
this evening I had no idea that I should be called on for any 
remarks, but it seems that it is to be otherwise. I have the 
honour of being one of your profession, and I am very proud 
of it. In the year 1876, at our great exhibition held in the 
city of Philadelphia, I well remember seeing the exhibits of 
this colony, and among them those of Mr. Bosisto, and also 
some of our friend Baron von Mueller’s works. I assure 
you, gentlemen, that Victoria is far better known in 
the States than you are aware of ; but I certainly admit 
that when I first set out for this country, some three 
and a-half years ago, I was advised by some of my friends 


November, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


53 


to take my shooting-iron with me and keep a sharp look out 
for the cannibals, for you know they were at one time 
here, if not now. No doubt Victoria, as well as her sister 
colony New South Wales, has come greatly to the front 
during the past two years ; this success, in a great measure, 
is due to the good effects of your two great Interna- 
tional Exhibitions, which have brought you in closer 
contact with the commercial world. Gentlemen, you 
have a light in your midst that will take many, many 
years to obliterate. The one I refer to is my friend 
on my right, Baron Ferdinand von Mueller. Gentle- 
men, he has built monuments more enduring than marble or 
brass, and they will stand for centuries after he has passed 
away. The people of Victoria will live to do honour to his 
memory, when too late to acknowledge his sterling worth. 
Gentlemen you should feel justly proud to have such a valuable 
adjunct to the profession among you, and I may tell you that 
we in the United States of America are cognisant of his 
talents, and have done him the honour to elect him member of 
some of our leading scientific institutions. Do not for one 
moment imagine that we are better pharmacists in the United 
States than in any other part of the world, for, gentlemen, we 
do not claim that honour. If any one comes over here think- 
ing he can teach you much, he will find himself foiled, for I 
think, gentlemen, to use an Americanism, “ You have cut your eye 
teeth,” and as far as my observations serve me, the chemists of 
these colonies will compare favourably with any part of the 
world. I must confess that when leaving San Francisco for this 
country that tears involuntarily came to my eyes in spite of all 
I could do to prevent them, for I did not fully know what kind 
of people I was to cast my lot amongst ; but I have not found 
you a bad sort after all. I have made many warm friends in 
these colonies, friends whose friendship I shall cherish to my 
dying day ; and when I leave these shores I shall always look 
back with feelings of pleasure and pride, and will no doubt 
many times long to return to them. Referring to the remarks 
of your worthy president in regard to an international 
pharmacopoeia, I fully concur in all that has been said this 
evening. I must say I look forward to its consummation 
at an early date, and I for one will be glad when there will be 
no P.B. or U.S.P. , &c., or any other of the various 
pharmacopoeias now in existence. Gentlemen, there is also 
another true saying — “Nature abhors a vacuum,” and as I 
have done my level best for the past three hours to fill that 
vacuum, will close. Gentlemen, on behalf of the various 
kindred societies of the United States of America I thank you. 

Mr. B. C. Harriman responded on behalf of the Victorian 
visitors, and expressed the pleasure he experienced at all 
times in rendering his assistance to societies whose object was 
the advancement of science. 

The toast of “ The Press” was proposed by Mr. H. Brind, 
and responded to by Dr. Neild. 


The following donations to the Benevolent Fund have been 
received: — Dr. Robertson, £1 Is.; Dr. Neild, £1 Is.; R. J. 
Fullwood, £1 Is.; C. Marston, £1 Is.; T. H. Walton, £1 Is.; 
H. J. Long, £1 Is.; John Jackson, 10s. 


PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY’S MEDAL IN GOLD. 
School of Pharmacy prizes presented by the Council — 
Chemistry (‘‘elementary and practical”), botany, materia 
medica , and pharmacy. 

At the end of each term a gold medal will be offered for 
competition. Students who have attended more than one 
term will be ineligible to compete. The medals can only be 
taken by students who have worked in the laboratory for not 
less than 75 per cent, of their period of study, and who are 
connected with the Society as registered apprentices of the 
same. On receiving the report of the examiners, the Council 
will award the prizes. 


DEFINITION OF A NEW TREE FROM EAST 
AUSTRALIA. 

By Baron Feed, von Mueller, Ph.D., M.D., F.R.S., 
K.C.M.G. 

Dysoxylon Sehiffne rV — (Section — Cleisocolyx'). 
Leaves and their stalks almost glabrous ; leaflets verging 
from an oval to a somewhat lanceolar form, opposite or nearly 
so, thin-chartaceous in texture; racemous bunches of flowers 
arising from the stem, short ; stalklets nearly or fully as long 
as the flowers, silky ; calyx large, before expansion of the 


carolla almost egg-shaped, then perfectly entire and closed, 
without any ruptures or sutural lines, subsequently torn to 
about the middle into two undivided or once more slightly 
cleft lobes ; petals four, free, elongated-oblong, about one-third 
longer than the calyx, and likewise outside silky ; staminal 
column broadly tubular, seven or oftener eight-toothed, the 
teeth semilanceolar, about three times shorter than the tube ; 
anthers seven or oftener eight, sessile between the teeth at the 
summit of the tube, their connective often minutely pointed ; 
disk cup-shaped, free, slightly crenulated, as well as the 
staminal tube glabrous ; style filiform, its lower portion and 
the ovary densely downy ; stigma depressed-hemispherical ; 
ovary four-celled, with two super-posed ovules in each cell ; 
fruit globular, glabrescent, brown outside ; pericarp rather 
thin, not unless very tardily valvular ; seeds without any 
arillus. 

In the Mount Bellenden-Ker Ranges ; Karsten. 

A tree attaining a height of 80 feet. Bark greyish-brown, 
smooth. Wood yellowish. Leaflets on very short stalklets, 
in few pairs, so far as the very scanty material admits of 
judging, 2 — 5 inches long, somewhat inequilateral, very 
minutely dotted. Racemes two or more together, 2 — 4 inches 
long, fragrant. Petals nearly half an inch long, pure*white, 
upwards slightly imbricated, downwards valvular. Fruit not 
seen quite ripe, then not fully an inch long, nor showing any 
indication of valvular structure, four-celled. Seeds ripening 
solitary in each cell, turgid, almost longitudinally adnate ; 
testa thin, dark-brown, loose. Albumen none. Cotyledons 
planconvex collateral. Radicle very short, terminal, almost 
concealed between the minute lobes of the cotyledons. 

I have left this remarkable meliaceous tree in the genus 
Dysoxylon, as constituted at present, although the structure 
of the calyx is so exceptional in the genus, that under the 
sectional name here adopted, or perhaps under that of 
Epicharis, this species with its nearest allies might be 
raised to generic distinction, especially as the fruit does not 
seem to slit into any valvular divisions, in which anomaly 
however D. Klanderi coincides ( Vide Fragm. Phytogr. Austr. 
IX. 134), thus showing an approach to Sandoricum. The 
genus Dysoxylon, by admitting into it Hartigshea with 
arillate seeds, and Didymocheton with sepals overlapping at 
their margins, has become too artificial, while in Hartig- 
shea spectabilis the anthers are inserted below the merely 
crenulated summit of the staminal tube, a characteristic on 
which otherwise much stress has been laid by Casimir de 
Candolle. The remarkable location of the inflorescence is not 
without example in the genus, it bursting also in several other 
species away from the leaves out of the stem or main branches. 

This new species is nearest allied to D. caulostachyum from 
New Guinea, with which and the other species placed by 
Miquel in the section Epicharis it accords in the peculiar 
structure of the calyx ; but the leaflets are not coriaceous, 
the pedicles longer, the calyces twice as long, thus reaching 
much highqr up to the corolla, and the teeth of the column are 
neither rounded nor retuse-truncate ; the fruits are likely 
also different. 

This noble and singular tree is dedicated to Dr. Rudolph 
Schiffner, of Vienna, who for many years has been the presi- 
dent of the great and highly scientific Pharmaceutical Society 
of Austria. 


Itosomilittes, 


At the suggestion of Mr. Geo. Lewis, united action will be 
taken to have the trade properly represented before the Tariff 
Commission now sitting. 

Mr. C. J. Plunket, Lonsdale-street, Melbourne, has been 
appointed to the commission of the peace. 

Mr. Rivers Langton desires us to state that he has taken a 
residence at St. Kilda, and intends remaining in Australia. 
Mr. Langton is expecting his wife and family, who will shortly 
arrive from England. 

Mr. J. T. Macgowan has been appointed by the Ballarat 
District Chemists’ Association their represenative at the annual 
dinner of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

At last advices Mr. 0. V. Morgan was to leave the colonies 
about the 6th December. 

The secretary of the British Pharmaceutical Conference has 
forwarded to Mr. W. H. Ford, the representative of Victoria at 
the Conference, a nicely executed photograph of the picnic as 
held at Henley-on-Thames during the gathering. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1881. 


54 


Mr. W. J. Pinhey, the secretary of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of New South Wales, has courteously forwarded for 
perusal the drafts of the new Pharmacy Act of New South 
Wales shortly to be introduced to Parliament.. 

The Presidents of the Medical and British Medical Societies, 
Drs. Robertson and Neild, have accepted invitations to the 
annual dinner of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

It is proposed to erase the name of James Egan Wall, who 
was convicted at the Sandhurst Assizes of manslaughter, from 
the Pharmaceutical Register. 

Mr. Prosser (Messrs. Kempthorne, Prosser and Co.), Dune- 
din, has returned to New Zealand. 

Mr. H. H. Lane (Messrs. Warner and Co.’s representative) 
has just returned from Tasmania. 

At the last meeting of the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Victoria the President of the Queensland Pharma- 
ceutical Society was elected an honorary member. 


Xcctal itnb iftagistcnal. 


CHARGE OF MURDER. 

James Egan Wall Guilty of Manslaughter. 
James Egan Wall surrendered to his bail at the Court of 
Assize on 28th October, and was placed in the dock, charged 
with murder, and on a second count of manslaughter. He 
pleaded “not guilty.” Messrs. Casey, Hornbuckle and Quick, 
instructed by Mr. Rymer, defended the prisoner, and Mr. 
Chomley prosecuted for the Crown. 

All witnesses were ordered out of court, on the application 
of Mr. Casey, and the prisoner was allowed to take a seat in 
the dock. 

The Crown prosecutor said the prisoner was charged with 
having feloniously killed and murdered Margaret Smith, a 
woman twenty-eight years of age, the nature of the charge 
being that at the time of her death the prisoner was engaged 
in the commission of an illegal act. According to law, if a 
person be engaged in the commission of felony, though he may 
not have the intention to kill, the law regards it as murder. 
In the present case the prisoner used an instrument to procure 
abortion of the deceased woman, she being enciente at the 
time. If the jury thought that the purpose of the prisoner 
was not to procure abortion, or to perform an operation 
without competent skill to justify such an operation, then he 
was guilty of manslaughter. The question for the jury was 
whether the act was a felonious one, or whether the prisoner 
was guilty of performing an unwarrantable operation. 
Prisoner had been a resident of Sandhurst for a long time, and 
the deceased woman was a domestic servant or housekeeper 
in the employ of Mr. Henry Wrixon, an attorney living at 
Sandhurst. She had been in his service for some five years, 
and so far as Mr. YVTixon’s evidence went, it would show that 
the woman was in sound, vigorous health up to the day of her 
death. On the 1st August she was at her master’s house in 
Sandhurst, and the groom, Thomas Storey, in Mr. VVrixon’s 
employ, last saw her alive about three o’clock in the afternoon, 
and she was then in good health and spirits, and in the garden 
watering the flowers. She went from the garden into the 
house. A little girl named Margaret Beale, came to the place 
about five o’clock, and went up to the back door of Mr. 
Wrixon’s house. She wanted to see the deceased woman, and 
called out “ Maggy,” meaning the deceased woman. A person 
came to the door, whom the little girl recognised as the 
prisoner, and asked what was “ all this Maggying about,” and 
said that “ Margaret was out.” The little girl remained about 
the garden, and saw Wall about six o’clock leave the house. 
About half-past six, Mr. Wrixon came home, and found the 
parlour door locked. He went to the groom, and they entered 
the parlour by the French window, and there found the woman 
stretched upon the sofa dead, with a sheet thrown over her. 
She was in good health at half-past three, and at six o’clock 
she was dead. The deceased, when found, was half undressed, 
and blood was discovered upon the floor and other things. 
Drs. MacGillivray and Atkinson made a post-mortem examina- 
tion of the body, and they would tell the jury that death was 
caused by a wound made by some instrument having been 
forced against the wall of the vagina behind the abdomen, 
and, after piercing a number of blood vessels, entered the 
stomach, inflicting a lacerated wound about a quarter of an 
inch in diameter. The hemorrhage from the wound flowed 
into the abdomen, and the doctors concurred in saying that 
this wound caused death. 


Mr. Chomley was going on to state the opinion of the doctors 
formed upon the appearances, when Mr. Casey took exception 
to the statement and objected, saying he was going to object 
when the doctors were being examined, as it was a question 
for the jury to decide as to the purpose for which the prisoner 
performed the operation. 

Mr. Chomley continued his address, and said the Crown 
must put this point before the jury, but he would not give Mr. 
Casey an opportunity of taking exception to his opening 
address until they had the evidence. Those appearances would 
be described, and he would offer the evidence, which he thought 
they would accept. There was nobody about the house except 
Storey, the groom, until the arrival of the little girl Beale, and 
the prisoner told the latter that the deceased was out. Prisoner 
was seen leaving the house, and deceased was found dead 
shortly afterwards, and with marks of violence upon her body. 
Those circumstances the prisoner seemed bound to explain, 
and Wall attended as a witness at the inquest. The coroner, 
in most explicit terms, told the prisoner that he was not bound 
to give evidence unless he chose to do so. That being so, the 
statement of the prisoner was evidence to go to the jury, and he 
(Mr. Chomley) intended to put it to them. The prisoner swore 
then that he had known the deceased for about eight or nine 
years, and that some seven years ago he treated her while in 
the employ of Mr. Wrixon’s mother in Melbourne for disease 
of the uterus. As regards that statement, Mr. Wrixon could 
prove that Mrs. Wrixon never saw the deceased woman, as Mrs. 
Wrixon had been dead some time before Margaret Smith was 
engaged by the family. The prisoner had found there was 
evidence against him, and he floundered in this wild way to 
make an explanation. Mr. Wrixon would swear that the 
deceased never went to Melbourne, as sworn by the prisoner at 
the inquest. The prisoner deposed that he treated her for 
blood-poisoning, but the evidence would show there was no 
trace of such. Prisoner also swore that he had been sent for 
the night before the woman’s death, as the deceased had 
become suddenly enlarged in the abdomen, and that certain 
discharges had occurred. The medical men would tell the 
jury that had there been any such discharge of sacs the 
post-mortem appearances would have shown corresponding 
disease of the organs. It was for the jury to say whether the 
evidence of Wall was not wholly false. Prisoner swore that he 
made a diligent examination, and he gave his opinion that 
the deceased was pregnant ; that the deceased denied it, and 
he told her to see another doctor ; that the abdomen was en- 
larged, and that he told her that he could relieve her if she would 
consent to take chloroform ; that he went into the house, and 
caused her to partially undress, and put her under chloroform; 
that he used the catheter, which he found passed the cervix 
uteri, and on withdrawing the instrument found bloody matter 
upon it ; after he had finished, the deceased woman, accord- 
ing to Wall, said she hoped it would not have to be done 
again. He told her to put on her clothes, and when about 
telling her she was pregnant, she asked for brandy, which he 
gave her. A short time after he heard a gurgling sound in her 
throat, and Wall put some brandy to her mouth, but she died 
shortly afterwards. After she was dead he said he put the 
clothes stained with blood out of sight, so that Mr. Wrixon 
could not see them, as he did not like to see blood. He locked 
the door, and put the key in the verandah so as to prevent the 
little girl going in. Those were the statements of the prisoner ; 
and he was said to have used the instrument most unskilfully. 
Wall knew the woman was pregnant, as he told her so. There 
was no trace of those imaginary hydatid sacs referred to by 
prisoner. What was his object in performing the operation ? 
The evidence of the doctors would form an opinion as to 
whether he used the instrument to cause a miscarriage. If the 
jury believed that the prisoner, not having competent know- 
ledge, showed want of skill in handling the instrument, and 
caused the death of the woman, then it was manslaughter. 
It was certain that the prisoner had caused the death of the 
woman, as, according to his own statement, she died before his 
eyes. 

Thomas Storey, groom in the employ of Mr. Wrixon, and 
the little girl Beale repeated the evidence they gave at the 
coronial inquiry. < . 

Henry Wrixon, solicitor, deposed to the deceased being in 
his employ for about five years, and also to finding her dead on 
the evening of the 1st of August. 

Dr. MacGillivray gave similar evidence to that at the 
inquest. He deposed that, if there were hydatids, they would 
have found the cysts shrivelled up, or the marks, but there 
were no such signs. The wound indicated that some person 


November, 1881. 


THE CHEMIST AND DEUGGIST. 


55 


attempted to introduce an instrument to procure abortion, and 
through unskilfulness in opening the womb, penetrated the 
vagina behind. 

Dr. Atkinson and Mr. R. Strickland, coroner, were next 
examined. 

J. J. Shillinglaw, secretary of the medical board, deposed 
that the prisoner’s name did not appear on the Medical 
Register. 

To Mr. Casey : Had not the pharmaceutical chemist s 
register. 

This closed the case for the Crown, and a certificate of the 
prisoner being a pharmaceutical chemist was handed in. 

Mr. Chomley, in addressing the jury, said the counsel for the 
prisoner had introduced a new matter, and that was that the 
prisoner had been in the habit of carrying on the practice of a 
medical man, and was known as “ Dr. Wall.” That necessi- 
tated him (Mr. Chomley) calling attention to the fact that the 
prisoner carried on the practice in direct violation of the Medical 
Practitioners Statute. That statute made it a criminal offence 
for any person to hold himself forth as a medical practitioner, 
or to use the title. A certificate, showing that the prisoner 
was a pharmaceutical chemist, had been put in, and the 25th 
section of the statute provided that every unqualified person who 
prescribes or practises as a medical man is liable to a penalty 
of £10 and six months’ imprisonment, so that the very certifi- 
cate put in the prisoner’s favour renders him liable to that 
penalty. The main facts of the case were undisputed. They 
had it proved by the witnesses, Storey and Beale, and admitted 
by the prisoner, that he went to the house, that he was in the 
house with the unfortunate woman, and when he left she was 
dead. Drs. MacGillivray and Atkinson, who are well-known 
and skilled in their profession, and of high repute in the city, 
had given their evidence fairly, and without the slightest bias 
towards the prisoner, and they both concurred that death had 
been caused by the wound, and that it must have been caused 
by some person trying to force an instrument into the womb. 
The prisoner knew the woman was pregnant, and the attempt 
was utterly indefensible and utterly inexcusable, and the effect 
must have been to procure abortion. 

Mr. Casey then addressed the jury. Some of the jury knew 
the prisoner as well as anybody, and he would ask them to divest 
themselves of all that they had heard outside the four walls of 
the court. The prisoner had been practising in Bendigo the 
whole time that he had lived here, and he would ask whether 
they considered this old grey -haired man unqualified, he having 
started to practise in the early days of the diggings, and con- 
tinued ever since. The prisoner had gone through the trying 
ordeal, and nothing had been said as to whether or not his 
name was untarnished, and it was for the jury to say whether 
they would consign him to the public executioner. They 
would, to find that the prisoner was guilty of murder, have to 
say that he was guilty of malice aforethought. The prisoner 
was not wholly unqualified, as he had a certificate as 
pharmaceutical chemist, but it did not matter whether 
he was qualified or not in this case. Were the same 
charges laid against Drs. MacGillivray and Atkinson, 
the same responsibility would attach to them, according 
to law, as to Wall. Mr. Casey then cited cases, showing 
that an unqualified man was not guilty of murder in per- 
forming an operation which caused death. Many unqualified 
persons had practised where people could not afford medical 
men. Here they had the prisoner poaching upon the doctors, 
so to speak. There, before Drs. MacGillivray and Atkinson, 
with their bits of parchment, the prisoner was indicted for 
murder. Those men came into court by the rules of etiquette, 
and when they were asked a question they set their ingenuity 
at work to puzzle counsel. They were inspired with a feeling 
against the prisoner, and had said they would not consult 
with him, and certainly had not said anything in favour of the 
prisoner. The evidence of Mr. Wrixon showed an unneces- 
sarily hostile feeling. The prisoner, in the presence of Sergeant 
Webb, on the following day after the occurrence, asked Mr. 
Wrixon whether he remembered prisoner telling him about 
the woman suffering from hydatids. The fact of the prisoner 
having asked straight out, satisfied them that there was no 
triangular connection between the girl and Mr. Wrixon and 
prisoner. They would have to consider what was in the 
prisoner’s mind when he went there, he being pressed to a 
certain extent, and as Dr. MacGillivray had said, he had 
used the proper instrument, if not pushed too far, to relieve 
the uterus of any collection of serum. He was not going to 
deny that the wound was made, but they had an entire 
absence of all intention to kill. Dr. Atkinson had suggested 


that he thought the wire had come out of the catheter, 
which then went the wrong way and caused the wound. If 
that was so, it was not a crime, but only an accident. It was 
consistent with his innocence, and the circumstantial evidence 
was not consistent with his guiltiness. 

His Honour summed up, and said that it was a feature 
worthy of notice that there was no conflict of evidence 
between the doctors. The only thing, however, that bore out 
the charge of murder was the statement of the prisoner that 
he told the girl she was pregnant. He thought it his duty to 
put the aspect of manslaughter to them, and asked them to 
consider the prisoner as a medical man, though, for the in- 
formation of the outside public, he would say that he had no 
right whatever to the title of doctor. If a man used a well- 
known medical instrument, and, owing to his unskilfulness, 
he kills the person in the operation, he is guilty of man- 
slaughter. One of the undisputed facts was that, whether the 
intention was to remove hydatids from the womb or to procure 
abortion, he never introduced the instrument into the womb, 
but forced it up through the vagina. The question shortly 
was, if they thought he showed gross want of skill it was 
manslaughter. 

The jury retired, and after half an hour’s deliberation, 
returned a verdict of “ guilty of manslaughter,” and the 
prisoner was remanded for sentence. 

Unexpectedly Light Sentence. 

James Egan Wall was placed in the dock to receive sentence 
for manslaughter. 

The prisoner, on being asked whether he had anything to 
say, remarked that he would like to say something. He hoped 
there would be no objection to his going into the case diffusely, 
and he did so with a view to obtaining more justice than he 
had so far. He would begin by asking to have the uterus 
brought there, and examined by whom His Honour thought 
advisable, and he would prove incontestably that it was 
diseased, notwithstanding that Drs. Atkinson and MacGil- 
livray ’s evidence was that it was not, but was in a normal 
state. He had tried “ Heaven’s hard ” at the inquest to have 
it produced, but he did not know why it was not, unless it was 
to prevent him from showing the traces of hydatids. (The 
prisoner here entered into a minute description of the natural 
disease he alleged the woman was suffering from, but the 
details are unfitted for general publication. He also at great 
length endeavoured to ref ute the evidence of Drs. MacGillivray 
and Atkinson.) 

The prisoner then proceeded : By reference to old works it 
would be found that such a disease (hydatids) should be treated 
in the same way that he did, and that some instrument should 
be used to relieve the water. His Honour having stated — and 
the fact of the uterus having been kept from him in the most 
extraordinary manner by the coroner — that he should not have 
performed the operation, he was willing to wait before his 
Honour passed sentence, that the examination of the uterus 
might be made by independent and disinterested authorities. 
He denied that the blood ever came from use of the stilette 
touching the veins, and if those medical men came there to 
give evidence for him, they would have put it down as he had 
stated. It was impossible for blood to find its way up, and 
that did not correspond with the medical evidence. There 
was a pressure of 4-8 lbs. on the abdomen to bear anything 
downward, and that alone would have been sufficient to keep 
the blood down. That was incontestable. He did not think 
the poor woman knew she was pregnant, but he had written 
to her telling her she was. He did not perform the operation 
to take away a child. He could have caught the foetus with 
the greatest ease. Nothing could have been easier than for 
him to do it, but he never went there for the purpose, and he 
did not think the public would think that his purpose was to 
procure abortion. Not a man in the colony had more expe- 
rience in female diseases than he had. “ Never since my hair 
turned grey have I not been called to attend such cases. I 
was not drunk ; my hand was not unsteady, and it was the 
greatest ease for me to perform such an operation, and I think 
the public of Sandhurst know that. Mr. Strickland threatened 
to put me out at the inquest for speaking, and would not allow 
the uterus to be shown.” He (prisoner) had given her 
medicine to prevent blood-poisoning from the water caused by 
the disease, and he was was surprised that a new bottle 
of medicine, which he showed to Sergeant Webb after 
the occurrence, had not, in justice to himself, been pro- 
duced. There was no evidence to show it either, and to keep 
the thing back was not fair, and not justice. He was sur- 


56 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


November, 1881. 


prised and astonished to hear Mr, Wrixon say the girl’s 
complexion was of the usual kind. She had a freckled face, 
and a greasy, miserable look. When it was taken into con- 
sideration that Mr. Wrixon contradicted him that the deceased 
woman was in Melbourne, it was nevertheless true. He also 
spoke to prisoner about the girl, and he denied she was 
ever away for three weeks. Mr. Wrixon swore she never 
lived with his late parents. He (the prisoner) had attended 
her at the late Mr. Wrixon ’s place fourteen years ago. He had 
attended the late Mr. Wrixon in his last hours, and yet his son 
denied that he ever did so. Moreover, he attended Mr. 
Wrixon himself up to the woman’s death. Probably he had 
been tedious, and had made to-day an improper application to 
the court, but, being placed in the position that he was, he 
required the uterus to be produced to show that he was justi- 
fied in performing the operation. He was satisfied his Honour 
would consider the application a just one. He would make an 
observation, as his Honour appeared in his address to the jury 
to believe he had no power to practise. He had always main- 
tained that he had a right to practise so long as he never 
called himself a doctor, and he had the right and the skill to 
practise. Dr. MacGillivray had tried to convict him three 
times before. In 1854 he was committed for manslaughter of 
a man named Roach for doing the most miraculous act ever 
done ; and when all the others could do nothing, he kept the 
man for thirty-four days ; and such was the amount of jealousy 
that a doctor went and sat upon the man’s chest, and brought 
on inflammation, and he died. The case was brought before 
the late Judge Williams, his Honour’s father, and that judge 
said the case should never have been brought into court. 

The prisoner said that twelve years ago a young lady was 
given up to die, and he saved her life. He said she should be 
tapped, and a number of medical men, including Dr. Atkinson, 
consulted as to the performance of the operation. Dr. Rowan 
said he (prisoner) was perfectly right in going on with the 
operation, but Dr. Atkinson refused. Prisoner then performed 
a successful operation, and since the girl had written to Dr. 
Atkinson, calling him a coward for not assisting him. 

His Honour then addressed the prisoner. He said the pri- 
soner had made a request to him to have parts of the unfor- 
tunate woman examined in the presence of two medical men 
who gave evidence yesterday. To that request he had no 
power then to comply. The case had been dealt with by the 
proper tribunal— twelve jurymen ; and it was not in his power 
to review their decision, nor was it in his power to allow the 
prisoner or any one else to do any act that would have the 
aspect of reviewing the decision arrived at by the jury. If 
the request had been made to him by the prisoner’s counsel 
while the case was before the jury, he would have ordered it to 
be produced. The prisoner began his observations that morn- 
ing by saying that he was going to make a lengthy address in 
the hope of getting more justice than in the course of the trial. 
And having begun his address, he proceeded to reflect upon 
the course counsel pursued, and the way in which they con- 
ducted the case ; upon the finding of the jury, twelve of his 
fellow-countrymen ; and he had also reflected, not only upon 
the living witnesses, but on dead persons, and on the dead 
body of the unfortunate woman. His Honour did not think 
that the prisoner had done his case any good by his remarks 
that morning. 

The prisoner — “ Let me ” 

His Honour to prisoner : I cannot permit you to interrupt me 
now, sir. I think you have done your cause harm. As far as 
the verdict of the jury is concerned, I entirely agree with it, 
and cordially appreciate it. If I did not, it would make no 
difference, but, as it is, it meets with my thorough concurrence 
and cordial support, and I do not see how the jury could do other- 
wise upon the evidence. Prisoner was not guilty of murder 
but the verdict of manslaughter did him equal justice. As the 
prisoner had reflected upon counsel, and the way they had 
conducted the case, his Honour said he thought counsel exer- 
cised a very wise discretion, not only in the line of defence 
adopted, but also in not making the request for the production 
of the uterus. Amongst the prisoner’s other observations was 
that he never made the wound in the unfortunate woman. 
His counsel, who took all the points in the evidence, felt it 
hopeless to take that point, and he quite agreed with them. It 
was impossible that the wound could have been done in any 
other way than by the operation the prisoner had performed, 
or rather attempted to perform. The prisoner had been 
addressing the court for the purpose of showing that he did 
not make use of the instrument to procure abortion. The jury 
allowed that in his favour, and it seemed that the greater part 


of the prisoner’s address had been made for the purpose of 
making reflections, and for advertising himself. His Honour 
noticed that when the prisoner spoke of himself, he was moved 
to tears, but when he referred to the deed he shed no tears at 
all. By his gross ignorance the prisoner had caused the 
woman’s death. He might be allowed to tell the prisoner that 
for some time past he had been violating the provisions of two 
Acts of Parliament. If he held himself out as a doctor, and 
called himself as such when not qualified, he was violating the 
Medical Practitioners Statute ; and when performing the 
operation, such as in the present case, he violated the Act under 
which he was registered as a pharmaceutical chemist. Prisoner 
insisted in violating this Act, and, in consequence, he was liable 
to six months, in addition to a fine of £10. Therefore, in connec- 
tion with the crime he had committed, he had criminally and 
deliberately violated, not only the Medical Practitioners 
Statute, but also the Pharmacy Act, of which he had taken the 
benefit. Apart altogether from the Act and the offences he had 
been committing, his Honour would tell him, and through him 
would tell others, that he had no right whatever to endeavour 
to learn the profession by making experiments upon fellow- 
beings. Prisoner acknowledged that the woman was pregnant, 
and his Honour should have thought, apart from the medical 
evidence, that it would commend itself to common sense that 
such an operation should never have been performed. The 
evidence showed conclusively that the prisoner never pene- 
trated the uterus, but that by his gross unskilfulness or want 
of knowledge he ran the instrument into the woman’s body, 
and thereby brought on hemorrhage, causing death. In con- 
clusion, his Honour might be allowed to warn and advise the 
prisoner that when he had served the sentence he was about to 
pass he should keep within the bounds of the Act under which 
he was registered as a pharmaceutical chemist ; because, if he 
did not, he rendered himself liable to a similar prosecution 
that he had just undergone, and the sentence would be much 
heavier. The sentence of the court was that the prisoner 
should be imprisoned in the Sandhurst gaol for twelve calendar 
months, and he would order neither hard labour nor any 
labour, in consequence of his advanced years. In measuring 
the sentence, his Honour took into due consideration all the cir- 
cumstances, and all that had been said to him by counsel had 
weight with him, but the prisoner’s statements had no weight. 

The prisoner, who appeared quite unconcerned on hearing 
the sentence, was then removed. 

Subsequently his Honour told Mr. Gale, the governor of the 
gaol, that he did not wish any distinction to be made in the 
prisoner’s case than in that of any others. 

Mr. Gale said the matter would be attended to. 


fiotes rntb Abstracts. 


Mosquito Fumigating Pastilles.— Pharm, Zeitung re- 
commends the following : — 

Charcoal 

Saltpetre 

Carbolic acid 

Persian insect powder 

Tragacanth mucilage, sufficient. 

Clarifying Shellac Solutions. — Much trouble is gene- 
rally experienced in obtaining clear solutions of shellac. If a 
mixture of 1 part shellac with 7 parts of alcohol of 96 per cent, 
is heated to a suitable temperature, it quickly clears, but as 
soon becomes tu r bid again on cool ing. The on iy practical method 
of freeing the solution from what some writers call “ wax,” 
and others “fatty acid,” which is present in shellac in the 
proportion of 1 to 5 per cent., and is the cause of the turbidity, 
has hitherto been the tedious process of repeated filtration. 
M. Peltz recommends the following method Shellac, 1 part, 
is dissolved in alcohol 8 parts, and allowed to stand for a few 
hours. Powdered chalk is then added in quantity equal to 
half the weight of shellac in the solution, and the latter is 
heated to 167°. The greater portion of the solution clears 
rapidly, and the remainder may be clarified by once filtering. 
Carbonate of magnesia and sulphate of baryta were tried in 
the same way, but were not found equally efficacious .— Design 
and Work, 


Errata.— P age 42, line 5, for her read their ; line 6, for 
husband read husbands. Page 44, line 4 from the bottom, 
for pints read parts. 


1 pound. 

2 ounces. 

U „ 

8 „ 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


Jlxlu anb (Slant) arb (Jfletiical fflorks 


ON SALE BY 


GEO. ROBERTSON 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

BOOKSELLER & STATIONER, 

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M ELBOUR KTE . 


The Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts, Processes, and 

Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions and 
Trades, including Pharmacy and Hygiene, by Arnold J, Cooley, 

2 volumes 47s. 6d. 


Beasley — The Book of Prescriptions ... ... ... ... ... ... 7s. 6d. 

Beasley — The Druggist’s General Receipt Book ... ... ... ... 7s. 

Beasley The Pocket Formulary and Synopsis of the British and Foreign Pharma- 
copoeias 7s. 6d. 

Fownes — A Manual of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical, 2 vols. ... ... 21s. 

Mayne — A Medical Y ocabulary : being an Explanation of all Terms and Phrases 
used in the various departments of Medical Science and Practice, giving 
their Derivation, Meaning, Application, and Pronunciation ... ... Us. 6d. 

Taylor — On Poisons in Relation to Medicine ... ... ... ... ... i8s 

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Carpenter — The Microscope and its Revelations, illustrated ... ... ... 17 S . 

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A COMPLETE CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL BOOKS TO BE HAD ON APPLICATION. 

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THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 



THE FORMULA AND FURTHER PARTICULARS WILL BE SENT TO MEMBERS 

OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 


a O o £ — — - fc>Oc 

From THE LANCET, October 5tb, 1878. 

“ Zoedone contains the soluble phosphates of lime, iron, soda, and potash, in medicinal quantities. ... 
Zoedone is a very efficient and pleasant vehicle for the administration of the but little soluble phosphate of 
iron.” 

From THE BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, August 30th, 1879. 

“ Among the various medicinal and other exhibits at the recent meeting of the British Medical Association j 

at Cork, there was one which, to our own judgment, bore away the palm. We refer to the aerated and ■ 

phosphorated iron beverage which Messrs. Evans and Co., of Wrexham, manufacture for Mr. David Johnson, 
F.C.S., the patentee. 

“ We had ample opportunity of testing its refreshing and invigorating qualities during our sojourn in the j- 

fair city of the extreme south-west ; and we can confidently recommend it to the attention of physicians and j: 

others who are occasionally at a loss what to direct their patients to take when parched by feverish thirst or jf 
depressed by exhausting ailments — notably in cases where alcoholic stimulants would be prejudicial. We feel j- 
that it would be found exceedingly useful in mitigating the discomfort ofttimes experienced by those suffering 
from the thirst, loss of ajipetite, and general malaise connected with the last stage of phthisis and chronic u 
bronchitis. 

“We also, from our observations and experience, advise its introduction into clubs, taverns, and places of «? 
public amusement, where it would judiciously supersede vinous and alcoholic stimulants, seeing that it contains, | 
as its name implies, life-giving ingredients in a form easily assimilated.” 

From THE MEDICAL PRESS AND CIRCULAR, August 27th, 1879. 

“ This preparation, containing the phosphates of lime, iron, &c., in perfect solution, is commendable equally j 
for the style in which it is put up, and the delicate flavour which it possesses, and also on account of its special I 
merits as a nervine tonic. Having ourselves tried it, we can honestly join in the praise bestowed by Dr. 
Norman Kerr and Dr. Carpenter.” 


WHOLESALE AGENTS.— London : ALLEN & HANBURYS; CORBYN, STACEY & CO.; HEARON, SQUIRE & FRANCIS. 

Patentees WM'Wm* JMtiEfBQXV, &.G.W. 

i 

Manufacturers: THE ZOEDONE COMPANY (Limited), Wrexham. 

Loudon Office : 25 A IH H UltX 51 LA1 T E, E.C. 


i 


SOLE CONSIGNEES FOR VICTORIA: 



MELBOURNE 


for 






[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] 


WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT 


NTr* i Published on the 15tii > 

1NO. 4:0. | of every Month. ) 
Registere d for T ransm ission as a Newspaper. 


JANUARY, 1882. 


{■Subscription, 15s. per Annum, 
». including Diary, Post Free. 


TRADE! NOTIC 


FOR RABBIT 


Phosphorus 


EXTERMINATION. 


R EPORTS having been freely circulated through the town and country press that PHOSPHORUS 
of an inferior quality has been sold in this market, we have taken steps, for the security and satisfaction 
of purchasers, to have our entire STOCK of this article submitted to the EXAMINATION of the 
following eminent chemists, whose report on it we subjoin : — 

“ Melbourne, 13th January, 1882. 

“At the request of FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO., we have examined their stock of some Four (4) Tons Phosphorus, 
stored at their Phosphorus Store, Inglis-street, Sandridge. 

“We have analysed samples taken by ourselves from various cases selected from the above stock at random, and 
have no hesitation in pronouncing same to be perfectly good and pure, and in all respects satisfactory. 


‘ (Signed) 


J. COSMO NEWBERY. 
“C. R. BLACKETT. 
ct W. JOHNSON.” 


We also call attention to the following report by Mr. Johnson on samples submitted to him by the 
Government, who have purchased from us nearly all the supplies they have hitherto distributed : — 

“Both samples are fair merchantable articles, and have not been tampered with in any way. 

“The failure referred to must have arisen from imperfect phosphorisation of the oats, or else from subsequent 
oxidation, which would destroy the poisonous effect of phosphorus and convert it into an innoxious substance. 


“ 23rd December, 1881.” 

IN 10-LB. TINS 

Price 


“ (Signed) 


W. JOHNSON. 


PHOSPHORUS 


PACKED IN 100-LB. CASES. 

£20 per Case. 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO. 

FLINDERS LANE, MELBOURNE. 


Printed by Mason, Firth & M'Cutcheon, 51 & 53 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne. 



THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 



PRISE 

MELB- 

EXHIB 


AWARDED 
y INTER: 

I 80-8 I ! 


PEARCE’S LAVENDER 


1 [si q pERF 1 ^ 


With Musk. 


T his is a well-known fragrant 
Perfume, and from its cheap- 
ness may be used lavishly. 

Sprinkled about the Room, or 
used in a Bath, it will be found 
most refreshing and invigorating. 

As a perfume for the handker- 
chief, its peculiar fragrance and ex- 
quisitely penetrating odour, so de- 
lightfully refreshing in hot climates 
and grateful to the invalid, render 
it one of the Standard Perfumes 
of the day. 


PROPRIETORS: 


HEMMONS, LAWS & C° 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS, 

RUSSELL ST., MELBOURNE. 


I 




V: 

q 












rd. " ' 

January, 1882. THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 65 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Leading Article— Tiie Sale of Poison in 


THE FORM OF PATENT MEDICINE 65 

The Month 66 

Meetings— The Pharmacy Board of Victoria 67 
The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 67 

New South Wales 67 

New Zealand 68 


page 


Scientific Summary 68 

Definitions of some New Australian Plants 68 

Modern Pharmaceutical Study 69 

Legal and Magisterial — 

Accident with Liquor Ammonias 70 

Suicide of the Rev. A. F. Harding 70 

Suicides by Poison 71 


PAGE 


Accident to Mr. Alfred Felton 71 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 71 

Death of Mr. A. J. Cooley 71 

Correspondence 71 

The “Australasian Veterinary Journal” 71 

Note on Glycerinum Acidi Gallici 72 

Troches of Borax 72 


&fje (JMjemtst antr Druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary, published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer— not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

Members whose subscriptions are unpaid on the 31st 
December, 1881, are respectfully informed that in 
accordance with Rule 14 their names will be omitted 
from the list, and after that date they cease to be 
Members of the Society. 

THE LIBRARY. 

The Library is open to Members daily, from 9.30 a.m. 
to 4.30 p.m. 


exception allowed in favour of this class of preparations by 
the sixteenth section of the Pharmacy Act has often been 
commented upon as unreasonable, and not long ago Dr. 
Hubbard, of St. Mary’s Hospital, justly denounced it as a 
stultification of the Act, and a fertile source of fatal disaster. 
Speaking from his own experience of the conditions under 
which these preparations can be obtained, and of the conse- 
quences attending their indiscreet use, he showed that there 
were strong reasons for restricting the trade in them, and at 
least making those who use them more acquainted with the 
nature and properties of the articles they are taking. 

These suggestions of Dr. Hubbard’s had a general reference 
to the “ patent medicines” containing potent drugs which are 
recommended by advertisements as specific remedies ; but 
they appear to have a still more cogent applicability to prepa- 
rations of such an article as chloral, and the very disclosure of 
the fact that this substance is an ingredient of the preparation 
makes it the more evident that the label should bear some 
impressive caution by the word “ Poison.” 

Dr. Hubbard casts some reproach upon the framers of the 
Pharmacy Act for the careful and courteous consideration 
which he thinks they have shown for manufacturers of patent 
medicines in the sixteenth section of the Act, on the assumption 
that it was voluntarily inserted by them ; but in this respect 
he has misjudged them, and has failed to take into account 
the influence and varied interests involved in the patent 
medicine business. That influence was so strong that it would 
have been impossible to resist it at the time the Pharmacy Act 
was passed ; and the exemption of patent medicines from the 
operation of the Act may be looked upon as having been then 
inevitable, so far as chemists and druggists were concerned. If, 


BIRTH. 

Blackett.— On the 27th December, at Fitzroy, the wife of C. R. Blackett, 
M.L.A., of a son. 

MARRIAGE. 

Sharpe — Cooper. — On the 8th November, at St. Saviour’s, Clarborough, 
by the Rev. L. D. Rowarth, Edwin Sharpe, pharmacist, late of Australia, 
to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the late Charles Cooper, Moor- gate, 
Retford. No Cards. 

DEATHS. 

Griffiths.— On the 28th December, at 119 High-street, St. Kilda, James 
William, late of Ballarat, chemist, aged 54 (after a very short illness). 

Jones.— On the 31st December, at 303 Bay-street, Sandridge, Walter 
Llewellyn, infant son of Walter and Adeline Jones, aged four months. 


THE SALE OF POISON IN THE FORM OF PATENT 
MEDICINES. 

In the October number of the Pharmaceutical Journal the 
following observations upon this important subject are so much 
to the purpose that we feel sure that our readers will fully 
appreciate them. This question has the same interest for us, 
and is of as much importance to the public at the antipodes 
as it is in the mother-country : — 

A recent inquest furnishes another instance of the danger, 
attending the inadvertent use of nostrums containing potent! 
drugs; and although the preparation which was the cause of 
Miss Ashfield’s death does not lie under the objection of having 
its possibly poisonous influence concealed under a fanciful 
designation, it is, nevertheless, one of a class of preparations 
which ought not to be sold without the precautionary measures 
that the Pharmacy Act prescribes in its seventeenth section as 
proper to be observed for the protection of the public. The 


however, it can be shown that the sale of patent medicines 
containing potent drugs, as at present conducted, involves 
danger to the public, the case would be a very proper one to 
bring under the notice of the Legislature from a medical point 
of view, and we have every reason for believing that the appli- 
cation for suitable restrictions upon the sale of such prepara- 
tions would meet the approval of all qualified pharmacists. 
We do not hesitate to express our opinion that such a case 
might well be made out as suggested by Dr. Hubbard. 

The need for such a step has not been overlooked by the 
Council of the Pharmaceutical Society ; and quite recently, in 
drafting a Bill for the Amendment of the Pharmacy Act, the 
labelling of patent medicines being or containing poison was 
provided for by a clause which required that on the preparation 
for sale (whether by wholesale or by retail) of any patent 
medicine or any article bearing a patent medicine stamp, being 
or containing a poison within the meaning of the Pharmacy 
Act, the person so preparing the same shall cause the box, 
bottle, or vessel containing it to be labelled with his name and 
address, and the word “Poison.” In the same spirit it is 
provide_d_by another clause of this hilLi^o^aW without delay 
will proceed with the erection of suitable premises, fitted with 
the latest conveniences to facilitate the execution of orders 
and manufacture of drugs. 

Steps are being taken to amalgamate the pharmacy lectures 
of the Technical College with those of the Pharmaceutical 
Society. The same lecturer is employed by both institu- 
tions, and the same persons attend both courses of lectures. 
The outcome of the amalgamation will probably be the 
establishment of a School of Pharmacy in our city. 


66 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


January, 1882. 


carry this proposal into effect is an undertaking which is likely 
to meet with opposition from interested quarters, and it is one 
in which there is suitable opportunity for the medical profes- 
sion to support the Society whenever the bill is introduced 
into Parliament. By such concerted action between the medi- 
cal professsion and the representatives of pharmacy, much 
good might be effected in the public interest. 

The case reported this week serves to show how much 
restrictions are required in regard to the sale of poisons in the 
orm of patent medicines, and how thoroughly, under existing 
conditions, the safeguards provided by the Pharmacy Act are 
negatived by the sale of such articles by grocers, co-operative 
stores, or any other unqualified persons. It appears from the 
evidence in this case that Miss Ashfield’s habit of taking 
chloral was known, not only to her medical attendant — who 
had expressly warned her to desist from it — but likewise to 
the chemist with whom she dealt, who had refused to supply 
her with chloral, except on the order of a medical man. These 
precautions and the wise intentions of the Act were, however, 
completely frustrated by the facility with which the obnoxious 
article was procured from the “stores” upon a wholesale 
scale, and opportunity afforded for secret indulgence in the 
practice which led, as in so many other cases, to a fatal result. 

In the case we now refer to the jury has given a very em- 
phatic expression of opinion that further precautions should 
be taken by persons who sell such articles as that which caused 
Miss Ashfield’s death, and that the bottles should be labelled 
“ Poison,” notwithstanding the exemptions apparently pro- 
vided by the sixteenth section of the Pharmacy Act for patent 
medicines. This is a practical endorsement of the views 
expressed by Dr. Hubbard, which we hope will speedily bear 
fruit, by calling attention to the mischief that is being done 
by the wholly unrestricted and promiscuous sale of poisons in 
the form of patent medicines. This is an evil that urgently 
demands a remedy, as being the worst feature of the “ patent 
medicine” trade, alike destructive to medicine and to phar. 
macy, and pernicious to the public at large. 

Whatever reasons there may be for tolerating the sale of 
patent medicines of a more harmless character, it must be evi- 
dent that in regard to those of a dangerous nature there can 
be no question that restrictive measures are requisite. Thi s 
is felt in other countries as well as our own, and the plausible 
allurements by which the nostrum traffic is promoted are 
everywhere attracting the attention of medical men and phar- 
macists. In America this trade has attained to such dimen- 
sions that, as stated in the annual address of the President of 
the Pennsylvanian Pharmaceutical Association, two-thirds of 
the total quantity of medicine annually consumed in the 
United States is sold in the form of secret nostrums. Phar- 
macists, however, should seek to build up a more legitimate 
business — that of dispensing to the public such drugs and 
medicines as are prescribed by the regular medical profession. 
So long as the public will have quackery in its various forms 
its sale is safer in the hands of the pharmacists than in any 
other ; but it is not at all desirable that this trade should be 
promoted by the exhibition of flaming cards, or the distribution 
of puffing circulars. 

H E MMUHb, i 

WHOLESALE E 



HHie ihontlv. 


The examination of students who have attended the School 
of Pharmacy to obtain the certificates required by the 18th 
section of the Pharmacy Act will be held on Monday, the 6th 
March next. The subjects of examination are elementary and 
practical chemistry, materia medica , botany, and pharmacy, 
and the Pharmaceutical Society have offered three handsome 
gold medals to the students who pass the best examination in 
each subject. The conditions under which the medals will be 
given have already been published, and we refer competitors 
to them. 


The Pharmaceutical Register of Victoria for the year 1882 
was published early in January, and shows a large addition to 
the apprentices’ list during the year 1881. Copies can be ob- 
tained at the office, or from all the wholesale houses. 


We are requested to again call attention to the amended 
regulations to the Pharmacy Act, having reference to appren- 
tices. After 1st January, 1882, all persons must , before 
entering into apprenticeship indentures, pass the preliminary 
examination, or produce a certificate of having passed the 
matriculation or civil service examination, Latin being a com- 
pulsory subject. 


In another column will be found an interesting letter from 
our Sydney correspondent, who will, for the future, supply the 
pharmaceutical news of New South Wales to our readers. 

The annual report and balance-sheet and the amended rules, 
and also catalogue of books in the library, will be forwarded to 
members early next month. 


The annual cricket match, Wholesale v. Retail, will be held 
at the Melbourne Cricket Ground on the 26th January. The 
wholesale houses have agreed to close at one o’clock ; and the 
game commencing at noon, an adjournment will be made at 
two p.m. for lunch, which will be provided on the ground. 
Two excellent teams have been chosen, whose names, as well 
as other details of the match, will be found in another column. 


The Chemists and Druggists' Diary for 1882 have all been 
issued to members. Should any copies have miscarried, 
notification may be sent to Mr. Shillinglaw, at the rooms. 


The trial of James Egan Wall, of Sandhurst, for a breach of 
the 23rd section of the Pharmacy Act, will be held on 
the 23rd instant, at Sandhurst— too late for publication in this 
issue. It will be remembered that Wall was convicted of 
manslaughter at the last Sandhurst assizes, and this prosecu- 
tion arises out of evidence given at the trial. He will be 
brought up on a writ of habeas corpus. 


At the last meeting of the council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society it was stated that there were several persons who 
attended the annual dinner who had not yet paid for their 
tickets. Surely this is not as it ought to be. 

The annual meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society will be 
held at the rooms on the 8th March next, when the report and 
balance-sheet for the past year will be presented. The 
balance-sheet for the year 1881 is an exceedingly satisfactory 
one. 


January, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


67 


Jtleetmp* 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the board was held at No. 100 
Collins- street, on the 11th January, 1882. Present — Messrs. 
Bowen, Blackett, Brind, Lewis, Holdsworth, and Owen. An 
apology was read from Mr. Bosisto. 

On the motion of Mr. Lewis, Mr. Brind took the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Application for Registration as a Pharmaceutical Chemist. 
— John Thomas Floyd, Stawell ; passed modified examination. 

Apprentices' Indentures Registered. — Edward Reeve, Ruther- 
glen ; Fred. B. Baker, Richmond; Charles A. Pyne and 
W. H. Wolfenden, Melbourne ; George H. Griffiths and A. S. 
Edsall, Williamstown ; C. L. Henshall, Seymour. 

The following renewals of certificates under the “ Sale and 
Use of Poisons Act,” were granted : — Nam Shing, Spring 
Creek ; E. Worthington, Avenel ; G. B. Berry, Taradale ; 
H. Playford, Dookie South ; William Hand, Lilydale ; Sun 
Hi On, Buckland ; Ho Lim Sen, Swift’s Creek; Ho Ah Yen, 
Swift’s Creek ; Samuel Hart, Euroa ; C. L. de Boos, Euroa ; 
Hoy Ling, Vaughan. 

Amongst the correspondence a number of cases involving 
breaches of the Pharmacy and Poisons Acts were considered, 
and most of them were disposed of, a number of prosecutions 
being ordered ; it was also resolved that in all cases where the 
police prosecute, the registrar be authorised to obtain legal 
assistance to conduct the cases, so that no technical objection 
may be taken to the information or summons. A communica- 
tion was read from the Chief Commissioner of Police, stating 
that the case against James E. Wall would be heard at the 
Sandhurst Police-court on the 23rd January. 

Annual Balance-sheet. — The annual balance-sheet to 31st 
December, 1881, duly audited, was submitted and passed. 

The Pharmaceutical Register for 1881 was laid on the table. 

The Practical Pharmacy Examination. — Mr. Owen sub- 
mitted a scheme of the manner in which the practical phar- 
macy examination should be conducted, which, after some 
discussion, was adopted. 

Financial and routine business brought the meeting to a close. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 
The monthly meeting of the council was held at the rooms, 
Collins-street, on the 6th January. Present — Messrs. Bowen, 
Gamble, Huntsman, Thomas, Nicholls, Baker, and Shilling- 
law. The president, Mr. Wm. Bowen, in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

Election of New Members . — The following new members, 
nominated at the last meeting, having furnished the necessary 
declaration, were duly elected : — John C. H. Lilley, Port Pirie, 
South Australia ; Charles Flack, Ballan ; J. H. M'Cail, Tor- 
quay, Tasmania. 

New Members Nominated. — W. E. Woods, Napier, New 
Zealand ; P. Fitzsimmons, Brisbane; H. A. Corinaldi, Prahran ; 
H. B. Given, Mount Brown, New South Wales; Jas. R. 
Laughton, Elizabeth-street, Sydney ; Frederick Wright, Pitt- 
street, Sydney; H. J. Fowles, Glenelg, South Australia; 
Walter Jones, Sandridge. 

The Annual Report and Balance-sheet . — The draft of the 
annual report and audited balance-sheet for the year 1881 was 
submitted, and ordered to be printed and distributed to the 
members. 

Appointment of Lecturer, School of Pharmacy . — The appli- 
cation and consideration of all matters relating to the school 
were postponed, and a special meeting of the whole council 
called for the 12th January. 

Gold Medals . — The dyes and sample of the gold medal to be 
given to the best student at the school were laid on the table. 

Correspondence . — A large amount of correspondence was 
read, but of no special interest. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

The following are the retiring members of council for the 
year 1882 : — A. T. Best, R. Nicholls, J. C. Jones, C. Ogg, and 
H, Gamble, all of whom are eligible for re-election. 


A special meeting was held at the rooms on the 12th 
January. Present — Messrs. Bowen, Blackett, Gamble, Nicholls, 
Thomas, Huntsman, Best, Hooper, Swift, Baker, and Shilling- 
law. The president, Mr. Bowen, in the chair. 


The meeting was called to consider the application for the 
position of lecturer, and for other matters relating to the 
school. 

The President stated that an opinion had been expressed that 
it would be to the advantage of the school if the classes were 
removed from the Technological Museum to the rooms of the 
society, where special advantages existed in the library, 
museum, &c., and he thought that the first matter to consider 
was should this be done. 

Mr. Swift was of opinion that it would be better to try 
another term at the Technological Museum before making a 
change. 

Mr. J. T. Thomas : I do not think there can be any doubt of 
the advantages a school under the immediate supervision 
of the society would have over the present one. 

A general discussion of the subject then took place, in which 
Messrs. Huntsman, Baker, and Hooper took part. 

Mr. Gamble said : To test the question, I will move that the 
present school of pharmacy at the Technological Museum be 
discontinued, and that a school be formed, with one lecturer, 
under the immediate supervision of the Pharmaceutical 
Society. Seconded by Mr. Best. 

Mr. Blackett moved an amendment that the school at the 
Technological Museum be continued for another session, and 
that a committee, or board of visitors, be appointed to make 
any suggestions, &c., that might be found necessary. Seconded 
by Mr. Swift. 

The president put the amemdment, which was lost, and the 
motion was carried. 

Mr. Thomas moved that the arrangement for the school be 
left to a committee, with power to act, consisting of the presi- 
dent and Messrs. Blacke t, Gamble, and Huntsman. 

The appointment of lecturer will therefore stand over until 
the next meeting of the council on the 3rd February. 


NEW SOUTH WALES. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

The first pharmacy examination of the Technical College 
was held on the evenings of the 7th and 14th December. Seven 
candidates presented themselves. The examiners were Mr. 
James Moore, of Oxford-street, and Mr. Fred. Wright, of 
Messrs. Elliott Bros. The examination consisted of two papers 
of ten questions each, and was such as to thoroughly test the 
candidates’ knowledge of the Pharmacopoeia. The number of 
marks gained by the students show, on the whole, very satis- 
factory results. The lecturer’s prize, consisting of a copy of 
Pareira’s Materia Medica , was gained by Mr. Fred. Hall. 
The first prize, consisting of Dr. Carpenter’s work on The 
Microscope , Mr. A. Henry ; the second prize, four volumes of 
Manchester Science Lectures , Mr. R. Senior. The number of 
marks stand as follows : — Hall, 147; Henry, 109 ; Senior, 106 ; 
out of a possible 200. 

We have to notice the deaths of two persons connected with 
pur profession, one, Mr. C. R. Dowling, who was assistant to 
Mr. C. F. Turner, Oxford-street. Mr. Dowling is believed to 
have recently arrived from Melbourne. While in a state of 
intoxication, he took an overdose of Scheles Acid Hydrceganic. 
At the inquest it was stated that the deceased was in the habit 
of taking ten drops of the acid after drinking bouts. The jury 
returned a verdict of felo-de-se. The second case is that of 
Dr. Hastie, of Lithgow. The deceased gentleman took a large 
dose of chloroform by mistake, on Monday, 9th January, and 
died shortly after having swallowed the same. Dr. Hastie was 
for some time one of the resident medical officers of the Sydney 
Infirmary, and his death is greatly regretted, his genial manner 
having rendered him very popular. An inquest has not yet 
been held. 

Mr. E. Prosser (Messrs. Kempthorne, Prosser and Co., 
Dunedin, New Zealand) has purchased the business lately 
carried on by H. Beit and Co. Sydney badly needs whole- 
some competition between the wholesale houses. Messrs'. 
Elliott- Bros, have purchased a piece of ground in O’Connell- 
street, opposite the Herald office buildings, and without delay 
will proceed with the erection of suitable premises, fitted with 
the latest conveniences to facilitate the execution of orders 
and manufacture of drugs. 

Steps are being taken to amalgamate the pharmacy lectures 
of the Technical College with those of the Pharmaceutical 
Society. The same lecturer is employed by both institu- 
tions, and the same persons attend both courses of lectures. 
The outcome of the amalgamation will probably be the 
establishment of a School of Pharmacy in our city, 


68 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


January, 1882. 


NEW ZEALAND. 

A shocking occurrence took place at Wellington on 21st 
December, by which a lady was literally blown to pieces, and 
a building partially wrecked. The facts are as follow: — At 
the shop of Mr. Barraud, chemist, Lambton Quay, some blue- 
fire was in course of preparation for use at the theatre . On 
testing a small portion of the mixture, it was found dan- 
gerously explosive, too much chlorate of potash having been 
inadvertently used in the composition. Accordingly, Barraud’s 
assistant, named Anthony, formerly of Christchurch, took it 
out into the back-yard and began to destroy it by slow com- 
bustion. He had occasion to leave for an instant, and before 
he could return, his wife happened to go into the yard, and 
seeing chemicals on fire, at once threw a bucket of water on 
the burning mass. A terrific explosion immediately took 
place, which shook the whole city, and was heard at a distance 
of some miles. Poor Mrs. Anthony received the full force of 
the shock, and was frightfully mutilated. Both 'arms were 
torn off, also one leg, the lower jaw, and the scalp. Wonderful 
to relate, she lingered for some time. All the windows in the 
vicinity were smashed, and other damage done. The stone 
mortar in which the composition had been mixed was hurled 
many feet into the air, and thrown clear over the tops of the 
houses into the next street. Fortunately, nobody else was 
injured. This dreadful occurrence created a profound sen- 
sation in the city. 


Scientific Summary. 


From the Pharmaceutical Journal and other sources we take 
the following : — 

In an address delivered before the German Pharmaceutical 
Association at its recent meeting, Dr. Meyer gave an account 
of the most recent views of the growth and development, as 
well as the chemical and physical properties of starch. He 
agreed with Schimper and Musculus (Bot. Zeit ., 1880-81), 
according to whom the starch grains grow, like sphaero- 
crystals, by apposition of starch molecules. The starch grains 
are sphserocrystalloids which originate only in the chlorophyll 
grains of the green parts of plants, whilst in all parts destitute 
of chlorophyll, as for instance in rhizomes, starch grains are 
produced by the conversion of other carbohydrates into starch 
by the so-called starch formers ( Stdrhebildner J. To explain 
the origin of the concentric rings, and the peculiarity of starch 
grains always being softer in the interior than on the outside, 
Dr. Meyer made use of a new theory which cannot be here 
entered upon. Chemically, only the outermost layer of the 
starch grain consists of anhydride, (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) 12 , the inner 
layers are composed of “ swollen ” anhydride. ° By the action 
of acids and ferments water is taken up, and the molecule of 
anhydride breaks up into several molecules of soluble starch, 
hydrate of starch (C^Hj O 0 5 ) 3 + H 2 0, which can be obtained 
in sphserocrystals. By the action of ferments soluble starch 
is converted into dextrin and maltose, water being again 
absorbed — 

(O.H l0 O,) ll +H.O=(O.H 0,) + 0 1 .H„0 11 . 

Dextrin. Maltose. 

This decomposition may be continued ; maltose can then, on 
absorption of one molecule of water, split up into two mole- 
cules of grape sugar. The first step towards the production 
of starch from grape sugar has been accomplished in the 
preparation of a dextrin of the formula (C 6 H 10 O 6 ) 3 from 
chemically pure grape sugar. 

In Auckland, New Zealand, an attempt is being made to 
cultivate liquorice, and if successful it is believed that consider- 
able attention will be devoted to it by farmers, the climate 
being most suitable. A large quantity of the root has been 
imported by a local merchant, and has been extensively dis- 
tributed throughout the country districts. 

Professor Hamberg, of Stockholm, has been making a series 
of experiments as to the relative stability of solutions of 
different salts of morphia, and has recently brought the 
subject before the Swedish Medical Association (j Pharm. 
Zeitung , xxvi., No. 46). He finds that the sulphate of 
morphia is more stable than the hydrochlorate, and that the 
best results are obtained when the solutions are made with 
boiling distilled water (tested for freedom from ammonia, 
nitrous, nitric, or phosphoric acids), and filtered directly into 
small well-filled glass-stoppered bottles, 'which should after- 
wards be doubly capped with parchment. 


Dr. Lacerda has also discovered that permanganate of 
potash is an antidote to snake poison. According to a letter 
co the Medical Times and Gazette “repeated successful experi- 
ments, positive and negative, have been performed by him in 
the presence of the Emperor of Brazil,” and there is said to be 
no doubt felt in Rio as to the thorough truth of the discovery. 

M. Gautier, in a paper read before the Academy of Medi- 
cine, on 26th July last, gives an account of his researches into 
the nature of snake poisons, more particularly that of the 
cobra ( Naja tripudians). He finds that they are not ferments, 
but chemical bodies of definite composition and considerable 
stability, whose energy is proportioned to the quantity 
employed, and but slightly impaired by subjection to a 
temperature of 125° C. (258° F.) for several hours. Although 
the poison has the nature of an alkaloid, he found that in its 
crude state it has an acid reaction, and caustic potash or soda 
enough to neutralise this acidity, rendered it absolutely inert, 
and, in fact, decomposed it, since when neutralised with an 
acid again the energy of the poison was not restored. He, 
however, failed to prevent death by the subcutaneous 
injection of alkaline solutions. M. Guatier also verified the 
fact that the poison may be taken into the digestive canal 
with impunity. 

The existing information as to the solubility under varying 
conditions of carbonate of magnesia in water charged with 
carbonic acid gas being contradictory and incomplete, Messrs. 
Engel and Ville have made a series of determinations, the 
results of which they have recently laid in a tabular form 
before the French Academy ( Comptes Rendes. xciii., 340). 
It was found that under a pressure of one atmosphere, at a 
temperature of 19*5 deg. C. one litre of water charged with 
carbonic acid dissolved 25*79 grams of carbonate of magnesia; 
under 4*7 atmospheres and a temperature of 19 *2 deg., the 
quantity increased to 43*5 grams ; and under 9 atmospheres 
and a temperature of 18*7 deg. to 56'69 grams. It was also 
found that slight variations of temperature — the pressure 
remaining constant — were sufficient to modify sensibly the 
solubility of the carbonate of magnesia. Thus with the ordi- 
nary atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 13*4 deg. C., 
a litre of water dissolved 28*45 grams ; at 19*5 deg., 25*79 
grams; at 29*3 deg., 21*945 grams; at 70 deg., 8*1 grams; 
at 90 deg., 2*4 grams. 

DEFINITIONS OF SOME NEW AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 

By Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., 
F.R.S. 

Not very long ago I drew attention in the pages of this 
journal to a new meliaceous tree from Northern Queensland 
(Dysoxylon Schiffneri) and to a terrestrial orchid, till then 
unknown, from the Loddon district in our own colony (Thely- 
mitra Mackibbinii) chiefly with an object to interest pharma- 
ceutic gentlemen throughout the Australian colonies more 
and more in the native vegetation around them. It was hoped, 
that many pharmacists would be induced to form collections 
of dried plants, when it could be shown, that not only the 
fields of therapeutical and chemical phytology had to be 
much further investigated, but that even near our own 
metropolis any assiduous and persevering botanic searches 
would likely be rewarded with the discovery of quite new 
species of plants. That this anticipation was well founded, is 
now again demonstrated by the fact of Mr. D. Sullivan, of 
Moyston, having added to the three species of the remarkable 
orchid-genus Caleya a fourth congener, which he obtained in 
our Grampians. I avail myself of the kind concession of 
C. R. Blackett, Esq., M.P., of giving in these pages 
publicity to this new plant and a few others, he sharing 
my hope that many of his colleagues, especially in 
remote localities of colonial settlements, may be induced 
to forward dried specimens also for the further elucidation 
of the Australian flora, particularly in reference to the 
regional distribution of the species. Researches on the medi- 
cinal, industrial or cultural value will follow gradually any 
systematic descriptive records. Indeed, it would be an im- 
mense gain to Australian practical resources also, if in each 
pharmaceutical establishment gradually a full collection of 
the plants, indigenous in the vicinity, did accumulate, while 
at the same time the Australian members of the pharmaceu- 
tical profession would in botanic inquiries keep thereby pace 
with their brethren in Europe. 

Caleya Snllivanii . — Stem very slender, comparatively short, 
its lowest portion enclosed in a membranous, narrow, slightly 


January, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


69 


downy cylinder ; leaf narrow-linear, inserted some distance from 
the base of the stem ; no bract between the leaf and the floral 
bracts ; flowers two to three, very small ; inner pair of segments 
of the calyx-limb conspicuously distant from the outer pair ; 
labellum lanceolar-ovate, passing from a gradually attenuated 
base into curved stipes of hardly half the length, pointed at 
the summit, very bulging above, amply hollow-concave beneath, 
beset with papillular glands only towards the centre, not 
appendiculated ; membrane of the column terminated on each 
side by a small deltoid lobe ; fruit oblique egg-shaped. 
Near Mount Zero. D. Sullivan. This evidently rare species 
differs from C. minor, which it precisely imitates in stature 
and size, chiefly by having the labellum not in a peltate 
manner attached to the stipes, nor its apex blunt, nor its 
base appendiculated ; it being also more dilated towards 
the middle, and its membranous margin and apex remaining 
free of callous tubercles. This abnormal structure of the 
labellum removes the species likewise from the other congeners, 
offering an approach to the Genoplesium section of Prasophyl- 
lum. 

Helichrysum Kempei . — Shrubby ; leaves crowded on the 
branchlets, linear, somewhat acute, at the margin revolute, 
underneath, as well as the branchlets, grey-tomentose; flower- 
heads disposed in terminal compound corymbs ; involucres 
very small, semiellipsoid, cylindrical, pale yellow, not radia- 
ting ; scales blunt, appresaed, largely pellucid and glabrous, 
the inner scales gradually short-stalked, their stipes subtle- 
downy ; flowers generally from ten to twelve within the 
involucre, not exserted, all bisexual ; fruits very short, 
subtle-silky, not turgid towards the middle, surrounded at the 
base by a callous ring ; bristles of the pappus sixteen to 
twenty-two, minutely serrulated, towards their summit slightly 
thickened. Near the Finke River in Central Australia. Rev. 
H. Kempe. Allied to H. cassinoides, from the coast regions 
of Middle Queensland. 

Dodoncea Macrossanii — Ferd. v. Mueller & Scortechini. — 
Short-hairy ; leaves very small, pinnate ; lateral leaflets in 
one or oftener two pairs, all linear or oval-lanceolar, crowded, 
undivided or some bifid, all flat at the margin ; rachis some- 
what dilated ; stalklets of female flowers solitary, extremely 
short ; sepals three or four, ovate-lanceolar, nearly half as 
long as the very small roundish-triangular or quadrangular 
fruit ,* valves with neither hornlike nor winglike appen- 
dages, seceding from the persistent dissepiments. Near 
Miles, in South-western Queensland. Rev. B. Scortechini. 
Staminate flowers and ripe seeds not yet obtained. The 
only other species, which combines pinnate leaves with inap- 
pendiculate fruits, is D. humilis, from which this new con- 
gener differs in its much more conspicuous general hairiness, 
in exceedingly small not denticulated leaflets of only two or 
one pairs in considerably smaller fruits, the hairs of which 
are not gland-tipped. The paucity and smallness of the leaflets 
bring our new plant near to D. microzyga (F. v. M. Annual 
Report, 1862, p. 12). 


/ Pharmacy has lost one of its brightest ornaments through 
" the death of Dr. W. O. Sonder, of Hamburg, who, after a brief 
illness of four days, expired on the 21st November last, at the 
age of 69. For more than 30 years Dr. Sonder conducted, as 
proprietor, a leading pharmaceutical establishment in the great 
Hansa city, where he was also, for nearly as many years, a 
member of the medical board. But his zeal, ability, and great 
working power allowed him to carry on independent progres- 
sive work in his favourite science — that of botany — irrespective 
of his extensive professional engagements. In 1841 he com- 
menced his literary career by elaborating for Profess. Lehmann’s 
work on Dr. Preiss’ plants of West Australia the extensive 
orders of Epacridese and Stylideas ; in the year following 
he described, for the same publication, the very numerous 
Algas. This placed Sonder at once among the masterly 
workers in that branch of science. After describing many 
orchids from Natal and other South-African plants, he 
published in 1851 a voluminous descriptive flora of Hamburg, 
the result of many years’ excursions in its surroundings, in 
conjunction with the late lamented Professor Harvey, he ela- 
borated, from 1859 till 1865, the three large volumes of the 
Flora Capensis. Since that time his attention was parti- 
cularly directed to the investigations of Australian Algae, con- 
cerning which he was, since 1848, in very frequent com- 
munication with Baron von Mueller, and in these researches 
he was still enthusiastically engaged when death suddenly 
took him from his mourning family and large circle of private 


and scientific friends. Sixty wreaths from friends adorned his 
coffin. So long as the present creation exists Dr. Sonder’s 
name will be connected honourably with the flora of Australia 
and South Africa. 


SOME REMARKS UPON MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL 
STUDY. 

(By H. J. Moller.) 

( From Pharmaceutical Journal-) 

Italy. 

The following facts respecting pharmaceutical education in 
Italy I have obtained from Mr. Kernwein, “ chimico-far- 
macista ” in Florence, to which gentleman my friend Mr. 
Arthur Meyer (at present an assistant at the pharmaceutical 
institute in Strassburg) had the kindness to introduce me. 

The most recent law regulating pharmaceutical study is 
the royal decree of 12th March, 1876. The course is arranged 
in a quite peculiar way which very much resembles the system 
employed in Spain and Greece. 

There are two classes of pharmacists, viz.: — “ farmacista ” 
and “laureato (or ‘ dottore ’) in chimica e farmacia,” and 
also assistants (called “ministro,” “giovane” or “commesso”); 
these last do not correspond to the German “gehiilfen,” but 
are always examined pharmacists — i.e ., have all passed the 
“major.” 

The young man who wishes to commence the study of 
pharmacy must first prove that he is qualified to enter the 
third class of the “ liceo,”* or he must have passed the three 
first classes in an “ instituto tecnico ” (this school corresponds 
to the German “hohere Realschule”); in the last case he must 
pass a special examination in Latin. 

If these demands are fulfilled, the young man does not 
begin his practical education, but commences immediately to 
follow the lectures at the universities, where, according to 
Article 2 of the above-mentioned law, special pharmaceutical 
schools are to be established. Such a “ scuola di farmacia ” 
already exists in Florence, where it is connected with the 
“ scuola di medicina.” The course occupies from four to five 
years, according to the two following plans : — 

A. Plan of study, requisite for the degree of farmacista. 

First year : Inorganic chemistry, botany, mineralogy, 

physics. Second year : Organic chemistry, botany, phar- 
maceutical and toxicological chemistry, materia medica ; 
practical exercises in pharmaceutical chemistry, toxicology 
and qualitative analysis. Third year : Continuation and 
termination of the same studies and exercises as in the second 
year. 

At the end of every year examinations are held in the com- 
pleted branches. After the last of these examinations, the 
student goes to a pharmacy of an hospital, to a military or 
other pharmacy, which is authorised by the Government to 
this end, and there first he commences his practical education, 
which is finished in one year. This last, fourth year of study, 
is called the “ anno di pratica,” and is terminated by a final 
examination, which includes qualitative analysis, a chemical 
and a “galenical” preparation, medical botany, materia 
medica, and the dispensing of prescriptions. 

B. Plan of study requisite for the degree of dottore (or 
laureato ) in chimica e farmacia. The studies extend over five 
years, and are divided into two periods. 

1. The first period (three years) : Inorganic and organic 
chemistry, physics, pharmaceutical and toxicological chemistry, 
botany, mineralogy, geology, zoology, materia medica, and 
toxicology ; practical exercises in physics, botany, mineralogy, 
materia medica, qualitative analysis, and chemical prepara- 
tions. 

2. The second period (two years) : In the fourth year the 
candidate studies more especially qualitative, toxicological, 
and zoochemical analyses ; he must also make some separate 
studies in a special branch of natural science, chosen by him- 
self. In the fifth year (“ anno di pratica,”) he learns practical 
pharmacy as above mentioned. Now he passes the final 
examination, which consists of three parts ; the first includes 
qualitative, quantitative, and toxicological analyses, and an 
oral examination in these branches ; the second part embraces 
two chemico-pharmaceutical preparations, medical, botany, 
and materia medica ; the third consists of a dissertation on a 


*The “ liceo” is the classical school ; the third class is the highest, and 
the final examination of this class is called the “ licenza liceale,” and thus 
corresponds to the Gennan “ Maturitatsprufung,” and the French “ bacca- 
laur^at.” 


70 THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. January, 1882 . 


theme, chosen by the candidate himself, and a discussion of 
this dissertation. It is required of the candidate who wishes 
to be a “ dottore ” in pharmacy, that he shall have passed the 
above-mentioned “ licenza liceale.” 


|£egal anb iflagistmd. 


ACCIDENT WITH LIQUOR AMMONIA!. 

At the Belfast Quarter Sessions, on Tuesday last, before Mr. 
J. H. Otway, the County Court Judge, a case was heard in 
which a railway porter, named John Murray, and his wife 
sought to recover the sum of £50 damages from Mr. John 
Hogg, druggist, York-street. 

Eliza Murray, one of the complainants, deposed that on the 
25th ult. she sent her daughter to Mr. Hogg’s to buy one 
pennyworth of “head salts,” as she was subjected to headaches. 
The girl returned with the bottle produced. It was “ fizzing” 
through the cork when she first saw it. It was put on the shelf 
and not used for a few days. Having a headache she lifted it 
to apply it, and had it in her hand for a few minutes when it 
exploded, the contents covering her face. Her eye was de- 
stroyed, and her mouth and throat burned, the skins of both 
having been torn off. It had been put on the mantelpiece pre- 
vious to the time that she used it. When about to apply it she 
was sitting near the fire. 

John Murray, husband of the injured woman, said that the 
day after the accident, he went to the defendant to tell him of 
the occurrence, and Mr. Hogg sympathised with him and gave 
him 10s. towards paying the expenses of the doctors. 

Dr. Gault deposed that on 28th September, he saw Mrs. 
Murray. Her eyes, mouth, and throat were greatly swollen. 
The contents of the bottle produced was liquid ammonia. 

Smelling” or “ head” salts were usually prepared with 
carbonate of ammonia and a few drops of the liquid ammonia. 
He did not think that liquid ammonia should be sold by itself 
for smelling or “ head salts.” it would be too strong, and the 
heat of the hand would be sufficient to burst the cork. 

Dr. W. A, M'Keown deposed that when Mrs. Murray came 
to him her eye was completely lost. He knew “head salts” to be 
the white powder, carbonate of ammonia, with a few drops of 
the liquid put on. Liquid ammonia was not smelling salts. 

John Hogg, the defendant, deposed that he sold the liquid 
ammonia to the plaintiff’s child. The custom of the trade was 
to give either carbonate of ammonia or the liquid in a diluted 
form. That given to plaintiff was diluted. He had sent to 
various druggists in town for the same article that the plain- 
tiff asked for, and in each case the liquid ammonia was given. 
This liquid would not explode except it were heated. 

His Worship granted a decree for £30, with two guineas for 
expenses . — Belfast Evening Telegraph . 


SUICIDE OF THE REV. A. F. HARDING. 

Prosecution for Selling the Poison. 

A CASE arising out of the late suicide of the Rev. A. F. Hard- 
ing, of St, Kilda, was heard at the St. Hilda Police Court 
on 9th January, when the chemist, J. W, Thwaites, was pro- 
secuted under the 5th section of the Poisons Statute. It will 
be remembered that at the inquest Mr, Thwaites was interro- 
gated, and answered as follows : — 

Coroner : Are you aware that chloral is one of the articles 
scheduled m the “ Act for Regulating the Sale of Poisons ?” 
Witness : I never gave it a moment’s thought. 

Coroner : ihe Act was passed expressly to prevent suicide 
by sudden impulse. It provides that no druggist shall sell cer- 
tain poisons (of which chloral is one) unless a witness is pre- 
sent, and the sale is entered in a book kept for the purpose. 
Are you in the habit of selling chloral as you did to Mr. Hard- 
ing yesterday afternoon ? 

Witness ; No. I had no reason to believe that there was 
anything wrong with the man. 

Coroner : It is a very difficult matter even for a medical 
expert to decide as to a man’s mental condition. Why did 
you not comply with the provisions of the statute ? You did 
not carry out the law, did you ? 

Witness : I must admit that, certainly. 

, C° roner : Had you done your duty, the man, in all proba- 
bility, would be alive to-day. Was the quantity you gave him 
poisonous? J 

Witness : Yes, if taken all at once. 


The information laid against the chemist charged him that 
he “ did sell a certain poison specified in the first schedule to 
the Sale and Use of Poisons Act 1876, to wit the poison called 
chloral hydrate, to oneF. Harding, deceased, without, and be- 
fore the delivery thereof to the said F. Harding, the purchaser, 
inquiring his name and place, and occupation, and the place of 
abode, and occupation, and the purpose for which the said 
poison was required, or stated to be required, and did not 
thereupon make a faithful entry of such sale, specifying the 
said poison and the quantity thereof, together with the day of 
the month and year of such sale, in a book to be kept by you,, 
such vendor, for the purpose in the form set forth in the 
second schedule to the said Act, and signed by the said F. 
Harding as such purchaser, and also by a witness to such sale f 
the said poison not being made up or compounded by you as a 
medicine according to the prescription of a legally qualified 
practitioner, or otherwise being within the exceptions men- 
tioned in the 13th section of the said Act, contrary to the 
form of the statute.” 

The magistrates on the bench were the Mayor (Mr. G. Shaw), 
and Messrs. Keogh, Quinlan, Simpson, Finlay, and Baldwin, 
J.P’s. 

Mr. Gillott appeared to defend the accused. 

On the case being called on, Sub-Inspector Toohey said he 
had been led to believe that the defendant was going to 
plead guilty. Seeing, however, that defendant had come 
! prepared with a defence, he would ask their worships ta 
! adjourn the case for a week, so that the police might have an 
opportunity of getting the evidence for the prosecution pre- 
pared. The case had been put in his hands ouly at the last 
moment. 

Mr. Gillott : I scarcely think it is worth while adjourning 
the case. 

Mr. Quinlan : By whom are the proceedings being instituted ? 

Sub-Inspector Toohey : By the Chief Commissioner of Police. 

Mr. Quinlan : This should guarantee for sufficient time on 
preparation. 

Sub- Inspector Toohey : I had no notice until yesterday that 
the case was in hand. 

Mr. Gillott did not propose to raise many difficulties in the 
way. 

The Bench : Go as far as you can now. 

Constable Hoey deposed that on the 3rd inst. he saw the 
deceased gentleman, Harding, at the Melbourne Hospital, 
where he had died, death being caused by his having taken 
inwardly hydrate of chloral. The defendant was present. 
Witness had shown defendant the bottle in which the poison 
was contained, and he had acknowledged that it was his 
bottle. 

Mr. Keogh (taking the bottle) : This bottle could not have 
contained chloral ; it must have been a preparation of chloral; 
Chloral is a solid matter. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Gillott : Witness said deceased had 
taken chloral before, when he was attended by a medical man 
and got over the dose. 

Mr. Keogh : Was there any other bottle besides the one 
produced found on the deceased ? 

Witness : Yes ; this one (produced). It was found on 
deceased, but defendant would not acknowledge it as from 
his establishment. 

Mr. Keogh here interpolated : " It seems by the Act that 
there is no necessity to enter the sale of a preparation of 
chloral hydrate in a book. Chloral hydrate is one thing, but 
a preparation of such a drug is another. The Act does not 
require the entry of the latter.” 

Mr. Quinlan ; For the purpose of giving a formal aspect to 
these proceedings they might make the objection suggested, 
and if a majority of the bench do not think it a valid one they 
might entertain the request for an adjournment. But there 
was no use of adjourning if the bench did not think the objec- 
tion a valid one. He noticed by the Act that there was no 
interpretation clause to this section. 

As further evidence, a deposition of Thwaites was put in by 
Constable Hoey, to the effect that deceased had been supplied 
by him with a mixture of 90 of chloral and the rest water. 
Deceased was in no way excited when he made the purchase. 
He seemed quiet and rational. He, the chemist, did not 
carry out the provisions of the Act. 

Mr. Quinlan : Was Mr. Thwaites aware that Mr. Harding 
was a clergyman ? 

Constable Hoey : He was not so aware. He said he thought 
he was a German student. 


January, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


71 


After some further consideration it was decided to remand 
the case for seven days. 

On this decision announced, Mr. Gillott said he and his 
client would rather plead guilty and throw themselves on the 
mercy of the bench than be put to the trouble of coming to 
the court again, which would be a worse punishment than the 
bench were likely to inflict. He admitted his client had sold 
the article named. The sale was effected, however, with no 
intention of fraud, or desire to evade the law. It had been 
after due inquiry thatthe preparation had been dispensed. No 
entry had been made, nor any signature obtained. They had 
sold the preparation in the usual way. 

Mr. Keogh : Yes ; and you have a perfect right to do so. 

After some consultation, the Mayor said that although the 
defendant had admitted the offence a majority of the bench 
thought there was no case against him, and they had decided 
to dismiss the case. 


SUICIDES BY POISON. 

During- the past month the following cases of suicide by 
poison have been reported by the police to the Pharmacy 
Board : — 

James Jamieson, aged fifty years, South Preston, died from 
taking strychnine. 

Geo. Smith, Camperdown, attempted to commit suicide by 
taking strychnine. Recovered. 

A recently married woman, aged about twenty, who resides 
at Dover-road, Williamstown, made a desperate attempt upon 
her own life on the 27th December. Mrs. Dooley, it would 
appear, had some altercation with her husband, after which 
she deliberately went for a bottle of liniment, containing a 
mixture of aconite and belladonna, in sufficient quantity to 
poison several persons, and drank off the contents. Mr. Goldie 
arrived at Dooley’s house half an hour afterwards, at half-past 
five o’clock, and found that some one had prevailed upon the 
woman to swallow some mustard, by which vomiting had been 
induced. Mr. Goldie administered another emetic, and had 
recourse to the stomach-pump. At half-past ten Mr. Goldie, 
who was continuing the use of restoratives, pronounced the 
young woman’s condition extremely critical. 

William A. Black, Little Lonsdale-street, who committed 
suicide on the 5th January by taking strychnine. 

A peculiar poisoning case formed the subject of investigation 
at the hands of Dr. Youl on the 29th instant. An elderly 
couple named Benjamin and Mary Anne Morden have been 
living for some time in Greig-street, Emerald Hill. On 
Saturday last an acquaintance called in and remained to tea. 
It would appear from the evidence that the husband, being 
rather deaf, conceived the idea that his wife was making dis- 
paraging remarks about him to their visitor, and, when the 
latter left, he commenced addressing her in an angry tone of 
voice. This treatment so influenced the woman’s mind that 
she went to her room, opened a box containing strychnine, 
mixed a quantity of it in water, and then drank it off. Shortly 
afterwards she told her husband what she had done, and Dr. 
Barrett was sent for, but arrived too late to be of any service, 
as the woman died immediately after his arrival. The jury 
brought in a verdict of death from strychnine poisoning. 


ACCIDENT TO MR. ALFRED FELTON. 

We are glad to be able to state that Mr. Felton, who met with 
a eevere accident while travelling overland from Sydney to 
Melbourne some time since, is progressing in a satisfactory 
manner, and, we trust, will soon be convalescent. Mr. Felton 
is still at Goulburn, and will not be able to be removed for 
some time. 


THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT 
BRITAIN. 

MEETING OF THE COUNCIL. 

Wednesday, 2nd November, 1881. 

MR. THOMAS GREENISH, PRESIDENT ; MR. GEORGE FREDERICK 
SCHACHT, VICE-PRESIDENT. 

THE SALE OF CHLORAL HYDRATE . 

The council went into committee to consider a notice of 
motion given by the president, with regard to the sale of 
chloral hydrate. 


On resuming, the following resolution was passed unani- 
mously : — “ That the Law and Parliamentary Committee, in 
consideration of the frequent deaths occasioned by the use of 
chloral hydrate, a poison within the meaning of the Pharmacy 
Act, be requested to consider and report what steps, if any, 
should be taken with a view to enforce, on the sale of that sub- 
stance and its preparations, the requirements of the said 
Act.” 


DEATH OF MR. A. J. COOLEY. 

We regret to announce the death, on Friday, 28th October, of 
Mr. A. J. Cooley, the author and compiler of the Cyclopaedia 
of Practical Receipts. Although in failing health for two or 
three years past, he still maintained a lively interest in 
technical subject with which he was well qualified to deal, 
and, as a man of integrity, was esteemed by those who had 
dealings with him. — Pharmaceutical Journal. 


Coiresponbencc. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir— The “ Personalities” column in your last issue leads off, to 
my astonishment, with the announcement that some one “ has 
succeeded” to my business here. Your informant has been 
misinformed. I have not disposed of my business ; and, instead 
of any one having “ succeeded” to it, I have to thank my old 
customers for their not only continued, but increased, support 
in my new premises. Being a member of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of many years’ standing, I trust you will allow me the 
amende honorable in your next issue. — I am, sir, yours obe- 
diently, Alexander Hall, 

Pharmaceutical Chemist, Williamstown. 

29th December, 1881. 

[The paragraph referred to was taken from the following 
circular, issued by Mr. Massey : — “ H. J. Massey begs to inform 
the inhabitants of Williamstown that he has commenced 
business at the above address — in the premises lately occupied 
by Mr. A. Hall — and trusts, by careful and assiduous attention 
to business, to merit a share of public patronage.” — Ed.] 


PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE UNDER DIFFICULTIES. 
According to the Pharmacist , the members of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association who attended the recent meeting 
in Kansas city must have undergone a mild form of martyrdom 
through their zeal for pharmacy. Kansas city appears to 
have retained her hottest days for the visitors, and a scorching 
sun, clay dust, “ roily” Missouri water, and mosquitoes, are 
said to have conspired to make life a burden. All the time 
that the meeting was in session the thermometer ranged 
between 104° and 105° F. night and day, and there was no 
breeze. At the meeting the “comical sight was presented of 
scientific men sitting in earnest deliberation with coats and 
vests removed, suspenders down, and shirt sleeves rolled up, 
all the while manipulating their palmetto fans like so many 
dames of the ball-room.” 


THE AUSTRALASIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. 
We have received the first number of the Australasian 
Veterinary Journal , a monthly journal of veterinary science, 
embracing the breeding, feeding, and management of stock in 
health and disease ; edited by Graham Mitchell, F.R.C.V.S. , 
Thomas Chalwin, M.R.C.Y.S., and William T. Kendall, 
M.R.C.V.S. The editors in their address say “In issuing 
this our first number of the Australasian Veterinary Journal , 
we have to state that, contrary to our original intention of 
publishing it quarterly, we have thought it advisable to bring 
out a monthly number, with the object of having it registered 
as a newspaper, similar to the medical and pharmaceutical 
journals. This will not only secure the advantage of the cheap 
postal rates, and thus bring it within the reach of every 
veterinary surgeon and stockowner in the colonies, but will 
also be meeting the views of many of our subscribers who 
desire to have replies to their communications oftener than 
once a quarter. 

“ The urgent necessity for a periodical devoted alike to the 
interests of the veterinary profession and breeders and owners 


72 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


January, 1882. 


of stock, between whom a greater bond of sympathy ought to 
exist, is beyond all doubt. Hitherto there has been no publi- 
cation devoted to the advancement of scientific knowledge in 
connection with the diseases of animals, or for recording 
observations on their nature, origin, and distribution, although, 
from climatic and other influences, many are known to assume 
forms peculiar to Australia. 

“ As this country is rapidly becoming one of the greatest 
stock-raising centres of the world, the health of our animals 
is of paramount importance. We therefore feel certain that, 
in publishing the Australasian Veterinary Journal— which 
will provide a ready means of collecting and recording the 
observations not only of professional men and stock inspectors, 
but also of many intelligent stock-owners, who have frequently 
better opportunities of watching the progress of diseases — we 
shall have the support and assistance of all who have the 
welfare of the country at heart. 

“ Australia, probably owing to its isolated position and 
excellent climate, has so far enjoyed an immunity from many 
contagious and infectious animal diseases that prevail in other 
countries ; but the fact that such diseases as pleuro-pneumonia 
and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle have already made their 
appearance, proves that our climate and geographical position 
are not alone sufficient to prevent their introduction. 

“The continual importation of foreign stock, and the 
increased rapidity of transit between this and other countries, 
renders it highly probable that ere long our shores may be 
visited by more of these scourges, and it behoves us to be on 
our guard, so that, if unable to prevent their introduction, we 
may at least be in possession of information that will enable 
us to adopt effective measures to arrest their spreading. 

“ Breeders and owners of stock in this country have, from a 
combination of circumstances, had to rely almost wholly on 
their own practical experience in dealing with the diseases of 
stock. But this experience, which has often been dearly 
bought, has seldom proved of any avail when any new form 
of disease has made its appearance, or some unlooked-for 
mortality, arising from neglect of natural and sanitary laws, 
has caused serious losses which a general knowledge of 
veterinary science might have averted. 

“ One of our most valuable sources of information will be 
through the Australasian Veterinary Medical Association, 
which is now represented in all the colonies, and has for one 
of its main objects the attainment of effective intercolonial 
legislation for preventing the introduction and spread of con- 
tagious and infectious diseases. 

“ Although aware that some professional men are averse to 
the circulation of veterinary information amongst owners of 
animals, we can confidently state, from long experience, that 
those who are best informed on the breeding, feeding, and 
management of stock, in health and disease, are invariably 
our best clients. We therefore feel that, in endeavouring, as 
far as lies in our power, to diffuse scientific and useful infor- 
mation, we are not only serving the best interests of the 
veterinary profession, but, by supplying a want that has been 
long felt, are performing a duty which, as veterinary surgeons, 
we owe to the country of our adoption. 

“ Australia presents a field for pathological investigation 
that, if equalled, is not surpassed by any country in the world. 
All our domestic animals have been either imported or reared 
from imported stock ; consequently, the opportunities for 
studying the different modifications of disease from climatic 
and other causes, as well as of new indigenous forms, are 
almost unlimited. 

“ We therefore hope to have the support and assistance of 
many active workers — lay, as well as professional — who are 
desirous of promoting the advancement of science and the 
welfare of the community.” 


into the theoretical quantity of pyrogallol, and I have recom- 
mended this process as a ready method of preparing pyrogallol 
for alkaline development in photography. As glycerinum 
acid gallici is intended for internal use, the possible presence 
of pyrogallol may be attended by unlooked-for consequences,, 
this body being highly poisonous. According to Personne 
( Comptes Rendus, 69, 749) it acts in the same manner as 
phosphorus, namely, by abstracting the oxygen of the blood. 
Two or three fatal cases have been recently reported in the 
photographic journals from pyrogallol having found its way 
into wounds or cuts during the processes of dry plate manipu- 
lation. 


TROCHES OF BORAX. 


Troches of borax are difficult to prepare by the usual method 
for pieparing troches, because with gum arabic amass scarcely 
plastic and difficult to divide is obtained, while tragacanth 
yields an extremely elastic mass impossible to divide. F. Vigier 
recommends the following process : — 


ft Borax 

Powdered Sugar 
Carmine No. 40 
Tragacanth in flakes 
Distilled water 
Tincture of benzoin (Siam) 


100 grams. 
900 „ 

0*15 „ 
2*50 „ 

60 „ 

10 


Prepare a mucilage from the tragacanth, and one-half each 
of the water and tincture. Mix the sugar with the carmine,, 
and add one-half of this sugar in small quantities to the 
mucilage ; then add the remainder of the water and tincture, 
and with this mixture incorporate the powdered borax and 
remainder of the sugar, previously thoroughly mixed. Divide 
the mass into troches, each weighing 1 gram, and containing 
0T0 gram of borax. 

These troches have been used with good success by M. 
Poinsot, dentist, in various affections of the mouth, such as 
aphthae, &c. 


TRANSATLANTIC OFFENCES AGAINST PHARMACY 
LAWS. 

“ Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare cur runt ” We 
regret to notice that the spirit which leads to aggressions and 
breaches of legislation for the regulation of pharmacy in Great 
Britain is also represented in her colonies. The Ontario Col- 
lege of Pharmacy has been compelled to consider the subject 
of breaches of the Pharmacy Act of that province, and it has 
recently resolved, with a view to protect the public and the 
members of the College from the sale of drugs by unauthorised 
vendors, that when such cases of infringement are “ credibly 
reported” to either the registrar or president, those gentlemen 
shall be authorised in expending a sum not exceeding fifteen 
dollars in endeavouring to secure the conviction and punish- 
ment of the offenders. If the sum of fifteen dollars represents 
the probable average cost of proceedings in each case, “ law” 
must be a cheaper luxury in Canada than in the old country. — 
Pharmaceutica l Journal. 


THE ANNUAL CRICKET MATCH. 

Wholesale Chemists 

v. 

Retail Chemists. 


NOTE ON GLYCERINUM ACIDI GALLICI. 

(By T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S.) 

This preparation is made, according to the British Pharma- 
copoeia, by rubbing together one part of gallic acid with four 
parts of glycerol, and heating the mixture until complete 
solution is effected. It is advisable to call attention to the 
fact that unless great care is taken to prevent overheating, 
the gallic acid may be converted into pyrogallol. I have 
shown ( Chemical Ne?vs, 43, 109 ; Journal of the Chemical 
Society, Abstract, 1881, p. 662) that at a temperature of from 
190 deg. to 200 deg. C. this conversion in presence of glycerol 
takes place very rapidly, the gallic acid being transformed 


The match will be played on Melbourne Cricket Ground on 
Thursday, the 26th January, 1882. 

The following are the players from whom the retail team 
will be selected : — Strutt, Baker, Barnard, Lewis, Gibson, 
Cooper, M‘Kie, Hope, Cattach, Pleasance, Evans, Ross, 
Gabriel, and Swift. 

A practice wicket will be available on Monday next, the 
23rd, on Melbourne Cricket Ground, at three o’clock (Rich- 
mond end). All the above are requested to be present ; final 
team to be picked at termination of practice. 

Wickets will be pitched on the 26th January, at half-past 
eleven a.m.j luncheon on the ground at two p.m. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


$eto ani .Sismimrb Jftebical Sftorke 

ON SALE BY 

GEO. ROBERTSON 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

BOOKSELLER & STATIONER, 

33 & 35 Little Collins Street West, 

M ELBOUR KTE5 . 


The Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts, Processes, and 
Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions and 


Trades, including Pharmacy and Hygiene, by Arnold J. Cooley, 

2 volumes ... ... ... ... ... ... 47s. 6d. 

Beasley — The Book of Prescriptions ... ... ... ... ... ... 7s. 6d. 

Beasley — The Druggist’s General Receipt Book ... ... ... ... 7s. 

Beasley — The Pocket Formulary and Synopsis of the British and Foreign Pharma- 
copoeias ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7s. 6d. 

FOWIieS — A Manual of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical, 2 vols. ... ... 21s. 

Mayne — a Medical Vocabulary : being an Explanation of all Terms and Phrases 
used in the various departments of Medical Science and Practice, giving 
their Derivation, Meaning, Application, and Pronunciation ... ... 11s. 6d. 

Taylor — On Poisons in Relation to Medicine ... ... ... ... ... 18s. 

Bloxam — Laboratory Teaching : Progressive Exercises in Practical Chemistry, 

illustrated ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6s. 6d. 

Royle — A Manual of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, illustrated ... ... 17s. 

Carpenter — The Microscope and its Revelations, illustrated ... ... ... 17s. 

Dick — Encyclopaedia of Practical Receipts and Processes, 6,400 Receipts ,.. ... 25s. 

Squire — A Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia, comparing the strength of its 
various Preparations with those of the United States and other Foreign 
Pharmacopoeias, &c. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 

Fenwick — The Student’s Guide to Medical Diagnosis, illustrated ... ... 7s. 6d. 

Savory — A Compendium of Domestic Medicine, and Companion to the Medicine 

Chest ... ... ... ... ..; ... ... ... ... 6s. 


A COMPLETE CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL BOOKS TO BE HAD ON APPLICATION. 


GEORGE ROBERTSON, 

33 and 35 Little Collins Street West, Melbourne, 

AND AT 

SY DNBT, BRISBANE, AaJSTIO ADELAIDE. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 



EC 




IV e have just landed WILLIAM R. WARNER & CO.’S 
Sugar-coated Pills, as follows : — 


PIL. ALOES ET MYRRH— Aloes Socot 

Myrrh 
Crocus 
Conf. Ros£e 

„ ANTI-DYSPEPTIC — Strychnia, 1/40 gr. 

Ext. Belladon, 1/10 gr. 

Pulv. Ipecac., 1/10 gr. 

Mass. Hydrarg., 2 grs. 

Pulv. Ext. Colo. Comp., 2 grs. 

„ CATHARTIC & LIVE R — Podophyllin, 1/4 gr. 

Ext. Colo., 1/2 gr. 

Pulv. Aloes Soeot. , 1 gr. 

,, Scammony, 1/4 gr. 
,, Saponis, 1/8 gr. 
Ext. Hyoscyamus, 1/8 gr. 
Gingerine, 1/8 gr. 

„ CHOLAGOGUE— Podophyllin, 1/2 gr. 

Pil. Hydrarg., 1/4 gr. 

Ext. Hyoscyam., 1/8 gr. 

,, Nux Vom., 1/16 gr. 

01. Res. Capsici, 1/8 gr. 


5 grs., in Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 
1/9 per Bottle. 


In Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 2/6 per 
Bottle, and 250, at 6 /- per Bottle. 


In Plain Bottles, containing 1000, at 12/6 per 
Bottle, and in Fancy Glass Labelled Bottles, 
containing 1000, at 15/- per Bottle. 


In Plain Bottles, containing 500, at 8 /- per 
Bottle. 


CATH ART. CO. IMPROVED — (3 gr.) in Plain Bottles, containing 1000, at 13/- per Bottle. 

EMMENAGOGUE— Ergotine, 1 gr. 

Ext. Hellebor Nig., 1 gr. 

Pulv. Aloes Socot., 1 gr. 

Ferri. Sulph. Exsic., 1 gr. 

01. Sabinse, 1/2 gr. 


In Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 4/- per 
Bottle. 


In Plain Bottles, containing 100 and 500, at 
2/- and 8 /- per Bottle. 


GONORRHOEA— Pulv. Cubeb®, 2 grs. 

Bals. Copaib., 1 gr. 

Ferri. Sulph. Exsic., 1/2 gr. 

Tereb. Venet., 1/2 gr. 

MORPH. SULPH. — 1/4 gr., in Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 3/6 per Bottle. 

1/8 „ „ „ 100 „ 2/9 

1/6 ,, ,, ,, 100 ,, 3/3 ,, 

MORPH. ACET. — 1/8 gr., in Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 2/9 per Bottle. 

PHOSPH. c.FERRO. ET QUINAS ET STRYCHNINE— In Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 

11/- per Bottle. 

PHOSPHORUS — 1/100 gr., in Plain Bottles, containing 100, at 3/6 per Bottle. 

1/50 „ „ „ 100 „ 3/6 

1/^5 ,, ,, ,, 100 ,, 3/6 „ 

PODOPHYLLIN CO. (ECLECTIC) — Podophyllin, 1/8 gr. 

Leptandrin, 1/16 gr. 

Juglandin, 1/16 gr. 

Macrotin, 1/32 gr. 

01. Capsici 

PODOPHYLLIN — 1/4 gr., in Plain Bottles, containing 1000, at 12/- per Bottle. 

RHEI. CO. B. P.— Pulv. Aloes Socot. . . 

I In Plain Bottles, containing 1000, at 15/- per 

” Myrrh f Bottle, and in Fancy Glass Labelled Bottles, 

OL Menth. Pip. 1 containing 3331, at 45/- per Bottle. 

VEG ETABLE LIVER — In Plain Bottles, containing 500, at 5/- per bottle. 


In Plain Bottles, containing 500, at 10/- per 
Bottle. 


- ALSO, 


Warner’s Dialysed Iron, in small Packets, containing Bottle and Pipette 

5> 55 55 Pint Bottles 

55 55 55 5 Pint Bottles 

,, Ingluvin 

,, Ext. Fucus Vesiculosus, in 1-lb. Bottles, at 


24/- per dozen. 
3/6 each. 

3/- per pint. 
60/- per dozen. 
6 /- per lb. 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO., MELBOURNE. 




[SUPPLEMENT ONLY.] 




fyl&tH' , f- $i 


Sfc 


CbuuoT- S 


Vof- 4^ -no .^-. 13 -8o/fieJ>-, /8%x) - 


Tt'H E 


(Chemist & Clrug gist. 



WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


(TPublislied under direction of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria,) 


-vr Af > ( Published on the 15tii 1 
O. -io. ^ 0P every Month. $ 
Registered for Transmission as a Newspaper. 


FEBRUARY, 1882. 


(■Subscription, 15s. per Annum, 
(. including Diary, Post Free. 








CAUTION. 


The Zoedone Company Limited 


Incorporated in England under the Companies Acts, 1862 to 1879. 

Sole Agents in Victoria: FELTON, GRIM WADE & CO. 


TT having come to the knowledge of the undersigned that certain persons 
-L in the Colony of Victoria are IMPORTING into the said colony an 
article called ZOEDONE, all persons are hereby CAUTIONED against 
MANUFACTURING, importing, selling, or offering for sale any article 
whatsoever under the name of Zoedone, or any imitation thereof, either 
in “ splits” or otherwise. 

Felton, Grimwade & Co. are the only authorised agents in the Colony 
of Victoria for the above-named Company for the sale of Zoedone, and 
purchasers are cautioned against buying, selling, or offering for sale any 
Zoedone except that purchased from or through them. 

Any person infringing this notice will be prosecuted according to law. 


FELTON, GRIMWADE & CO., 

Wholesale Chemists and Druggists, 

February 14, 1882. Flinders-lane West, Melbourne. 


Sole Consignees for Victoria: 


FELTON, GRIMWADE * CO. 


^ 31 & 33 FLINDERS LANE WEST, 


MELBOURNE. 


Printed by Mason, Firth & M‘Cutcheon, 51 & 53 Flinders Lane West, Melbourne. 



THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


PEARCE’S 

LAVENDER 

|0 

With Musk. 

1 PRISE \ ipPKlOl 'awarded | 

rri HIS is a well-known fragrant 


X Perfume, and from its cheap- 


ness may be used lavishly. 

tmmm ^ 

Sprinkled about the Room, or 

:.l - - I ] 

used in a Bath, it will be found 


most refreshing and invigorating. 


As a perfume for the handker- 

I 

■rlllf^ 1 ^ f^ 6 

chief, its peculiar fragrance and ex- 
quisitely penetrating odour, so de- 
lightfully refreshing in hot climates 
and grateful to the invalid, render 
it one of the Standard Perfumes 
of the day. 

m&U 

1 PROPRIETORS: 

HEMMONS, LAWS & C<> 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS, 

RUSSELL ST., MELBOURNE. 




February, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


73 


TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


INDEX 

PAGE 


Leading Article— Wiiat is Preparation? 73 

The Month 74 

Meetings— The Pharmacy Board op Vic- 
toria 74 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria .... 75 

Ballarat 75 

The Ballarat Chemists’ Association.... 75 


page 

Annual Report of the Ballarat District 


Chemists’ Association 76 

Sandhurst 76 

Sydney 76 

A New Palm from Queensland 77 

Legal and Magisterial — 

Breach of the Pharmacy Act 77 


PAGE 

A Homoeopathic Chemist Charged with 


Larceny 78 

Sales of Adulterated Spirits 79 

The Annual Cricket Match 79 

Permanganate of Potassa as an Antidote 

for Snake Poison 89 

Correspondence 89 


Cfje €f)emtst antr druggist. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists' 
Diary , published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . . ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
matter. Advertisements of Assistants Wanting Situations, 2s. 6d. each. 

Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
office before the 10th. 

Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer— not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF PHARMACY. 

The Lectures in Materia Medica, Botany, and Elementary 
and Practical Chemistry commence on Monday, the 
6th March next. 

For further particulars apply at the office of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society, No. 4 Mutual Provident Buildings, 
Collins-street. 


THE LIBRARY. 

The Library is open to Members daily, from 9.30 a.m. 
to 4.30 p.m. 


DEATH 

Ogg. — O n the 4th February, at his residence, Walsh-street, South Yarra, 
Jane Adelaide, the beloved wife of Charles Ogg, of Collins-street East and 
South Yarra. 


WHAT IS A PREPARATION % 

In connection with the recent melancholy case of the 
suicide of the Rev. A. F. Harding the question 
arose as to what was a poison and a preparation of a 
poison. No doubt at a first glance the ingenious defini_ 
tion of the word preparation accepted by the justices to 
some appears conclusive, but we think that very little 
reflection is required to see that it is quite untenable. 
The solicitor for the defendant said that he did not intend 
to raise any unnecessary technical difficulties, but con- 
tended that the article sold — chloral and water — was a 
medical preparation, and not a poison within the meaning 
of the Act. The magistrates assented to a remand, but 
decided to hear the evidence available. Thereupon Mr. 
Gillott advised his client to plead guilty, and throw him- 
self upon the mercy of the court. This course was 
adopted, and after hearing the case the justices decided 
that there was no case against the defendant. Although 
he pleaded guilty, they said he was not. This certainly 
appears an extraordinary decision. As this case is an 
important one, as bearing upon the enforcement of an Act 


of Parliament passed in the interest of the public to pro- 
tect human life, we think that a few observations are 
called for. It is quite evident that the majority of the 
magistrates were in a confused state of mind on the ques- 
tion submitted to them, and their difficulty turned upon 
the meaning of the word “ preparation. ” This term has 
a common and a technical meaning. With the ordinary 
or dictionary signification we have nothing to do, but have 
to consider the pharmacopoeial use of the word. In the 
pharmacopoeia it will be remembered that under many of 
the drugs and chemicals a list is given of certain compounds 
or preparations. Ex gr., under perchloride of mercury, 
we find preparations, liquor hydrargyri perchloridi, 
lotio flava. On turning to the first schedule of the 
Poisons Act we find in part one corrosive sublimate, but 
no mention of preparations. How is it that there is no men- 
tion of a preparations” in this case 1 ? Because the so-called 
preparations are not dangerous, and not likely to be used 
for felonious purposes. In the same way cantharides 
and tartar emetic alone are given, and no mention of 
the preparations. At the time the Poisons Act was 
drafted there were no “ preparations” of chloral. The 
only preparation — official preparation — now recognised is 
the syrup which was ordered in the appendix, and was 
probably then unknown to the framers of the Act. The 
syrup contains so large a quantity — eighty grains to the 
ounce — that it is obvious it would not have been over- 
looked ; for it is most absurd to imagine that the 
framers of the Act intended that a lethal drug could 
be sold at will simply because it was dissolved in sugar and 
water ! If corrosive sublimate, dissolved in, say, spirit, 
could be sold because there is no such 4 £ preparation,” the 
primary intention of the Legislature would be defeated by 
any ingenious admixture not an official “preparation.” 
Once admit such a postulate as this, and we may as well 
consign the Poisons Act to the waste-paper basket ! 
According to the dictum of the St. Kilda magistrates, 
chloral plus water, in however small a quantity, is not a 
poison within the meaning of the Act. By the same 
reasoning a publican selling brandy mixed with water 
would not be infringing the Licensed Victuallers Act, if 
without a license. The sale of poisons by uneducated and 
irresponsible persons is very properly — or ought to be — 
restricted, and any failure of justice is to be regretted ; 
and we think that every effort should be made by pharma- 
ceutical chemists to fulfil the letter of the law. There is 
no doubt that the Act is very defective, and requires 
immediate amendment ; and we hope that as soon as 
possible the Government will take this matter into con- 
sideration. It is, perhaps, impossible by any, however 
stringent, law to prevent those poor, unhappy persons 
bent upon self-destruction from £ ‘ shuffling off this mortal 
coil” when once possessed with the intention ; but the 
primary object of the Legislature was to prevent the crime 
of murder, and to render its detection certain. 


74 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


February, 1882. 


^hc Jftmtth. 


The quarterly examinations of the Pharmacy Board will be 
held on the 2nd and 6th of March. The examinations to 
be held are the preliminary on the 2nd, and the modified and 
practical pharmacy on the 6th. In addition to these the 
examination for the certificate of the School of Pharmacy 
will also take place on the 6th of March. 


The annual cricket match, Wholesale v. Retail Chemists, 
was held on the Melbourne Cricket Ground on the 26th 
January. There was a much better attendance than on 
previous occasions, and Mr. J. Hemmons having taken the 
matter in hand, the wholesale firms agreed to close at one 
o’clock, so as to allow their employes to be present. At the 
lunch the toast of the wholesale chemists was proposed by Mr. 
Blackett, M. P., and responded to by Messrs. Grimwade and 
Hemmons. We hope to see this gathering increase every 
year in popularity. A full report of the match is given else- 
where. 

Messrs. Felton, Grimwade are the successful tenderers to 
supply the Government with phosphorus. 

Mr. James Clezy, M.A.,has been appointed by the Pharmacy 
Board to conduct the preliminary examination required by the 
Pharmacy Act. 

We are glad to be able to state that Mr. A. Felton is slowly 
recovering from the effects of his late accident, and it is 
expected that he will be shortly able to be brought to Mel- 
bourne. 

The council of the Pharmaceutical Society have appointed 
Mr. John Kruse director and lecturer to the School of Phar- 
macy. The next session will commence on Monday, the 6th 
March. 

The nominations for members of the council of the Phar- 
maceutical Society closed on the 15th February. There were 
five vacancies, and the following are the gentlemen nominated : 
— Messrs. A. T. Best, Robert Nicholls, Henry Gamble, J. C. 
Jones, and John Ross. There will not, therefore, be an elec- 
tion. 


Members of the Pharmaceutical Society are reminded that 
the annual meeting takes place at the rooms on Wednesday, 
the 8th March, at eight p.m., when the President will deliver 
his annual address. 


A small fire occurred at the shop of Mr. W. Bowen, chemist, 
43 Collins-street, on the 22nd January. An employe of 
Messrs. Kilpatrick and Co. observed smoke issuing from the 
rear of the premises, and after throwing a few buckets of water 
on it gave the alarm at the metropolitan brigade station, the 
members of which soon extinguished the 6 re. It is supposed 
that one of the tins of phosphorus which were stacked in the 
yard had become ignited by spontaneous combustion. 


A young man, fashionably attired and of good address, 
styling himself Dr. Watson, went into Mr. Rand’s chemist 
shop, Wagga Wagga, on the 4th February, and wrote out a 
prescription. The medicine was made up, and a cheque for 
£5 was presented, for which the doctor received the change. 
After this he hired a buggy and pair and left the town. Sus- 
picion being afterwards aroused a warrant was issued for his 


apprehension. He was arrested at Old Junee, and was 
brought before the local bench and remanded till the 9th 
inst. It is said that he came from Melbourne. 


Shortly after two o’clock on the 26th January a fire broke 
out in the shop of Messrs. Brown Bros., chemists, at the 
corner of Clarendon and Raglan streets, Emerald Hill, by 
which a large portion of the stock was damaged and destroyed. 
During the day a quantity of benzine was accidentally spilt on 
the floor, and when lighting the gas the assistant thoughtlessly 
threw the match on the floor, and the place almost immediately 
broke out in flames. The local brigades were promptly in 
attendance, and succeeded after some little trouble in extin- 
guishing the fire. The damage was covered by insurance. 

T Mr. Kruse, Hanover-street, Fitzroy, requests us to state that 
he will be glad to supply small quantities of any of the fol- 
lowing seeds : — Aconitum Napellus, Aspidium filix mas, 
Leontodon taraxacum, Actaea spicata, Colchicum officinale, 
Sorbus aucuparia, Hyorcyamus niger, Angelica archangelica, 
Helleborus niger, Delphinium staphisagria, Juniperus Sabina, 
Conium macreatun, Leviatioum officinale, and Matricaria 
chamomilla. 


New Insolvent.— John Frederick Faulkner Grace, of 
Spencer- street, Melbourne, druggist and chemist. Causes of 
insolvency — Losses sustained by fire, insufficiency of profits to 
pay expenses, and want of employment. Liabilities, £366 
19s. 10d.; assets, £26 17s. 9d.; deficiency, £340 2s. Id. Mr. 
Cohen, assignee. 


Mzztxnqs. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the board was held at No. 100 
Collins-street, on the 8th February, 1882. Present — Messrs. 
Bosisto, Bowen, Blackett, Lewis, Ploldsworth, and Owen. An 
apology was read from Mr. Brind. 

The President (Mr. Bosisto) was in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Applications for Registration as Pharmaceutical Che- 
mists. — The following were registered : — Sarah Bundle, Wan- 
garatta. Frederick Henry Morris, Drummond-street, Carlton, 
passed modified examination. The name of John Henry Reed, 
67 Swanston-street, was restored to the register. The appli- 
cations of Thomas Hewson and Abel James were postponed. 

Renewals of Certificate under Sale and Use of Poisons 
Act. — J. T. Player, Mansfield ; Sam Lee On, Omeo. 

Examinations. — The following are the arrangements for the 
next examination : — The preliminary, on 2nd March, at eleven 
a.m. The modified, on Monday, 6th March, at ten a.m. The 
examination for the certificate of the School of Pharmacy, on 
Monday, the 6th March, at noon. The practical pharmacy 
examination before the board, on Monday, the 6th March, at 
noon. 

The following is the syllabus for the examination : — 
Practical Pharmacy. 

Section I.— -Dispensing. — Examiners, Messrs. Brind and Lewis. 

Reading prescriptions without abbreviations, translating 
directions literally as well as appropriately, practical dispensing 
(including the preparation of pills, plasters, emulsions, &c.), 
writing directions and wrapping packages, incompatabilities 
and other difficulties, doses, poisons, antidotes, metric system ; 
general management of dispensing, counter dispensing, con- 
veniences, and whatever will fairly test the candidate’s 
knowledge and fitness for this department of his calling, neat- 
ness and care being specially noted. 

Section II. — Materia Medica . — Examiners, Messrs. Bosisto, 
Bowen, and Holdsworth. 

Recognition of drugs and chemicals by their appearance, 
taste, smell, form, and other physical characteristics ; use of 


February, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


75 


microscope, estimation of quantity and detection of adulter- 
ation by above means ; composition of extracts, tinctures, and 
other preparations not having definite chemical formulae ; 
the best means of preserving drugs, &c., in a state of effi- 
ciency. 

Section III. — Chemical and other processes. — Examiners, 
Messrs. Blackett and Owen. 

Operations of pharmacy, such as distillation, sublimation, 
percolation, evaporation, washing precipitates, taking specific 
gravities, dialysis, &c. ; practical use of quantitive and quali- 
tive tests of the pharmacopoeia, chemical formulae, and decom- 
positions occurring in officinal processes, &c. 


PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting was held at the rooms, 100 Collins- 
street, on Friday evening, 3rd February. Present — Messrs. 
Bowen, Hooper, Johnson, Gamble, Nioholls, Thomas, Best, 
Baker, Huntsman, Jones, and Shillinglaw ; an apology was 
received from Mr. Swift ; the president, Mr. Bowen, in the 
chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Election of New Members. — The following new members, 
nominated at the last meeting, were duly elected : — W. E. 
Woods, Napier, New Zealand ; P. Fitzsimmons, Brisbane ; 
H. A. Corinaldi, Prahran ; Jas. R. Laughton, Elizabeth- 
street, Sydney ; Frederick Wright, Pitt-street, Sydney ; H. 
J. Fowles, Glenelg, South Australia; Walter Jones, Sand- 
ridge. Harry Jacobs, Canning-street, Carlton, was elected an 
associate. 

New Members Nominated. — H. C. Macaulay, J. Thorby 
Noakes, J. H. Reed, Frederick Cherry. 

Appointment of Lecturer at the School of Pharmacy . — 
After a personal interview with the candidates for the 
appointment of lecturer at the School of Pharmacy, a ballot 
was taken, which resulted in the election of Mr. John Kruse 
by one vote. It was resolved that the lectures commence on 
Monday, 6th March, 1882; and a syllabus of the course was 
agreed to, and is published in another column. 

Election of Members of Council. — Wednesday, 15th Feb- 
ruary is the last day for receiving nominations for the election 
of Members of Council, to be held at the annual meeting on 
8th March next. 

The Annual Report. — A printed copy of the report for the 
year was laid on the table, and the hon. secretary reported 
that copies had been forwarded to all the members. It is 
requested that any member who may desire information in 
reference to any item in the annual report or balance-sheet 
will apply at the office before the date of the annual meeting. 

Correspondence. — A number of letters were dealt with, but 
of no special interest. 

Financial and general business brought the meeting to a 
close. 


Boohs , Ac., Received. — New Remedies , June to December, 
1880, and Dental Cosmos , April to June, 1881, from Mr. W. H. H. 
Lane ; the Therapeutic Gazette for December ; the Australian 
Veterinary Journal for February ; the Australian Medical 
Journal ; the American Journal of Pharmacy ; Report of the 
proceedings of the Fifth Pharmaceutical Congress of 1881 ; 
the New York Druggist Circular. 


BALLARAT. 


It was “ high jinks” with the Ballarat pharmacists on Friday, 
the 27th January, when at about nine a.m. some forty persons 
assembled at the shop of the president of the Ballarat 
Chemists and Druggists’ Association (Mr. Wheeler), preparatory 
to making a start for a picnic to the beautiful Lai Lai Water- 
falls, in order to celebrate the second anniversary of their 
association. One of Cobb and Co.’s very large coaches, 
splendidly horsed, together with a drag and sundry private 
buggies, were the vehiculars for conveying the representatives 
of pharmacy to the trysting ground. The day was simply 
delightful, Sol’s rays being tempered by a beautiful south- 
westerly breeze. Many were the eulogiums passed while 
en route on the committee of the association for selecting this 
now somewhat neglected spot in preference to others nearer 


and more generally frequented. The drive to and through 
‘•ye anciente” village of Buninyong, up to and round the 
mount, with its expansive and charmingly extensive agricul- 
tural and sylvan scenery, then down to Yendon, and so on to 
Lai Lai Waterfalls, was enough to enchant even those who are 
ever present with “nature’s stores.” How much more, then, 
should this enchantment have been intensified to us, the 
slaves to pharmacy. Oh, how much we regretted the opportu- 
nity was lost to us of witnessing the mind’s workings of 
“one of us,” who for the space of twenty- two long but not 
weary years (for he is still sound in mind and limb, and not at 
all of that fossiliferous era such a statement would lead 
one to infer) had not taken such a holiday as this. Shall 
we niche such an one to “pity’s” monument, or custom’s 
use and exacting laws ? Let us hope such a day with heaven’s 
and nature’s bright gifts has made him intoxicated with 
their delights, and that he will for the remainder of his days 
behave himself “ more seemly,” and take such outings much 
more frequently. Mr. Walker, of Bridge-street, was caterer, 
and while preparing for an early dinner sundry games were 
indulged in, the ladies especially distinguishing themselves in 
rounders, while at quoits and cricket it was easily seen that a 
good many of the now old boys had not forgotten the cunning 
of their youth. Awhile after dinner the descent to the basin 
of the waterfall was undertaken, which was highly difficult, 
but beautifully picturesque and romantic ; and while seated 
near the water’s edge, with wondrously formed walls of 
basaltic columns towering a hundred and twenty feet above 
us, immense boulders in wild confusion, and trees and shrubs 
around us, Mr. Towl, with his well-known amiability and 
artistic skill, sang several songs, the choruses to which, if 
lacking in rythm, certainly did not in good will. During tea 
Messrs. Swifte, Cornell, and Wheeler sang several glees, to the 
delight of their audience. Before saying good-night, Mr. 
Wheeler congratulated the pharmacists of Ballarat on 
initiating and carrying out successfully and pleasantly the 
picnic of that day. He deemed the wonderful unity now 
existing amid pharmacy in Ballarat to be a credit and advan- 
tage to the entire trade, and was perhaps unparalleled in “ the 
wide, wide world.” This state of things was entirely owing 
to the association of which he had the honour to be 
the elected president, for its members had learned to 
know and esteem each other for the good that was 
in them. It was rather a bold departure from the 
accustomed celebrations of such an association as this ; 
but the old conventional dinner could not be joined in 
by those nearest and dearest to them, neither was it in any 
pleasurable way to be compared to this, which he hoped would 
be annually repeated. To the hon. secretary, Mr. Macgowan, 
too much praise could not be given, as he was most untiring 
in working for the benefit of the association, the success of 
which he hoped would extend far and wide, permeating even 
to the metropolitan, Sandhurst, and Geelong districts. He 
then called upon those present to give three cheers for their 
hon. secretary, which was responded to most heartily, making 
the welkin ring again. Mr. Macgowan spoke modestly of his 
exertions, but was gratified that so much had been done in 
creating a kindly geniality among the pharmacists of the dis- 
trict, and which, if mutually fostered, must be productive of 
still greater blessings and advantages in the future. Many 
apologies had been received from district allies, regretting their 
unavoidable absence, while that old English gentleman at 
Carngham (Mr. Hopper) had thoughtfully and liberally con- 
tributed to the committee’s canteen for the day. Mutual con- 
gratulations and good wishes followed, and all were transported 
back to Ballarat, which was safely reached soon after nine 
p.m. Much credit must be given to the committee of the 
association for successfully carrying through what must have 
been to all a most enjoyable picnic, which to our brother 
pharmacists in other large centres must seem an extraordinary 
and uncommon event ; to whom we say, “Go and do likewise.” 


THE BALLARAT CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of the Ballarat Chemists’ Association 
was held on Wednesday, the 2nd February. There was a 
good attendance. The principal items of business were the 
election of officers, reception of secretary’s report for the past 
year, and reception of report of committee appointed to con- 
sider the best means of celebrating the second anniversary of 
the association. The retiring officers were : — Mr. Towl, presi- 
dent ; Mr. Wheeler, vice-president ; Mr. King, treasurer ; Mr. 
Macgowan, secretary. Mr. Wheeler was unanimously elected 


76 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


February, 1882. 


president, and Mr. Whittle vice-president, and Messrs. King 
and Macgowan re-elected treasurer and secretary. The officers 
retiring, and those newly elected, duly returned thanks. It 
was decided to have a picnic at Lai Lai Falls on Friday, 27th 
January. At the conclusion of the ordinary business, Mr. 
Wheeler (the newly-elected president) said a very agreeable 
duty devolved upon him, and one which he accepted with 
increased pleasure as among the first acts of his presidency, 
and he felt sure his pleasure would be equally shared by all 
present, and that was to present their secretary, Mr. 
Macgowan, with a locket which had been subscribed for by the 
members as a token of their esteem and approbation of the 
manner in which Mr. Macgowan had discharged his secretarial 
duties. Mr. Macgowan expressed his thanks for the honour 
done him and the gift bestowed. The locket is a handsome 
gold one, inscribed with monogram, &c. 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BALLARAT DISTRICT 
CHEMISTS’ ASSOCIATION, 

Read at the Meeting held on 18th January, 1882. 
Mr. President, Vice-President, and Gentlemen — Time in its 
ceaseless flight has brought us to the second anniversary of our 
association ; and the year just passed away has not been 
unmarked by events of interest to us as pharmacists, although 
no circumstances of special importance have occurred in our 
own city. During the year throughout the colony there has 
been an increased number of poisoning cases. In three cases 
druggists have appeared before the courts. At Sandhurst J. E. 
Wall was convicted, not of poisoning, but for procuring 
abortion ; Edward Kilpatrick, of Castlemaine, was acquitted. 
Coming to ourselves, the year just closed began very 
auspiciously with our first anniversary dinner, which, as you 
are aware, passed off with much eclat. Some of the members 
deeming it would be advisable to have a private room in some 
public building in which to hold our meetings, it was resolved 
to engage the room in which we are now met ; but it has not 
proved so successful as anticipated, and it has been deter- 
mined to return to Lester’s Hotel after the present meeting. 
During the year, with your concurrence, the hon. secretary 
resigned his seat at the Pharmaceutical Council. Various 
alterations have taken place from time to time in the price 
list. A resolution was carried early in the year altering the 
rule relating to honorary membership, so that gentlemen in 
business beyond a radius of twenty miles should have honorary 
membership at half the annual fee — viz., 5s. per annum. At 
the election of officers on 19th January last year, Messrs. 
Towl and Wheeler were elected as president and vice-presi- 
dent respectively, and Messrs. King and Macgowan as 
treasurer and secretary. These gentlemen retire to-night, and 
you will be requested to elect their successors. There have been 
twelve meetings held during the year, the attendances at 
which have been as follows : — Messrs. Towl, 12 ; Wheeler, 11 ; 
Whittle, 10 ; Cornell, 11 ; Palmer, 11 ; King, 9 ; Warner, 7 ; 
Scott, 6 ; Malyon, 8 ; Robertson, 5 ; Bloore, 4 ; Longstaff, 2 ; 
Wollen, 1; Swifte (for Mr. E. Jones), 1; Treloar, 0; 
Macgowan, 11 ; no country members attended. The annual 
dinner of the Pharmaceutical Society was held in Melbourne 
on 16th November, and your hon. sec. was present, as your 
representative. The dinner was better attended than that on 
the previous year, and was a more representative one. The 
moaning of the cypress leaves has been heard in the house- 
holds of three members of our association — viz., Messrs. King, 
Longstaff, and Malyon. To the dead, we say, “ Requiescat in 
pace” and to the living, “ Vive in spe .” The “ buds” that have 
sprung up from amongst us have been very numerous, so that 
in this respect, considering our number, we have been able to 
hold our own against any other association, as at the close of 
nearly every meeting a bumper had to be quaffed to some 
“ little stranger.” Our worthy past president, Mr. Palmer, has 
removed into new, commodious, and elegant premises, adjoining 
his former place of business ; and our worthy president, Mr. 
Towl, has also made extensive and ornamental alterations to 
his premises. We trust they may benefit by their enterprise. 
One more has been added to the list of pharmacists in our city, 
Mr. Calder having commenced business in Doveton-street 
North. With regard to medical men, the cry is “ Still they 
come.” Dr. Bradford commenced practice here last year, and 
Dr. Woinarski has commenced this year. The committee ap- 
pointed to consider the best means of celebrating our second 
anniversary recommend a picnic, as the ladies will be able to 
join us in it. The treasurer’s balance-sheet shows a small sum 


in hand. Members are reminded that the yearly subscriptions 
are now due. In conclusion, though nothing of an exciting 
nature has happened during the year to inspire our enthusiasm, 
yet the meetings have been fairly attended, the price list 
adhered to ; and those feelings of amity, cordiality, and good 
fellowship have prevailed which have characterised our associa- 
tion from the beginning. — I am, Mr. President, Vice-President, 
and gentlemen, yours truly, 

J. T. Macgowan, Hon. Sec. 


SANDHURST. 


The annual meeting of the Bendigo School of Mines was held 
on the 23rd January. The report was most satisfactory, and 
shows that the operations of the school are much more exten- 
sive than the public generally imagine. It showed that no 
less than 438 pupils received instruction during the year, of 
whom 103 attended the chemistry lectures, 22 studied practical 
chemistry, 30 mathematics, 40 mechanical architectural draw- 
ing, 193 freehand drawing, and the remainder were enrolled 
in the classes for mechanics — practical geometry, surveying, 
mine management, geology, mineralogy, and metallurgy. The 
attendance for the past year was greater than during any pre- 
vious year, and 1881 showed an increase of 100 over 1880, 
which increase has been more than maintained. Officers for 
the ensuing year w r ere appointed, ordinary business transacted, 
and the meeting terminated. 


SYDNEY. 


(from our own correspondent.) 

The annual distribution of prizes of the Technical College 
took place on Thursday, 2nd February, in the School of Arts 
Hall. The meeting was presided over by the Hon. F. B. 
Sutton, Minister for Public Instruction, who in a few appro- 
priate words congratulated the committee upon the remark- 
able progress of the institution, the number of pupils having 
increased from a thousand to fourteen hundred during the past 
twelve months. The chairman then proceeded to distribute 
the prizes to the students who had excelled in the recent 
examinations, and the medals and certificates of merit gained 
by them at the Bathurst Juvenile Exhibition. The Hon. E. 
Combes, C.M.G., M.L.A., then delivered an instructive address 
on science and art education ; at the close of which votes 
of thanks were passed to Mr. Combes and the Hon. F. B. 
Sutton. 

On the platform were the office-bearers of the college and 
several members of the Legislative Council and Assembly. 
It has excited some comment that no chemistry prizes were 
presented. 

The annual meeting of the Sydney Mechanics’ School of 
Arts was held on Tuesday, 7th February. The report showed 
all departments to be in a flourishing condition, and the 
members showed their confidence in the office-bearers of last 
year by re-electing nearly all of them to office. There is a 
general feeling among the members against opening the insti- 
tution on Sundays. 

Three “ health lectures” were given last week by Dr. Thos. 
Dixon, at the Technical College Hall. The subjects touched 
upon were — “Impure Air and its Effects;” “Dust, and its 
Action in Spreading Disease “ Impure Water and Drainage.” 
The lectures were well attended, and highly interesting to the 
general public, who had again the opportunity of witnessing 
many well-known experiments. 

During the absence of Professor Smith the duties of Experi- 
mental Physics Lecturer will be performed by the Rev. Joseph 
Campbell, B.A., son of Mr. W. B. Campbell, of the Furnishing 
Arcade, George-street. Mr. Campbell graduated at Sydney 
University in 1880, gaining the Belmore medal for geology 
and practical chemistry, and was ordained in December of the 
same year at St. Andrew’s Cathedral. Since that time Mr. 
Campbell has been curate at St. Michael’s Church, Surry 
Hills. 

A meeting of the senate of the University was held on Wed- 
nesday, 1st February. Fourteen members were present ; the 
vice-chancellor, Canon Allwood, presided, and announced 
the receipt of a petition signed by fifty-four members of the 
University, urging the senate to invite applications from the 


February, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DEUGGIST. 


77 


Australian colonies and Great Britain before making the 
appointments of Professors of Natural History, Physiology, 
and Anatomy. 

Mr. Oliver proposed, and Dr. Badham seconded, a motion to 
the effect that Mr. W. J. Stephens be invited to the position 
of Professor of Natural History, which was carried by a 
majority of three. Dr. Renwick declined to proceed with his 
motion. Mr. Macleay therefore moved that Dr. MacLaurin be 
invited to the position of Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, 
which was also carried. 

The lecturerships, of the value of £200 per annum, are being 
advertised. It is hoped that an efficient staff of lecturers will 
be thus secured for the medical school. 


PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES. 

The monthly meeting of the Pharmaceutical Council was 
held at the Medical Board Office, Phillip-street, on Tuesday, 
14th February, at eleven a.m. Present — the president (in the 
chair), and Messrs. Abrahams, Guise, Prat, Row, Larmer, and 
Watt. 

The minutes of last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Mr. George Woodhouse, M. P.S., Victoria, was admitted a 
member of the society, and Mr. W. Withers was admitted an 
associate upon the production of satisfactory credentials. 

Mr. J. G. Woods’s application for registration of indentures 
and examination was granted. 

Mr. J. S. Abraham was appointed as an extra examiner. 

A die was agreed upon for the society’s envelopes and 
papers ; and a motion for granting silver medals to all can- 
didates answering seventy-five per cent, of the questions in 
examinations was postponed until next meeting. The pre- 
sident announced the receipt of valuable works from America 
as additions to the library. 


A NEW PALM FROM QUEENSLAND, 

Defined by Baron Ferd. yon Mueller, K.C.M.G., 

M. & Ph. D., F.R.S. 

For several years it was known through Mr. Eugene Fitzalan, 
that on Mount Elliott, near Port Denison, a palm occurs, 
which differs in the structure of its stem as well as in its less 
elevated habit from Ptychosperma Alexandra and Pt. 
Cunninghami. As this seemingly local palm did not yet stand 
on any phytographic record. I was fortunate to induce Mr. 
Fitzalan, towards the end of last year, to revisit the locality, 
with a view of securing flowers and fruits of this species ; 
these he succeeded to obtain, and he placed this new material 
for elucidation most liberally at my disposal, together with 
notes on the habit of this palm. Thus, I am enabled to offer 
now a diagnosis. 

Ptychosperma Beatrices.— Stem robust, moderately high, its 
basal portion much enlarged, with the annual rings there 
suddenly and considerably impressed ; leaves large, rigid, 
many of them more erect than divergent ; their rachis very 
straight ; their segments numerous, grey underneath, folded 
back towards the base, gradually narrowed into a pointed 
apex, not very much spreading, the terminal segments and 
those nearest to them somewhat convergent at their summit ; 
panicle moderately long, somewhat fascicular, emanating 
from the stem at no very great height, bearing numerous 
crowded slender a#d flexuous spikes ; buds rather pointed, 
hardly oblique ; male flowers mostly in pairs, and often a 
female flower between them ; outer sepals from one-third to 
nearly half the length of the inner sepals ; stamens eight to 
twelve ; anthers linear, longer than the filaments ; fruits rather 
•small, globular-ovate. On Mount Elliott ; Fitzalan. Greatest 
height of the whole plant 40 ft.; stems solitary from the root ; 
leafstalks channelled ; raches of the spikes dark-coloured 
when dry ; flowers evidently smaller than those of Pt. 
Alexandra} and Pt. Cunninghami, but not available at present 
in full development \ fruits in size, form and structure 
similar to those of the two above-mentioned species, but 
rather smaller. 

In contrasting such differences, as are best or only observ- 
able in native localities, Mr. Filzalan remarks, that “ the 
stem of Pt. Alexandra has woody fibres enough to allow 
of its sometimes being used (I might say sacrilegiously) 
for fencing and for. building bush-huts, while stems of 
the new palm remain almost as soft as a cabbage-stalk ; 
and while, contrarily again, the stem of Pt. Cunninghami, 


which is still harder and more durable, than that of 
Pt. Alexandra, will sometimes turn the edge of a toma- 
hawk.” He further notes, that the basal portion of the 
stem is “ much more massive than that of Pt. Alexandras, ” 
and is remarkable “ for the clearly defined steps (at every mark 
of former yearly foliage) half an inch deep or more, all round 
up to three to five feet, when these projections cease, and the 
stem tapers gradually.” He adds, that the leaves stand well 
up, “ taper to the point, not having any curvature towards 
the top,” whereas in Pt. Alexandras and Pt. Cunninghami the 
upper portion of the leaves is curved downward, and their 
segments are more spreading. Irrespective of these discrepan- 
cies, the Beatrice palm “ flowers and fruits already six to eight 
feet from the ground, when evidently still very young,” whereas 
the two sister species “ do not bear fruits at a lesser distance 
from the base of the stem than about 30 feet.” He thinks, that 
“ the butts of the larger individuals might be fairly called 
colossal.” It does not seem, that the differences between the 
Alexandra palm and the Beatrice palm, as pointed out by Mr. 
Fitzalan, arise from mere diversity of places of growth, such 
as very wet soil and dry ground, or cool valleys and sunny 
ridges. Pt. Beatrice shares the paleness of the underside of 
the leaf-segments with Pt. Alexandras, agrees likewise with 
it in the number of stamens, the narrow anthers and short 
filaments, and is thus more removed from Pt. Cunninghami. 


Ipeg&l mil i M&qxbUxwL 


BREACH OF THE PHARMACY ACT. 

Sandhurst Police Court. 

James Egan Wall, chemist, was brought up at the City 
Court on 23rd January, before Messrs. Webster, P.M., Wilton 
and Edwards, Js.P., charged that he, being a registered phar- 
maceutical chemist, did, at Wattle-street, Sandhurst, practice 
surgery upon one Margaret Smith (now deceased), otherwise 
than in accordance with the rights and privileges enjoyed by 
chemists and druggists in their open shops. 

Mr. Kirby, instructed by the police, appeared for the 
prosecution, and Mr. Hornbuckle, instructed by Mr. Rymer, for 
the defence. 

Mr. Kirby stated that the case was brought under section 25 
sub-section 4 of the Pharmacy Act. The evidence against the 
accused was limited to the evidence given at the inquest on 
the young woman by Wall himself. There might, however, be 
an objection to this evidence being admitted. The punishment 
for the offence with which the accused was charged was £10 
and six months’ imprisonment. The case was not of a 
vindictive character. It was purely a Government prosecution. 

Harry William Shillinglaw, registrar of the Pharmacy Board 
of Victoria, produced his appointment, and also the original 
appointment of the board under the hand of the Governor in 
Council. He deposed that on 1st August, 1881, the prisoner was 
a registered pharmaceutical chemist, and that he (witness) 
knew him personally. To Mr. Hornbuckle : The printed 
pharmaceutical register is a copy of the original document. 

Robert Strickland, coroner, deposed, that on the day following 
the death of Margaret Smith (1st August) witness held an 
inquest on the body. The prisoner Wall was present, and gave 
evidence. Witness cautioned him against so doing, as, from 
the facts of the case, he (witness) thought it probable that 
the prisoner might stand in the position of an accused 
person. The depositions (produced) were chose taken on the 
occasion. (Mr. Kirby here put in the depositions as evidence, 
but this was at once objected to by counsel for the defence, 
the grounds being that it was not substantially for the same 
offence as that which was the subject of the enquiry when the 
depositions were taken ; that to make them evidence the charge 
must be substantially identical, or so connected as to create a 
reasonable presumption that the prisoner’s mind at the time 
of the first charge was sufficiently directed to the matter which 
formed the matter of the subsequent charge, and in substantia- 
tion the following cases were quoted : — Reginas. Lewis, Regina 
v. Owen, Regina v. Beeston, in all of which it appeared 
that, to make the depositions admissible on a subsequent 
charge, the offences must be indentical. On the other side, 
Mr. Kirby quoted the case of Regina v. Cooke, as heard in 
1876 on appeal from the Canadian Court. The Bench, 
however, decided that the depositions must be rejected.) 
Dr. H. L. Atkinson gave evidence that he saw the woman. 
Margaret Smith on the day following her death. Made a 



78 THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. February, 1882 . 


post-mortem examination in conjunction with Dr. M £ Gillivray. 
Prisoner was then present. On the body found a lacerated 
wound from the vagina to the peritenium, which, by internal 
and external hemorrhage, was the cause of death. This was 
probably, as proposed by the prisoner himself, caused by the 
use of a catheter or stiletto, and was, no doubt, an attempted 
surgical operation. To Mr. Hornbuckle : The gum catheter 
can be used with safety by an inexperienced person. Such 
operations as drawing a tooth, &c., are called minor surgery, 
and can be performed by a chemist. Dr. P. H. M‘Gillivray 
deposed that on the 2nd of August, in conjunction with the 
last witness, he made a post-mortem examination on the body 
of Margaret Smith, and found that death had been caused by a 
lacerated wound, extending from the vagina to the peritenium. 
It was, no doubt, the result of an attempted surgical operation. 
Do not remember that anything was said with reference to the 
matter by the prisoner. To Mr. Hornbuckle : At the post- 
mortem Wall had an opportunity of seeing everything that 
was done, so that at the inquest he might have cross-examined. 
During the inquiry the prisoner asked that the uterus might 
be produced, but this was refused. Mr. Strickland, recalled, 
in answer to Mr. Kirby, explained that Wall made application 
to witness, under the 16th section of the medical statute, that 
he should be allowed to be present at the post-mortem exami- 
nation. Prisoner did not say anything on that occasion, as 
witness was also present, and prevented him. At the inquest 
prisoner had an opportunity to cross-examine the witness, 
which he took advantage of. (Here Mr. Hornbuckle again 
objected to the depositions being introduced, and was upheld 
by the Bench.) 

John Holdsworth, pharmaceutical chemist, deposed that he 
had been in business over thirty years. It was not the right 
and privilege of a chemist to practice surgery. He would not 
even take a case of diphtheria in hand. 

Henry Trumble, pharmaceutical chemist, gave evidence to 
having been in business for over twenty years. All such 
operations as drawing a tooth, placing a piece of sticking- 
plaster over a cut, and drawing the sides together are all 
minor surgical operations, and witness would consider him- 
self justified in performing such operations. 

Richard John Webb, sergeant of police at Sandhurst, deposed 
to being at Mr. Wrixon’s on 2nd of August. Wall knocked 
at the door, and asked to see Mr. Wrixon. That gentleman 
was in the room. Wall then came in and said, “Mr. 
Wrixon, I am ashamed to meet you.” Mr. Wrixon replied 
that it was a terrible affair. Prisoner then asked Mr. 
Wrixon whether he remembered his showing him a 
hydatid cyst which he removed from the woman Smith some 
three years previously. Mr. Wrixon said he did not. The 
witness also gave evidence as to a conversation which he had 
with prisoner with reference to the woman’s death. 

James Storey, who was a groom employed on the premises at 
same time, deposed that he last saw the woman Smith alive at 
half-past three on the 1st of August last. She was found dead 
at six o’clock, about a quarter of an hour after Wall left the 
premises. 

Margaret Beale, a little girl of thirteen years of age, gave 
evidence that she was in the house on the 2nd August. The 
prisoner Wall was there. Witness called out “ Maggie,” when 
the prisoner came out of the room and asked “ What all this 
Maggieing meant.” 

This closed the case for the prosecution. 

Mr. Kirby said that once the offence was disclosed on the 
summons it could be amended by the Bench on theevidence given. 

An adjournment was here made for lunch. 

On resuming at two o’clock, Mr. Kirby resumed his remarks. 
He argued that section 69 of the Justices Statute said that 
there was no power to alter where no offence was disclosed on 
the summons. There had been no occasion to put in the sum- 
mons what he had about the catheter ; all that need have been 
said was that the accused had practised surgery. He got those 
words after reading the depositions, which, however, it had 
been since stated could not be admitted as evidence. It was 
plain that surgery had been practised, and they had strong 
circumstantial evidence that Wall was the man who did it. 
The act of surgery was performed outside the rights and privi- 
leges of chemists. Wall was present at the post-mortem 
examination, and it had been proved that death was caused by 
an attempt at surgical operation. He thought there was 
sufficient evidence to find Wall guilty upon. ' He withdrew 
his application for an amendment to the summons. 

Mr. Hornbuckle said it would be idle for him to ask the 
magistrates to forget what they had seen in the newspapers of 


the evidence given at the inquest, for he was sure that their 
decision would be based merely on what they had heard that 
day. They were told all that was wanted was to have Wall’s 
name struck off the roll, and this much could be obtained by 
the infliction of a nominal penalty. But Mr. Kirby asked for 
more, and he (Mr. Hornbuckle) felt convinced that the whole 
affair was malicious and vindictive. Sergeant Webb gave 
evidence as to the death, which was quite in conformity with 
death from exhaustion, or what Wall stated in his depositions,, 
from chloroform. The doctors did not say that it was a 
catheter that was used. 

The Bench said it did not matter about the catheter, pro- 
vided it had been clearly shewn that some person attempted 
to perform an operation. 

Mr. Hornbuckle said that there was no evidence of Wall 
having performed a surgical operation. The only one that 
could prove he had was dead. The Bench had, no doubt, the 
whole history of the case in their minds, but they must not 
think of what they had read. 

Mr. Webster : “ It so happened that I did not read the 
depositions at the time.” 

Mr. Hornbuckle said that it was difficult to decide a matter 
like this, apart from the previous case. But there had been no 
evidence to support the charge. There was no direct proof 
that Wall performed the operation, and a man should not be 
sent to gaol on a surmise. It had not been proved that Wall 
was not a surgeon. 

The Bench said that he might be a surgeon, but he was not 
on the medical roll. It was for Mr. Hornbuckle to prove that 
he was a surgeon. 

Mr. Hornbuckle said there was nothing to prevent a man 
being both a chemist and a surgeon. The offence had not 
been proved, and even performing an operation was not 
practising as a surgeon. Practising did not mean a single 
isolated case. There was no evidence that Wall operated for 
the purpose of gain. He might even have used the instru- 
ment as a friend, just as a farmer might, with a slight know- 
ledge of setting a limb, attend to the broken arm of a friend. 

The Bench said that the evidence they had heard was the 
only evidence that concerned their decision. It had trans- 
pired that Wall was the man who performed the operation. 
There was plenty of evidence to prove that an operation had 
been attempted. The circumstantial evidence adduced was of 
a very strong character. It was left to them to decide, and 
they could not help fixing Wall as the person who did it. 
They would not inflict a very heavy penalty. They would fine 
Wall Is., and three months’ imprisonment, which would com- 
mence at the expiration of the term he is now serving. 


A HOMCEOPATHIC CHEMIST CHARGED WITH 
LARCENY. 

The St. Kilda Bench — consisting of the Mayor (Mr. Gavan 
Shaw), and Messrs. Pilley, Simpson, and Balderson, J.P.’s— 
were engaged on the 6th February in investigating a charge 
of theft preferred against Mr. Thomas Osmond, homoeo- 
pathic chemist, High-street, St. Kilda. The facts, as de- 
tailed by the prosecutrix, Mrs. Clara Gardner, residing 
at Leicester-street, St. Kilda, were as follow : — On 
Monday afternoon she was returning from Melbourne 
to St. Kilda in an omnibus, in which the prisoner 
was also a passenger. She placed a small travelling 
basket on the seat beside her, the prisoner facing her on the 
opposite side. Her basket contained some small parcels and 
her purse, in which was a note for £5 and some silver. Mr. J. 
Mason, a gentleman in the commission of the peace, was also 
a passenger. In the course of the journey, Mr. Mason re- 
marked the prosecutrix’s purse lying on the seat beside her, 
and before arriving at his destination the prisoner shifted his 
position to the same side of the omnibus where she was sitting. 
The prisoner got out at High-street, and then Mr. Mason called 
the attention of the prosecutrix to the fact that the former 
had taken up her purse and departed with it in his possession. 
He had, as he stated in evidence, also watched the movements 
of the prisoner while in the omnibus, and it appeared to him 
that in order to possess himself of the purse without detection 
the prisoner had tried to cover it with the skirt of his coat. 
By Mr. Mason’s advice the prosecutrix obtained the services of 
a police constable, and they all three went to the prisoner’s 
shop in High-street, and charged him with stealing the purse. 
He admitted that he had it, but said that it had been his in- 
tention to find the owner and restore it. He was then taken 
into custody. Mr. Weller appeared for the defence, and in a 


February, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


79 


very forcible manner urged the improbability of his client, 
a man of respectability, seventy-five years of age, and forty- 
one years resident in the colony, being capable of theft. He 
said that he had several small parcels of his own, and when 
leaving the omnibus he took the purse up unknowingly with 
his own packages. Moreover, it was clear from the fact of 
Mr. Mason allowing the prisoner to leave the omnibus without 
challenging him with having Mrs. Gardner’s purse, that he 
must have been actuated by vindictive motives in recommend- 
ing her to give the prisoner into custody. Mr. Mason corro- 
borated the evidence of the prosecutrix in all essential points, 
and deprecated the imputation of malice thrown out by Mr. 
Weller, for which he was sharply rebuked by Mr. Pilley from 
the bench, who told him he had no right to reply to Mr, 
Weller’s remarks. Cross-examination failed to shake the 
evidence of either the prosecutrix or Mr. Mason, and on the 
termination of the case the latter addressed the Bench in 
justification of the course he had thought it his duty to pursue 
in the matter. The Bench retired to consider their decision, 
and after a short deliberation discharged the prisoner, as a 
majority of the Bench were of opinion there had been no 
felonious intention in taking the purse. The Mayor dissented 
•from his colleagues in their judgment. 


SALES OP ADULTERATED SPIRITS. 

At the Richmond Court on Wednesday, the 8th February, 
Isaac Henry Jones, wine and spirit merchant, corner of Swan 
and Lennox streets, Richmond, was prosecuted at the instance 
of the excise authorities, under the 86th section of the 
Licensing Act, for selling spirits distilled in the colony, 
mixed with foreign spirits, without causing the bottle con- 
taining such spirits to bear upon it the statement that its con- 
tents were “ a mixture of foreign and colonial spirits.” Mr. 
John O’Connor, senior inspector of excise, appeared to prose- 
cute on behalf of the Customs, and Mr. Gillott represented 
the defendant. 

H. J. Rattray, inspector of excise, stated that on the 27th 
ult, he inspected the store kept by the defendant, accompanied 
by Mr. John M‘Nee. The defendant said he was the pro- 
prietor of the store, and a registered wine and spirit merchant. 
The witness saw a number of bottles on a shelf labelled “ Fine 
Old Scotch Whisky,” and bearing the statement that the con- 
tents had been bottled by J. H. Jones, Swan-street, Richmond. 
On taking down one of the bottles and asking the defendant 
what whisky it contained, the defendant replied, “ Glenlivat 
Scotch whisky,” but that there was some Aikin’s colonial 
whisky mixed with it. Witness purchased a bottle of the 
spirit, for which he paid 3s. 6d. The defendant then showed 
the witness over his cellar, and pointed out a cask numbered 
3221 of Aikin’s colonial whisky, and also a jar of Glenlivat 
Scotch whisky, which he had purchased from Messrs. Lange and 
Thoneman, wine and spirit merchants, of Melbourne. He 
added that the bottle of spirits which had been purchased by 
the witness was a blended mixture of those spirits. The 
witness then purchased a bottle of each, paying 2s. 6d. for the 
Scotch and Is. 6d. for the colonial spirit. The permit issued 
for the Aikin’s whisky in the cellar was shown to the witness 
by the defendant ; the number upon it was the same as the 
one upon the cask in the cellar. 

For the defence, Mr. Gillott denied that the prosecution had 
proved their case. The proof rested on the credibility of the 
witnesses as to whether the defendant had really admitted that 
the bottle of whisky which had been purchased by Inspector 
Rattray was a mixture of imported foreign spirits and spirits 
distilled in the colony. The defendant positively denied 
having made any such admission. Moreover, there could be no 
conviction, because it was impossible by any known analysis 
to prove that the whisky produced in court was a mixture dis- 
tilled in the colony and an imported foreign spirit. Lastly, 
as he interpreted the Act, it was not required by law that any 
statement further than that the bottle contained whisky was 
necessary to be put on it by the vendor when the spirits were of 
colonial manufacture. 

The Bench recalled Mr. Stubley, who said that in his 
opinion it was impossible by any analysis to state the consti- 
tuents of a bottle of whisky, and authoritatively pronounce 
whether or no it was a mixture of foreign and colonial spirits. 

A majority of the Bench were of opinion that the case had 
been proved, and fined the defendant £10, and £2 2s. costs, 
the liquor to be forfeited, together with the vessels and kegs 
in which it was contained. 

Mr. Gillott gave notice of appeal. 1 


THE ANNUAL CRICKET MATCH. 

Wholesale v. Retail. 

The following report of this match has been furnished by 
Mr. A. C. Lewis : — The annual cricket match between the 
wholesale and retail chemists took place on Thursday, the 
26th January, on the Melbourne Cricket Ground, and resulted 
in an easy win for the retail by eighty-six runs. There wa^ a 
marked improvement upon last year’s attendance, and great 
interest was manifested in the match. This year the retail 
were the guests of the wholesale, and at two o’clock an 
adjournment was made to lunch, at which over fifty sat down. 
Ample justice having been done to the good things provided, 
before adjourning to resume the game, Mr. Blackett, M.P., 
rose, and begged to propose a toast — “ The Wholesale 
Chemists.” In doing so he said it afforded him great 
pleasure in being there, and he trusted it would not be 
the last time he would meet so many under similar cir- 
cumstances. He was proud to see there were some amongst 
chemists who could play the grand old English game of 
cricket, and he was also proud of the position Victorians 
held in the cricket field, and concluded by hoping the retailers 
would give the wholesale a good beating. Mr. Grimwade, in 
responding, said it gave him great pleasure to be present at the 
match. He had been against these matches before, but now 
he thought they would help to lead to a better feeling between 
the wholesale and retail houses. It was through the persua- 
sive powers of Mr. Hemmons that he had given his sanction 
to a half-holiday, and he hoped now that these matches would 
become quite an institution. (Loud applause.) He thanked 
Mr. Blackett for the kind manner he spoke of the wholesale 
chemists, but did not agree with him in wishing for a victory 
for the retailers. His sympathy was with the wholesale. 
Mr. Hemmons, who upon rising was received with much 
applause, also thanked Mr. Blackett for his kind remarks 
about the wholesale, and said he was very pleased to see so 
many present at the lunch . In concluding, he begged to pro- 
pose the health of the retail chemists, which was drunk 
with enthusiasm. Mr. Blackett returned thanks in a few 
words, and the match was then resumed. Mr. Hemmons 
acted as umpire for the wholesale, and gave great satisfaction, 
while Mr. Coulthard performed like duties for the retail. It 
was unanimously agreed by those present to endeavour to 
make these matches far more popular amongst the trade than 
they have been. The followingare the particularsof the play : — 


RETAIL. 


F. Baker, c Griffen, b Court 

2 

F. G. Barnard, b Treadaway 

0 

Pleasance, b Court... 

26 

Cooper, 1 b w, b Court 

3 

Gibson, not out 

82 

Hope, c Duff, b Jenkinson 

10 

A. Lewis, b Lyons 

0 

Cattach, c and b Jenkinson 

1 

Ross, b Jenkinson ... 

3 

Gabriel, b Moss 

31 

Evans, c Treadaway, b Lyons ... 

... 15 

Sundries 

2 

Total 

175 


Bowling Analysis. — Treadaway, 72 balls, 1 maiden, 63 runs, 

1 wicket ; Court, 36 balls, 32 runs, 3 wickets ; Jenkinson, 48 
balls, 2 maidens, 33 runs, 3 wickets ; Lyons, 37 balls, 14 runs, 

2 wickets ; Moss, 42 balls, 31 runs, 1 wicket. 


WHOLESALE. 


Jenkinson, run out 

... 28 

Coates, b Ross 

0 

Treadaway, c Gabriel, b Baker 

3 

Lyons, b Ross 

... 18 

Moss, b Ross 

0 

Powell, c and b Ross 

4 

Rackman, b Gibson 

... 12 

Court, b Ross 

0 

Griffen, b Gibson 

4 

Duff, not out 

10 

Whiting, b Ross 

1 

Sundries ... 

9 

Total 

... 89 


j-MuwuHivj jz-HjusbyoLd. — uAJi-ei, <o uaus, y maiaens, zo runs, l 
wicket ; Ross, 97 balls, 6 maidens, 39 runs, 6 wickets ; Gibson, 
24 balls, 16 runs, 2 wickets. 

Majority for Retail, 86 runs. 


80 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


February, 1882. 


PERMANGANATE OF POTASSA AS AN ANTIDOTE FOR 
SNAKE POISON. 

Dr. de Lacerda lately made in Brazil some important 
experiments on the modification caused by various substances 
in the effects of the snake poison’s inoculation. He found 
perchloride of iron, borax, acid, nitrate of mercury, tannin, 
and other chemicals, to be all inert or nearly so, but perman- 
ganate of potassa was discovered to afford astonishing 
results. 

The first series of experiments was as follows: — The fresh 
venom of the bothrops snake, collected on cotton wadding, and 
corresponding in quantity to that produced by a number of 
bites, was diluted with eight or ten grammes of water. The 
liquid being introduced into a Pravaz syringe, about one-half 
of it was injected into the cellular tissue of the thigh of one 
of the dogs selected for observation. Then, one or two 
minutes afterwards, sometimes later, an equal quantity of a 
one per cent, solution of permanganate of potassa was injected 
in the same place. 

The dogs, on being examined the next day, showed no trace 
of local lesion, save the usual traces of the puncture. The 
same poisonous liquid, however, when not followed by the 
antidote, always produced in other dogs great local tume- 
faction, and abscesses more or less voluminous accompanied 
with loss of substance and destruction of tissues. 

The next series of experiments was in injecting the poison 
into the veins, when the antidote failed in only two cases out 
of thirty. The lack of success in these two instances is ex- 
plained by the fact that, in order to vary the experiments, 
some of the dogs operated upon were ill-fed, very young, or 
weak, and in some cases the introduction of the permanganate 
was made very late, when the heart’s beats were ready to 
cease. 

In a number of cases the injections consisted of half a 
syringeful of a poisonous solution containing the venom pro- 
duced by twelve or fifteen snakes’ bites, mixed with ten 
grammes of water. Half-a-minute afterwards two c.c. of the 
one per cent, permanganate solution were injected. With the 
exception of a transient agitation and occasional cardiac 
acceleration scarcely lasting a few minutes, no disturbances 
were noted. The animals were kept under observation for 
several days, and their health remained good. 

In another series of cases, after injecting the poison, the 
operator waited for the manifestation of the characteristic 
troubles. When the animal already exhibited great pupillary 
dilatation, respiratory and cardiac disturbances, constriction, 
&c., Dr. de Lacerda injected into the vein two to three cubic 
centimeters of the permanganate solution. After two or three 
minutes, five at the utmost, all disturbances ceased ; slight 
general prostration only remained, which never lasted longer 
than twenty-five minutes. Then the animal, being placed on 
the ground, could walk and even run. At the same time other 
dogs, to which the same quantity of poison had been adminis- 
tered, but no antidote, met with a death more or less rapid. 

These striking results were observed at different times by 
various persons, notably the Emperor of Brazil and professors 
of the faculty. Hence, Dr. de Lacerda affirms without hesi- 
tation that “ permanganate of potassa acts as a true antidote 
to snake’s poison.” 


Correspondence. 


Mr. H. F. Massey, of Williamstown, writes : — “ Will you 
kindly allow me space in your journal to inform Mr. Alexan- 
der Hall that the paragraph he refers to in his letter in no way 
emanated from me? The circulars issued by me state that “ I 
have commenced business in the premises lately occupied by 
Mr. A. Hall.” This by no means infers my having “ suc- 
ceeded” to his business. 


CRICKET MATCH. 

To the Editor of the Australasian SupgAement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Dear Sir — I t is the intention of a number of chemists on the 
south side of the Yarra to arrange a cricket match against a 
team from the north side. If any of your readers desire to 
take part in the match, and would kindly send their names 
and addresses to me, they will be placed before a committee 


for selection. The match will be played either this or next 
month, upon a ground to be agreed upon. By kindly inserting 
this in your journal, you will oblige, yours respectfully, 

G. E. Treen. 

102 Clarendon-street, Emerald Hill, 9th February, 1882. 


ffotes anti Abstracts. 


Ready Method of Preparing Fomentations.— Take 
your flannel, folded to the required thickness and size, 
dampened quite perceptibly with water, but not enough to 
drip, and place it between the folds of a large newspaper, 
having the edges of the paper lap well over the cloth, so as to 
give no vent to the steam. Thus prepared, lay it on the heated 
surface of the stove or register, and in a moment steam is 
generated from the under surface, and has permeated the 
whole cloth sufficiently to heat it to the required temperature. 
This method is often very convenient and efficient where there 
is no opportunity to heat much water at a time . — Michigan 
Medical Neivs. 

Colouring White Flowers. — A correspondent of Vick's 
Floral Monthly says : — A very pretty experiment is performed 
by putting the stem of a freshly cut tuberose, or other white 
flower, into diluted scarlet ink for a short time. The liquid 
will be drawn up into the veins, colouring them in a very 
pleasant manner. It is also instructive, showing whether a 
plant is net-veined or parallel-veined. A tuberose coloured 
not too highly makes a very pretty novelty. I gave one to a 
young lady, who wore it in a mixed assembly, where it attacted 
considerable attention. Among those interested was an 
amateur botanist, who entered into a lengthy explanation of 
how he supposed the matter to have been accomplished by 
hybridising, and considerable merriment was caused when the 
truth was revealed. I discovered this process accidentally, 
and the ink mentioned is the only colour I have found fine 
enough to pass into the pores of the flowers.” 

To Colour Iron Black. — A brilliant black is produced on 
iron and steel by applying, with a fine hair brush, a mixture 
of turpentine and sulphur boiled together. When the turpen- 
tine evaporates, there remains on the metal a thin layer of 
sulphur, which unites closely with the iron when heated for a 
time over a spirit or gas flame. This varnish protects the 
metal perfectly, and is quite durable. 

Stain for Mahogany Cherry. — The most simple and 
best stain for mahoganising cherry is ground burnt sienna 
mixed in benzine or turpentine. Apply with a brush or 
sponge, let it stand for a short time, and clean off with a 
cloth. It will be better to let it remain in this condition until 
the following day before commencing to finish. 


METALLIC OLEATES AND OLEO-PALMITATES. 

Dr. L. Wolff, in a paper read at a pharmaceutical meeting 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, recommends the 
following process for obtaining pure oleates : — 

One part of castile soap (sodium oleo-palmitate) is dissolved 
in eight parts of water ; the solution so obtained is allowed to 
stand for twenty-four hours, when there will be a considerable 
deposit of sodium palmitate, while the supernatant liquor, 
containing mostly sodium oleate, is drawn off and then decom- 
posed with a concentrated solution of a metallic salt, which, 
if obtainable, should contain no free acid to prevent the forma- 
tion of free oleo-palmitic acid. The heavy deposit of oleo- 
palmitate so derived is strained off, pressed out in the strainer, 
and the adherent water evaporated in a water-bath ; after 
this it is dissolved in about six to eight times its quantity of 
petroleum benzine, and the insoluble palmitate is left to sub- 
side while the solution of oleate decanted therefrom is filtered 
off. The benzine evaporated will yield an oleate that is 
entitled to that name, as it is a chemical combination, and will 
remain stable and efficacious. 

The oleates, so prepared, he says, present an amorphous 
appearance, while the palmitates are of a crystalline character. 
While I have noticed a marked affinity of some of the metallic 
salts for palmitic acid, the absence of it in others is remark- 
able. Thus, mercury, zinc, bismuth, and lead combine with 
palmitic acid abundantly ; but iron and copper seem to form 
an exception therefrom, and while the oleates of mercury, iron, 
and copper seem to be desirable as therapeutic agents, the 
oleo-palmitates of zinc, bismuth, and lead appear preferable. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


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March, 1882. 7 THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 81 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Leading Article— Pharmaceutical Education 


and Pharmaceutical Examination 81 

The Month 82 

Meetings— The Annual Meeting of the 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 83 

Sydney 84 

New Zealand— Pharmacy in New Zealand 84 


PAGE 

Notes on a hitherto undefined Species of 


Cycas 84 

Notes of the Year 1881 85 

Analysis of a Sample of Water 86 

Pharmacy Board Examinations 86 

Examination for the Certificate of the 
School of Pharmacy 86 


PAGE 


The Pharmacy Board of Victoria 86 

The Sale of Poisons in Open Surgeries . . 87 

Correspondence 87 

Reminiscences of a Pharmacist 87 

Notes and Abstracts 88 

Some Remarks upon Modern Pharmaceuti- 
cal Study 88 


&Jje ©JemiBt antr Uruggigt. 

WITH AUSTRALASIAN SUPPLEMENT. 


Office : MUTUAL PROVIDENT BUILDINGS, COLLINS STREET WEST. 
Published on the 15 th of each Month. 


This Journal is issued gratis to all paid-up Members of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Victoria, and to non-members at Fifteen Shillings 
per annum, payable in advance. A copy of The Chemists and Druggists’ 
Diary, published annually, is forwarded post free to every subscriber. 

Advertisements, remittances, and all business communications to be 
addressed to The Honorary Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Melbourne. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Per annum. Per annum. 

One Page . , ..£8 0 0 I Quarter Page . . £3 0 0 

Half do 5 0 0 | Business Cards . . 2 0 0 

Special rates for wrapper and pages preceding and following literary 
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Advertisements for insertion in the current month should be sent to the 
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Communications for the Editorial department of this journal should be 
addressed to The Editor, Mutual Provident Buildings, Collins Street 
West, Melbourne. 

No notice can be taken of anonymous communications. Whatever is 
intended for insertion must be authenticated by the name and address of 
the writer — not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 


ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

All annual subscriptions are now due. 

Member’s subscription £1 1 0 

Associate’s 0 10 6 

Apprentice’s 0 5 0 

Cheques and Post-office orders should be forwarded to 
the Honorary Secretary, No. 4 Mutual Provident 

Buildings, Collins-street, Melbourne. 


THE LIBRARY. 

The Library is open daily ('Saturdays excepted), from 
9.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Catalogue of the books can be 
obtained on application. 


MEETINGS. 

The next meeting of the Council will be held on Friday 
evening, the 14th April, at 8 o’clock, p.m. The next 
quarterly meeting will be held on Friday, the 14th April, 
at 9 p.m. The quarterly meetings are open to all 
members of the Society. 


SPECIAL NOTICE— TENDERS FOR ADVER- 
TISING SPACE. 

In consequence of there being several applications for the 
front and back pages of the cover of The Australasian Sup- 
plement to the Chemist and Druggist , it has been decided to 
put them up for tender. Tenders are invited for the space 
for a period of twelve months, from 1st April, 1882. For 
further particulars, conditions, &c., apply to the Secre- 
tary at the office of the Pharmaceutical Society, Collins- 
street. 


BIRTHS. 

M'Burney.— On the 7th March, at 2 Warwick-terrace, Drummond-street* 
Carlton, the wife of H. G. M‘Burney of a son. 

Pulling. — O n the 27th February, at Waterton, Albert-street, Windsor, the 
wife of Albert Edward Pulling of a daughter. 

Wade.— O n the 18th February, at Eglinton-villa, St. Vincent -place, Albert 
Park, the wife of A. J. Wade of a son. Both doing well. 

MARRIAGE. 

Bage— Lange.— On the 21st February, at All Saints’ Church, St. Kilda, by 
the Rev. J. H. Gregory, Edward, eldest son of Edward Bage, Fulton-street, 
to Mary Charlotte, eldest daughter of Frederick C. Lange, Alma-road. 


PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND PHARMA- 
CEUTICAL EXAMINATION. 

Recently Professor Attfield read an excellent paper on 
“ The Relation to each other of Education and Examina- 
tion, Especially with Regard to Pharmacy,” before the 
Manchester Chemists’ and Druggists’ Association. It is 
unnecessary to say that this paper is characterised by its 
author’s eminently clear and practical sense. In England 
it would seem that the leaders of pharmacy are fully alive 
to the urgent necessity of an amendment of the Pharmacy 
Act, but in the present state of affairs in the Imperial 
Parliament it is probable that some time will be required 
to get the attention of the Government. There are 
several of the proposed amendments of the English 
Pharmacy Act which, fortunately for us, we have antici- 
pated. In England, for instance, there is a generally 
expressed opinion that the preliminary examination ought 
to be passed before apprenticeship — a most important and 
desirable arrangement, and one which we may congratu- 
late ourselves upon having settled. In the mother-country 
the set of opinion is also in the direction of so altering 
the law that pharmaceutical students should be compelled 
to attend a definite course of lectures in recognised schools 
of pharmacy before presenting themselves for examina- 
tion. The Pharmacy Act of 1868 prescribed no limitations 
as to where the candidates should acquire the knowledge 
necessary to pass. Under our own Act the candidate for the 
higher examination must produce certificates of having 
attended lectures in materia medica , medical botany, and 
chemistry, and passed examinations either at the 
Melbourne University or some school or college of 
pharmacy recognised by the Board of Pharmacy. So in 
this respect — i.e., requiring from candidates a certificate 
of having completed a curriculum at some recognised 
school of pharmacy — we are in advance of our brethren at 
home. However, we must seriously consider whether our 
educational arrangements are up to the proper standard. 
The provisions of the law are sufficient ; but the responsi- 
bility of seeing that any school or college of pharmacy 
now or to be recognised by the Board of Pharmacy 
is under able and efficient teaching, rests upon the 
Pharmaceutical Society, as representing the interests 
of pharmacy and the training in sound knowledge 
of the youths who are destined to follow us in the 
practice of our responsible calling. If our readers 
have read the interesting series of papers on modern 
pharmaceutical study by Mr. Moller, which we have 
reprinted recently in our columns, or have fol- 
lowed the debate on pharmaceutical education at the 
congress which lately met in London, they will have 
noticed that in all the European states evidence is 
required that the candidate has gone through a defined 
educational course ; and this curriculum is so complete 
that the continental pharmacist is now a much more 
accomplished scientific man than his English confrere . 
As M. Petit said at the Intenational Pharmaceutical Con- 


82 


THE CHEMIST AND DBUGGIST. 


March, 1882. 


gress, “ Whatever may be the literary and scientific 
studies required from doctors of medicine, the French 
pharmacists are disposed to accept and even to claim 
them, in order that they may find themselves in an 
equivalent position from asocial point of view.” Some of 
our antipodean pharmacists are doubtless like the cele- 
brated pococurantist of old — “they care for none of these 
things.” But, as Mr. Johnson told his hearers the other 
night at the annual meeting — “ Why, very soon the chil- 
dren in the State-schools will put to shame some of our 
apprentices ; they will know more of chemistry than the 
‘chemist!’” Again, the same gentleman said — “When 
we began our examinations, after the passing of the 
Pharmacy Act, we found them (the apprentices who came 
up under the ‘ modified’) very ignorant — deplorably igno- 
rant.” But nous avons change tout cela. At the last 
examination some of the candidates who had been attend- 
ing lectures, at the School of Pharmacy are reported 
by the examiners to have displayed a very great advance 
upon the condition of things formerly manifested. 

It is to be hoped that there will be no retrogression 
under somewhat changed conditions, as far as the teach- 
ing staff is concerned, at the School of Pharmacy. We 
look upon this question as supremely important. We 
consider that the highest ideal of education ought to be 
kept before the mind’s eye both of teacher and pupil, for 
depend upon it mere effort to pass examinations will not 
suffice in the future. The students must “ know,” to 
use Huxley’s words. And in the present day we think, 
with Professor Attfield, the model pharmacist — that is, 
the pharmacist who acts but for the public weel and his 
own welfare, the man who fears neither the permanent 
influence of “ stores,” nor any other form of mere trade 
competition, is the man who can say — “ I guarantee every 
preparation on my shelves to be trustworthy, either 
because my professional skill in analysis has enabled me 
to thoroughly test it, or because it has been made under 
my own personal supervision from materials which my 
professional knowledge of botany and chemistry has 
enabled me to prove to be thoroughly reliable.” This is 
the right tone to speak in, and “unhasting and unresting” 
must we strive to keep up the standard of pharmaceutical 
education and examination in this colony. We have taken 
the lead in this hemisphere, and others will look to us 
and follow us. At least such is our inerradicable faith, 
notwithstanding many discouragements, we believe that 
pharmacy will have a brilliant future, and the phar- 
macist will, if he is what he ought to be, furnish the 
class from which, as in France has been the case, are drawn 
the leading men of science. Did not Scheele, Liebig, and 
Dumas, and many other eminent chemists, begin life as 
pharmacists] But, above all, we must strive to bring about 
‘ ‘ such an improvement of the condition and position of 
the pharmacist that pharmacy will be the better fitted to 
be the handmaid of medicine and the trustworthy servant 
of the public.” 

me JEcmth. 


An attempt has been made to obtain for the chemists and 
their assistants in Sandhurst some of the privileges of the 
early-closing system, but the attempt has failed. 


The foundation-stone of the new free dispensary to be 
erected in Church-street, Richmond, was laid on the 21st ult. 
by Mr. Geo. Coppin, one of the founders of the original insti- 
tution. There was a large public attendance. 

Letters patent were granted by the Solicitor-General on the 
13th March to Mr. J. VV. Raymond, of Melbourne, sheep- 
farmer, for his process of and apparatus for phosphorising oats 
and other grain. 

The Camper down Chronicle writes : — “ Carrot streated with 
arsenic, it would appear, are the most effectual and certain 
specific yet found for the destruction of rabbits. The prepa- 
ration is being used with greater success than any other means 
yet resorted to. Every method suggested or recommended for 
the extermination of rabbits has been used, and none has been 
found to surpass this in efficacy. The proportion is 1 lb. of 
arsenic to 30 lbs. of carrots.” 


The South Australian Government being desirous of estab- 
lishing an animal vaccine depot, Mr. Graham Mitchell, 
F.R.C.V.S., recently proceeded to Adelaide to assist Mr. Chal- 
win, M.R.C.V.S., the Government veterinary surgeon, in 
carrying out the details of the scheme. Dr. Gosse, the presi- 
dent of the Adelaide Board of Health, and Dr. Paterson, 
the colonial surgeon, having acknowledged the value of the 
assistance rendered by Mr. Mitchell, the Chief Secretary of 
South Australia, on behalf of the Government, forwarded to 
that gentleman a substantial acknowledgment in recognition 
of his services. 


New Insolvent. — Stephen Cox, manufacturing chemist, 
West Geelong. Causes of insolvency : Withdrawal of co- 
partner’s capital at chemical works, Footscray, and refusal of 
a certain firm to carry out agreement entered into relating to 
chemical works at Footscray. Liabilities, £665 12s. 6d. ; 
assets, £96 10s.; deficiency, £569 2s. 6d. 

Boohs, d'C., Received — Australian 'Veterinary Journal , March ; 
Australian Medical Gazette , March ; Australian Medical 
Journal , February; European Mail, January ; Pharmaceutical 
Journal; Annual Report School of Mines, Ballarat; Pros- 
pectus of the Belgian Export Company ; Messrs. H. B. Slee- 
man and Co.’s Prices Current ; American Journal of Phar- 
macy, January and February ; New York Druggists' Circular, 
February ; New Remedies, February ; Therapeutic Gazette, 
January. 

Mr. a’Beckett has been re-elected honorary attending medical 
officer of the Melbourne Hospital for Sick Children, and Dr. 
Snowball has been elected to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Dr. Wigg. 

We are glad to report that Mr. A. Felton has now quite re- 
covered from his late railway accident. 

We are informed that Mr. H. P. Beach, of Chapel-street, 
Prahran, has relinquished business, which has been purchased 
by Mr. C. Harrison, a new arrival in the colony. 

The new session at the School of Pharmacy commenced on 
the 6th inst. 

A deputation from the Pharmaceutical Society is to wait on 
the Minister of Lands on the 22nd inst., to make another 
effort to obtain a site for a school and laboratory. 

At the examination for the certificate of the School of 
Pharmacy, held on the 6th March, the board of examiners 
complimented one of the candidates — Mr. Wm. Lowe — on the 
very satisfactory examination passed by him, and expressed 
themselves as satisfied that Mr. Lowe would one day occupy a 
position in the foremost rank of pharmacy in this colony. Mr. 
Lowe obtains the gold medal given by the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Victoria. 


83 


March, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


The name of James Egan Wall is to be erased from the 
Pharmaceutical Register of Victoria. A resolution embodying 
this recommendation has been forwarded by the Pharmacy 
Board to his Excellency the Governor-in-Council for approval. 
It will be remembered that Wall was convicted of a breach of 
the 15th section of the Pharmacy Act at the Police Court, 
Sandhurst, on the 23rd January last, and sentenced to be im- 
prisoned for three months. 


ittcctings. 


THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL 
SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Victoria was held at the rooms of the Society, No. 4 Mutual 
Provident Buildings, Collins-street, on Wednesday evening, the 
8th March, 1882. . 

The president (Mr. Wm. Bowen) in the chair. The follow- 
ing members were present Messrs. Thomas, Blackett, Hunts- 
man, Bowen, Hooper, Gamble, Johnson, Cornialdi, Barnard, 
Treen, Brind, Swift, A. T. Best, Brownscombe, J. C. Jones, 
Nicholls, F. A. Dunn, Norris, David Jones, Ross, G. Kingsland, 
B. Baker. 

The president read the advertisement calling the meeting. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and 
unanimously confirmed. 

The honorary secretary (Mr. H. Shillinglaw) then read the 
twenty-fifth annual report and balance-sheet, and its adoption 
was moved by Mr. J. C. Jones. 

Mr. A. T. Best made some remarks in reference to the state- 
ment in the report in reference to the friendly relationship 
that existed with the societies in the other colonies, and trusted 
that there would be some uniformity in the educational 
standard required in all the colonies, which was much needed. 

Mr. J. W. Brownscombe said that in the report it was stated 
that satisfactory progress had been made at the School of 
Pharmacy. If that were the case, he should be glad to know 
why tho council had removed it from the Technological 
Museum. 

A general discussion then took place as to the reason that 
had induced the council to take that step, which was joined 
in by Messrs. Gamble, Ross, Thomas, Blackett, Hooper, and 

Barnard. , 

Mr. Bowen also replied at some length to the remarks of Mr. 
Brownscombe. 

Mr. Norris said he had attended specially to object to the 
hours at which the lectures were held. 

Mr. Blackett remarked that the time was the same as at 
Bloomsbury-square, and he could not see any hardship in ask- 
ing students to attend at half-past eight a.m. 

The report was then unanimously adopted. 

THE PRESIDENT’S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

The president said : In accordance with the usual custom at 
the annual meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, 
on retiring from the chair as president, a position which I have 
occupied for the past twelve months, I will endeavour to refer 
briefly to some of the more important events which have 
occurred during that period. In the first place, I beg to thank 
you sincerely for the courtesy and kindness I have experienced, 
not only from the council and the members of the society at 
large, but from the honorary secretary (Mr. H. Shillinglaw), 
whose invaluable services have rendered the duties of my 
office of a pleasing character. From the unanimity existing 
in the council, and the increasing interest felt, as expressed by 
many members of the society in the proceedings thereof, I 
conclude the position and future progress of the society may 
be regarded as established. It is highly gratifying to find the 
various presentations which have been received, as mentioned 
in the annual report ; they will form a valuable addition to 
our museum, and I trust the time is not far distant when we 
shall occupy a building suitable for their reception, and one 
in which ample provision will be made for the students of our 
School of Pharmacy in a completely fitted laboratory and 
lecture-hall, &c. While upon this subject I may mention that 
during the past month Mr. Blackett, Mr. Shillinglaw, and 
myself have paid a visit to the Crown Lands Office, for the 
purpose of ascertaining what sites were available. The result 
of our labour was that we found five or six, and of this 


number one is peculiarly suitable for our requirements ; and 
I have every confidence that if the council, aided by the 
members of the society generally, will bring to bear in the 
proper quarter all the influence they can personally command, 
there will be something more than a mere possibility of 
securing the object of our ambition. I am much pleased, to 
observe the continued unanimity of feeling and action existing 
among a portion of our body in Ballarat., and trust the 
example which this association holds forth will be followed. by 
other districts, for not only do the members of this association 
meet together for the purpose of discussing subjects mutually 
interesting, but the unanimity of feeling among them tends to 
promote their individual prosperity, and to disperse . those 
feelings of reserve and aversion which frequently exist in the 
absence of social intercourse. Too much praise, therefore, 
cannot be awarded to the Ballarat Chemists’ Association. 
They have set a noble example to their brethren at large, and 
one which, I trust, may be followed by other districts in. the 
colony ; and I trust the day is not far distant when the sister 
societies of the Australasian colonies and New Zealand may 
assemble together in conference to discuss and pursue our 
common objects, and have every confidence that such con- 
ference may prove no mean element in the constitution and 
development of society at large. Among the various dis- 
coveries and inventions of the past year there is one of such 
vast importance and brilliancy which will have the effect of 
casting all others into the shade for the present. I allude, to 
the grand discovery of M. Faure of the power of storing 
electricity. This discovery has already excited mental action 
in various directions for the purpose of locomotion ; besides, the 
day-dream of Mr. Edison has been realised, for electricity has 
been utilised in Great Britain and the continents of Europe 
and America, not only for lighting large halls and manufac- 
tories, but for dwelling-houses and other buildings of a less 
pretentious character ; and by the addition of coloured gauze 
around the lamps, the light is described as one of great bea.uty. 
I observe in the report reference is made to the committee 
which has been appointed to revise the “ Sale and Use. of 
Poisons Act,” and sincerely hope that some practical legislation 
will emanate therefrom. I must congratulate the members of 
the society on the satisfactory report presented by the hon. 
treasurer (Mr. Gamble), and hope the suggestion. which he has 
made will be received in the same kindly spirit in which it 
has been made ; for it will be obvious that if the members 
will pay their subscriptions in advance, and promptly, in 
accordance with our bye-laws, much good will result. The 
thanks of the society are due, and I now publicly thank Mr. 
Blackett for the valuable services which he has gratuitously 
rendered as editor of our journal — the Supplement to the 
Chemist and Druggist — but I fear the time is coming when 
other arrangements will have to be made, for it will be 
too much to expect that he can afford the necessary time, 
considering his enlarged sphere of usefulness as one of our 
parliamentary representatives. There is another subject I 
wish to mention— the desirability of uniting as one body the 
Pharmacy Board and the Pharmaceutical Council. Such 
union will be productive of much good, and thus prevent any 
unpleasantness which may possibly arise. In conclusion, I 
will ask that the same courtesy and kindness which you have 
so generously awarded me may be extended to my successor. 

THE ELECTION OF MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 

The election of five members of the council, caused by the 
retirement of Messrs. Best, Gamble, 0 gg, Nicholls, and Jones, 
was then proceeded with. The only candidates nominated 
were Messrs. Best, Gamble, J. C. Jones, R. Nicholls, and John 
Ross, who were, on the motion of Mr. Henry Brind, seconded 
by Mr. Blackett, duly elected. 

APPLICATION TO THE GOVERNMENT FOR SITE FOR LABORA- 
TORY AND MUSEUM. 

Mr. R. Nicholls brought this matter under notice, and urged 
the members to use all the influence they could with the local 
members of Parliament. 

It was resolved that another deputation wait on the Minister 
of Lands, and ask him to fulfil the promise made some time 

a g°. 

Votes of thanks to Messrs. Kingsland and Rawle, the audi- 
tors ; Mr. C. R. Blackett, for his services in connection with 
the journal ; and to Mr. H. Shillinglaw, the honorary secre- 
tary, brought the business to a close. 


84 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


March, 1882. 


SYDNEY. 


The monthly meeting of the Pharmaceutical Council of New 
South Wales was held at the Medical Board Office, Philip- 
street, on 14th March. Present — the president (in the chair), 
and Messrs. Abrahams, Guise, Pratt, Larmer, and Row. 

The minutes of last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Three applications for examinations were received and 
granted, 23rd March being fixed as the date. 

The following applications for membership were granted : — 
O. Davis, M.P.S., late Great Britain, opening in business at 
Woolhara ; J. Mills, Kurragong ; T. H. Mallam, Armidale ; 
C. S. Gaud, Parramatta ; T. M. Sheridan, Mount Browne, in 
business prior to the passing of the Sale of Poisons Act, 1876. 
W. Jesperson, application with a French diploma ; and R. J. 
Waring, M.P.S., Victoria, of Balranald. 

Directions were given in answer to correspondence. 

Sundry accounts were passed. 

The meeting terminated. 


(from our own correspondent.) 

Two cases of suicide by taking strychnine have occurred in 
Sydney during the month of February. The first was the wife 
of a music-dealer named Pognowski, and appears to have been 
caused by hard drinking. There was no evidence to show how 
the poison was obtained. The second was the case of Mr. J. 
G. Thurlow, clerk of petty sessions at the Central Police 
Court, a gentleman well-known and greatly respected. 
Deceased appears to have enjoyed good health, and no reason 
can be assigned for the act, though it was rumoured that pecu- 
niary losses were the cause. On the evening of 10th February 
Mr. Thurlow was found suffering from the effects of poison. 
Two men who found him got a van, and drove him to Dr. 
Power, of College-street, who refused to see him, so they drove 
to the infirmary, at which place he expired shortly after 
admission. The jury returned a verdict, “That Joseph 
Giovanni Thurlow died at the Sydney Hospital from the effects 
of a self-administered dose of strychnine, which he obtained 
from the establishment of Mr. Woodhouse, chemist and drug- 
gist, William-street, on 8th February.” They further added 
as a rider, “ We are of opinion that Dr. Power deserves great 
censure for his inhumanity in not going out to see deceased 
when requested to do so.” Mr. Thurlow leaves a wife and 
family of seven. 

Robert Malcolm Tranent was charged at the Water Police 
Court on 23rd February with selling poison to Mr. J. G. Thur- 
low without having made a faithful entry of the same. The 
defendant is assistant to Mr. Woodhouse. The sheriff (Mr. 
Cowper) appeared for the defence, and said that he could 
certify that it was from no wilful neglect, but rather from the 
idea that police authorities were exempt from the regulations 
regarding the sale of poisons. Out of regard to the official 
position of Mr. Thurlow the usual form was omitted. A fine 
of 5s., and 4s. lOd. costs, was imposed. 

An amusing incident occurred lately before the Licensing 
Board. A publican was charged with opening his house for 
the sale of liquor during prohibited hours. The plea was that 
the customer (a woman) merely came for a dose of castor oil. 
The Bench, however, ruled that the publican should not sell 
that or any other beverage in a jug on Sundays. 

In the Supreme Court steps are being taken to obtain an 
injunction to restrain the Technical College from giving 
instruction in law, political economy, and constitutional 
history. The parties moving in the matter are the Inspector 
of Public Charities and the Minister for Public Instruction. 
These officers consider that the above subjects are not a part 
of technical education. 

Mr. John Rogers has resigned his position as secretary to 
the School of Arts, an office which he has held for the past 
fifteen years, during which period the institution has enjoyed 
great prosperity under his management. It was, however, at 
the request of the committee that the resignation was ten- 
dered. 

A series of lectures on “ Inorganic Materia Medica ” will be 
commenced on Wednesday, 5th April, at the Technical Col- 
lege by Mr. Fred. Wright. Mr. W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., will also 
deliver a course of lectures on “ Chemistry as Applied to the 
Arts” during the winter session, and efforts will be made to 
start a botany class. Mr. Wright has declined an invitation 
from the committee to deliver a series of popular lectures on 


the “Lives of the Chemical Philosophers,” assigning as a 
reason great pressure of work. 

Mr. Chas. Lewin, of Cowra, has purchased the business of 
Mr. Sanders, Lower George-street. 

14th March, 


NEW ZEALAND. 

PHARMACY IN NEW ZEALAND. 

“ As idle as a painted ship upon a painted ocean” would 
express the state of pharmacy, or rather the work of phar- 
maceutical advancement, in New Zealand at the present 
time. 

Our Dunedin friends are said to be the drag upon the 
wheels. A clause in our constitution says : — “ The annual 
meeting of the general council may be held alternately at 
Wellington, Dunedin, Christchurch, and Auckland.” The last 
annual meeting of the general council (or delegates) was held 
at Wellington on the 27th September, 1880, and the next was 
to have been held at Dunedin in September last. It is now 
February, 1882, and no arrangement has been made to bring 
the delegates from the four centres together. It is urged by 
Dunedin that it is a waste of funds, the travelling and other 
expenses being too great. Now, in this matter our southern 
chemists are undoubtedly “ too canny,” and acting contrary 
to the best interests of the cause. In order to secure united 
efforts, and a common understanding, nothing is better cal- 
culated to obtain that object than a conference, where the 
different representatives may meet and cordially discuss 
matters relating to trade interests and the promoting of phar- 
maceutical concerns. 

The personal acquaintance of members, and the mutual 
interchange of ideas upon kindred subjects, is certainly worth 
the proposed expenditure out of the society's funds. Let us 
hope that New Zealand pharmacists will unite resolutely to 
keep up an interest amongst themselves in matters phar- 
maceutical. Much remains to be done ; we have only turned 
the first sod. Our Pharmacy Act requires amendments, and 
provision must be made for pharmaceutical education. Those 
who take a pride in their profession should put renewed life 
into the different local councils, provide local libraries, and 
adopt a system of reading monthly papers on pharmaceutical 
subjects. 

It is a pleasure to learn that Mr. Barraud, the president of 
the society, is taking steps to establish a monthly journal of 
pharmacy, after the style of your valuable publication. Let 
us wish him success in such a good work. 

The New Zealand Pharmacy Board have published their first 
annual register, and will at once proceed against those in busi- 
ness as chemists and druggists who have not registered. There 
are not five in the colony against whom this will be necessary; 
these individuals may be put down as either wilful or negli- 
gent. 

Our visitors to these shores from Victoria have been Mr. T. 
Lakeman, Mr. Rivers Langton, and the Hon. Peter Lalor, the 
Speaker of the House, who is now amongst us and expatiating 
strongly upon the beauty of our scenery, and the excellence of 
our climate. 

The present writer will always retain most pleasing recollec- 
tions of the sociable good feeling existing amongst the 
chemists in Melbourne, of which he was the honoured recipient 
some time since. 

Auckland, 20th February, 1882. 


NOTES ON A HITHERTO UNDEFINED SPECIES OF 
CYCAS. 

By Baron Feed. Von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. and Ph. D., 
F.R.S. 

Last year an opportunity was afforded me by the enlightened 
editor of this journal, to give the first record of a cycadeous 
plant, Macrozamia Moorei, from sub-tropical Eastern Aus- 
tralia ; and now I am able, through his concession, to render 
known another member of the grand order of pine-palms in 
these pages. Plants of this order are not only of great horti- 
cultural and palaeontological importance, but they interest 
likewise chemical and technological investigators, on account 
of the, as yet, not isolated, highly acrid and perhaps therapeutic 
principle, and in reference to the large quantity of peculiar 
starch pervading cycads. Leaving the chemical and indus- 
trial inquiries for another time, I confine myself on this 


March, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


85 


occasion to the phytographic record of the new plant. The 
discovery is due to Mr. Eugene Fitzalan, of Port Denison, 
whose name has become quite famed through the manifold 
additions made by him to the knowledge of the north- 
east Australian flora, and whose attention I had particularly 
directed to a closer inquiry into the various specific forms of 
palms and cycads of his district. The new researches were 
again carried out by that gentleman with much discrimina- 
tion and zeal. 

Cycas Kennedy ana. 

Stem tall ; leaves very numerous ; leaf-stalks elongated, 
nearly glabrous, only on their upper part armed with a few 
spines ; rachis by a single slight curvature gently flexuous, 
ascendant ; leaf-segments about one hundred on each side, 
broad-linear, nearly flat, acute and somewhat pungent, rather 
glaucous on the under page, shining on the surface, glabrous 
on both sides; all segments, but particularly those towards the 
summit, decurrent ; the lowest nearly half as long as the 
middle segments, and not gradually abbreviated into mere 
spines ; male amentum rather large, oval-ellipsoid, the 
antheriferous portion of its scales narrowly wedge-shaped, 
about three times as long as the deltoid, truncated , completely 
velvet-downy, entirely straight and never pointed terminal 
dilatation ; bare upper side of the antheriferous portion 
of the scales quite glabrous ; anther-cells extending to the 
base of the scales, not grouped by any empty space into two 
areas ; fruit-amentum very large ; stipes of the scales mode- 
rately elongated, as well as their rachis velvet-downy ; ovules 
or fruits on each rachis always only four ; nuts nearly globular, 
perfectly glabrous. 

In the Normanby- Ranges, near Port Denison ; Eugene 
Fitzalan, Esq. 

This new pine-palm is dedicated to His Excellency Sir 
Arthur Kennedy, G.C.M.G., who for thirty years held the 
highly distinguished position of Her Majesty’s representative 
in several British colonies, and who now presides over the 
wide and rich dominions of Queensland. Two other species 
of cycas, indigenous only to tropical Eastern Australia, were 
discovered successively during the governorships there of the 
Marquis of Normanby, G.C.M.G., and of Sir William Cairns, 
K.C.M.G., and were dedicated at the time to these high dig- 
nitaries, with a view of connecting their honoured names 
also in botanical science with the colony, over which they then 
ruled. 

Cycas Cairnsiana is easily distinguished from C. Kennedy- 
ana by the more spiny leaf-stalks, by the narrower leaf- 
segments with somewhat recurved margins and pale surface, 
by considerably smaller antheriferous scales with propor- 
tionately larger terminal plate, and by nearly glabrous 
fruit-stalks with only two nuts. 

Cycas Normanbyana differs already from C. Kennedyana in 
simply arcuate raches of the leaves, and in fruit-stalks never 
bearing more than two nuts. 

Cycas media is easily separated from C. Kennedyana by 
the straight raches of the leaves, and by the fruit-stalks pro- 
ducing always more than four and often eight ovules and nuts. 
But, irrespective of these distinctive notes, all three are still 
more marked in difference by the ascendant, sharp-pointed 
apex of the antheriferous scales, which in C. Kennedyana is 
entirely absent. Indeed, by the last-mentioned characteristic 
the new species is also at once separated from the very limited 
number of South Asiatic and Polynesian congeners, hitherto 
rendered descriptively known. 


NOTES OF THE YEAR 1881. 

We extract the following more interesting passages from the 
“Review of the year 1881,” which appeared in the Pharmaceu- 
tical Journal ; — 

There has been evidence of a growing opinion that the time 
has come when the question of branch pharmacies should also 
be dealt with. As to the desirability of such a course as soon 
as the time is ripe there can hardly be two opinions, for on 
several occasions when the society has had to go into a law 
court to prevent an unregistered person from carrying on a 
chemist’s business with the aid of a qualified assistant, the 
fact that a registered person can carry on any number of 
branch shops without employing qualified assistants has evi- 
dently appeared as an anomaly to the judges and unfavour- 
ably affected their judgments. 

A bill was also introduced into the House of Lords, and 
eventually passed, to amend the law relating to veterinary 
surgeons. It provided for the establishment of a register 
and of examinations as a test of qualification for registration, 


under the control of the Royal College of Veterinary Sur- 
geons, and it made it penal for any unregistered person, after 
31st December, to use any title or description implying that 
he is qualified to practise veterinary surgery, but it provided 
for the registration without examination of such persons as 
had for five years continuously next before the passing of 
the Act practised veterinary surgery in the United Kingdom. 

There have been reported during the year several cases of 
prosecution under both the fifteenth and seventeenth sections 
of the Pharmacy Act, the former at the instance of the Coun- 
cil of the Pharmaceutical Society as represented by the Regis- 
trar under the Act, and most of the latter at the instance of 
the Trade Association. The cases that are carried into court 
do not of course represent the full number of offenders against 
the Act that are dealt with, the object sought, the cessation 
of the offence, being frequently attained without the necessity 
of having recourse to legal proceedings. In one of the cases 
reported a point of some importance was decided, as to 
whether a trader could sell to the public poisons supplied to 
him by a duly qualified chemist and druggist, bearing on the 
label the name and address of the chemist and druggist, but 
not that of the owner of the shop in which the poisons were 
sold. The defendant, an unregistered person, who kept a 
general shop in Oxford, admitted a sale of red precipitate, but 
contended that the chemist and druggist whose name and ad- 
dress were on the label was his tenant in respect of one of the 
windows of his shop and that he, in the sale of drugs and 
poisons, only acted as an agent. The Oxford magistrates, be- 
fore whom the case first came for hearing, admitted this plea 
and dismissed the summons. It was evident, however, that 
if this decision were allowed to remain unchallenged, another 
serious rent would have been made in the Pharmacy Act, 
especially as it was candidly admitted that the multiplication 
of such agencies was contemplated. The Executive of the 
Trade Association, who had commenced the prosecution, 
therefore took the necessary steps for an appeal, which was 
heard in the Queen’s Bench Division before Mr. Justice Grove 
and Mr. Justice Lopes. At first the judges were inclined to 
consider the point as one of fact which lay with the magis- 
trates to determine, but after further argument were of opinion 
that the magistrates had not drawn a proper inference from 
the facts before them. They held that it was contemplated 
throughout the seventeenth section that the seller should be 
the person actually conducting business at the shop where the 
sale takes place, and that a person living at a distance from 
the place of sale could not comply, for instance, with the pro- 
visions as to the entry of the sale of poisons in the poison- 
book. They were also of opinion that the Act could be evaded 
if the word “seller” were construed to mean other than the 
person who actually conducted the business of a shop. The 
bearing of this upon the question of branch businesses con- 
ducted by unqualified assistants is obvious. 

A considerable number of cases of death by poisoning have 
been recorded during the past year, and the circumstances 
attendant upon several of them are of particular interest at a 
time when amendment of the Pharmacy Act is contemplated. 
The number of deaths resulting from the taking of patent 
medicines containing poisons, especially the narcotic prepara- 
tions so widely advertised and used, has attracted attention to 
the incautious manner in which they are supplied to the public. 
This has frequently provoked remonstrance from coroners 
and juries, and the Privy Council has, on more than one occa- 
sion, been moved to commend the consideration of the subject 
to the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society. Although the 
Privy Council declined to adopt the result of such considera- 
tion as presented in the form of the draft bill, there can be no 
doubt that the present state of public opinion with respect to 
the supply of poisons furnishes a favourable opportunity of 
dealing with the subject. The careless manner in which car- 
bolic acid and other disinfectants are left unlabelled or other- 
wise distinguished has also been the cause of several fatalities. 

Some valuable investigations of vegetable substances have 
been published. Dr. Hesse has examined quebracho bark, and 
found that it does not contain a trace of his paytine, the 
alkaloid with which Dr. Wulfsberg had suggested Fraude’s 
aspidospermime was.identical. He mentions, however, having 
separated four other alkaloids, besides aspidospermime, one, 
which he has named “ quebrachine,” being present in the 
bark in larger quantity than that alkaloid. As it is admitted 
that Fraude’s alkaloid is frequently not presented by commer- 
cial aspidospermime, the details of Dr. Hesse’s results, which 
will shortly appear in Liebig's Annalen , will be welcome. 
The same indefatigable chemist has supplemented his investi- 


8G THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. March, 1882. 


gation of Alstonia spectabilis bark by one of A, constricta 
bark, in which he has found three alkaloids, with evidence of 
a fourth. Messrs. Harnack and H. Meyer state that they are 
able to confirm the suspected existence of two jaborandi alka- 
loids differing in physiological action. The new alkaloid 
“ jaborine” appears to be readily formed from pilocarpine, 
and may be altogether a product of alteration ; it is said to 
be frequently present in commercial pilocarpine, when its 
physiological action dominates that of pilocarpine ; it is 
said that perfectly pure pilocarpine has a physiological 
action similar to that of nicotine, which alkaloid it 
resembles in yielding pyridine bases upon decomposition ; 
if distilled with excess of potash a small proportion of a base 
passes over apparently identical with coniine. Pituri has been 
investigated by Professor Liversedge, who has arrived at the 
conclusion that its alkaloid is not identical with nicotine, as 
alleged by M. Petit. The presence of nicotine in Indian hemp 
has been also disproved by Messrs. Siebold and Bradbury. 
Cape tea has been examined by Mr. H. G. Greenish, who has 
found it to be devoid of theine, but to contain a glucoside and 
a body giving a green fluorescence in alkaline liquids. Om- 
phalocarpum procera , also, has been examined for theine, by 
Mr. Naylor, with a negative result ; this and the discovery of 
the presence of bodies analogous to gutta and saponin appear 
to clear up a doubt as to whether the genus belongs to the 
Sapotacete or the Ternstroemiaceas. Nerium odorurri has 
yielded to Mr. H. G. Greenish two bitter principles, probably 
glucosides, and both powerful cardiac poisons, and Professor 
Warden has signalised the presence of pseudoindican in The- 
vetia nereifolia. Messrs. Wright and Rennie have described, 
under the name of “ glycyphyllin” the sweet principle of the 
leaves of Smilax gly cophylla, used in Australia against scurvy. 
From Erytlirina corallodroendn , a leguminous tree of which 
the bark is used in Brazil as a hypnotic, M. Bochefontaine has 
isolated an alkaloid and named it “ erythrine.” From another 
South American plant belonging to the Rutaceas, the Xan- 
thoxylwn Naranjillo, said to resemble jaborandi in its physio- 
logical actions, Dr. Parodi has separated a hydrocarbon ana- 
logous to pilocarpine. Aspidium rigidum, a Californian fern 
that has been recommended in the treatment of tasnia, has 
been found by Mr. Bowman to contain a resin and an acid 
similar to male fern. Further, Mr. T. B. Groves has reiterated 
a previous statement as to the presence of codeia and narecia 
in poppy capsules that appeared to have been overlooked . 

Enormous strides have been made in our knowledge of the 
organisms which are now generally admitted to be the deter- 
mining causes of infective diseases, and sufficient has been 
published in this journal to show that pharmacists are much 
interested in the subject. It may be a long time before 
Punch's sketch of a pharmacist being called upon to supply 
various kinds of these organisms is realised, but what has been 
done with pepsine and its allies shows that the ferments are 
not outside pharmacy, and even now the treatment of disease 
is sufficiently affected to make its mark upon the materia 
medica. Among the chemical substances that have been put 
forward more prominently during the past year in the anti- 
septic treatment of disease are resorcin, hydroquinone, cin- 
namic acid, styrone, and oil of eucalyptus. Amongst other 
new remedies, chinoline has been recommended as a cheap 
substitute for quinine ; /3-naphthol as a substitute for 
tar in the treatment of skin diseases ; salicylated camphor 
in lupus, hydrofluoric acid in goitre, and benzoate of calcium 
in albuminuria. 

The obituary of the year includes several names which were 
as household words among the pharmacists of Great Britain. 
Scotland has lost in John Mackay a most indefatigable and 
genial leader, who for forty years was the directing spirit of 
the North British Branch as its honorary secretary ; and in 
Henry Baildon, one who helped in the foundation of the 
branch and afterwards served in the office of president and as 
a member of the board of examiners. In England John 
Abraham and Isaiah Bourdas have passed away, both formerly 
members of the council, and the latter for a short time vice- 
president. In John Stenhouse, too, we have lost an eminent 
chemist who lent lustre to the roll of honorary members of 
the Pharmaceutical Society. Lastly, William Gowen Cross 
was the first local secretary to the society for Shrewsbury, and 
served it in that capacity until the time of his death. 

Peculiar Property op Bromine.— A fine tube is half- 
filled with bromine and hermetically sealed ; on heating, the 
bromine becomes opaque, so that the tube appears to be filled 
with a dark red resin. 


ANALYSIS OF A SAMPLE OF WATER 
Obtained at a depth of 57 feet on the plains of the parish of 
Marnoo t for the Shire Council of Stawell. 

(By John Kruse.) 

The appearance clear, with minute black sediment when first 
uncorked, emitting an odour of hydrogen sulphide ; taste, bitter 
saline. Sp. gr., 1018. Reaction to test-paper neutral. Amount 
of saline matter, nearly 1523 grains to the gal., or about 2 per 
cent. 

The saline matter was found to be composed in 100 narts 
of : — 


Sodium chloride 

80*34 

Magnesium do 

8-71 

Magnesium sulphate 

723 

Calcium do. 

3-72 


100-00 


PHARMACY BOARD EXAMINATIONS. 

The preliminary examination was held at Melbourne, Ballarat, 
Sandhurst, and Warrnambool on the 2nd March. 

The following are the candidates who passed : — J. J. M. 
Hemmons, Warrnambool ; Wm. Watson, Sandhurst. At the 
modified examination, held on the 6th March, 1882, Alric 
0. Hughes, Greville-street, Prahran, passed. 


EXAMINATION FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF THE 
SCHOOL OF PHARMACY. 

The examination was held at the rooms of the Pharmaceutical 
Society on the 6th March, before the examiners appointed by 
the Pharmacy Board (Messrs. Bosisto, Blackett, and Johnson). 

William Lowe, Sandridge, and Sidney Victor Say, Carlton, 
passed in all subjects ; and Thomas S. Woodfull, Prahran, 
in chemistry (the only subject taken). 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

Paper Used at the Sixteenth Preliminary Examina- 
tion, 2nd March, 1882. 

Time allowed — Three hours. 

Latin. 

Caesar. De Bello Gallico. ( a ) Lib. I., cap. 19. — Quibus 

rebus cognitis, quum ad has suspiciones certissimaa res acce- 
derent, quod per fines Sequanorum Helvetios transduxissent, 
quod obsides inter se dandos esse curasset, quod ea omnia non 
modo injussu suo et civitatis, sed etiam inscientibus ipsis 
fecisset, quod a magistratu iEduorum accusaretur, satis esse 
causae arbitrabatur, quare in eum aut ipse animadverteret, aut 
civitatum animadvertere juberet. 

(a) Translate the above literally. To whom does it refer ? 

(b) Parse every verb in it fully, omitting participles. 

(<?) What case is each of the following words in, and what 
is the rule in each case? — Rebus, Helvetios, ea, civitatis, 
inscientibus, causse. 

( d ) Write out all the indicative mood, active and passive, 
of “ do,” and all the subjunctive active of “ facio.” 

{e) Write out in full the declension of “obses” and “ ipse.” 

(b) Lib. I., cap. 31. — Locutus est pro his Divitiacus iEduus : 
Gallias totius factiones esse duas : harum alterius principatum 
tenere iEduos, alterius Arvernos. Hi quum tanto opere de 
potentatu inter se multos annos contenderent, factum esse uti 
ab Arvenis Sequanisque Germani mercede arcesserentur. 
Horum primo circiter milliaXV Rhenum transisse: posteaquam 
agros et cultum et copias Gallorum homines feri ac barbari 
adamassent, traductos plures : nunc esse in Gallia ad C et XX 
millium numerum. 

(a) Translate the above literally. 

(b) Why are the infinitives used throughout ? 

(e) Write out in full the Latin numerals for which XV, C, 
aand XX are symbols. 

Translate into Latin — 

(a) All these people differ from each other in language, 
customs, and laws. 

(b) He says, that all these people differ from each other in 
language, customs, and laws. 

Arithmetic. 

1. Multiply £453 11s. 9£d. by 365. 

2. Divide £4 3s. 9d. by 2§. 


March, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


87 


3. 1 minim of water weighs *91 grain Troy : how many 
minims are there in a pint of water which weighs 1J lbs. 
avoirdupois ? 

4. Find the value of ^ of (7] + If — ? V) : an d if the 
unit were £5, what would be the money value of the fraction ? 

5. Reduce to a single decimal in its ( 5*015 — 3*05 

lowest terms ... j 3 + 1*895 

6. Reduce 16s. 8d. to the fraction of £5. 

7. If 2 cwt, 3 qrs. 14 lbs. of an article cost £6 14s, 2d., how 
much can be bought for £14 17s. 6d.? 

English. 

1. Write down — The possessive case, singular, of “man.” 

,, „ The possessive case, plural, of “lady.” 

,, „ The objective case, singular, of “ who.” 

,, ,, 3 sing., past, indie., active, of “ break.” 

„ „ 2 sing., pres., indie., passive, of “send.” 

„ ,, 2 sing., pres., imperative, active, of “drive.” 

2. Therefore, the poet 

Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones, and floods ,* 
Since none so stockish, hard, and full of rage, 

But music for the time doth change his nature. 

The man that hath no music in himself, 

Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, 

Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils. 

Parse the words in italics in above. 

3. Write a short piece of composition on either of the sub- 
jects — “ Recreation” or “ Habits of Order,” attending carefully 
to spelling and punctuation. 

THE SALE OF POISONS IN OPEN SURGERIES. 

We are by no means surprised to find that the fatal cases of 
poisoning at Poplar have again drawn the attention of medical 
men to the reprehensible practice of keeping shops in all 
respects like those of chemists and druggists, where, in virtue 
of the exemption of medical practitioners from the provisions 
of the Pharmacy Act, 1868, poisons are sold without proper 
care. The assistants employed in these shops are often persons 
who have neither a medical nor a pharmaceutical qualification, 
and under such circumstances it cannot be wondered at that 
disastrous consequences sometimes ensue. 

In regard to this matter, it may not be out of place to point 
out that the Apothecaries’ Act of 1815 contains a specific pro- 
vision that it shall not be lawful for any person to act as an 
assistant to any apothecary in compounding or dispensing 
medicines without having the qualification prescribed by that 
Act. To some extent this provision of the 17th section 
of the Act seems to furnish means of repressing the evil of 
unqualified assistants in shops kept by medical men, and it 
may be worth the consideration of the Medical Defence Asso- 
ciation whether the section of the Act could not be turned to 
good account in that way. — JPharmacexitical Journal. 


(Eot'uaipnknxc. 


To the Editor of The Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Sir — I am in receipt of a prospectus issued by the Melbourne 
School of Pharmacy, and feel at a loss to understand how ap- 
prentices are to avail themselves of the advantages of a course 
of lectures and attendance at the laboratory at the hours men- 
tioned — viz., half-past eight to half-past ten a.m. for four days 
in the week. 

Up-country residents are entirely excluded by the regula- 
tions adopted. I, for one, would gladly send a student ; but 
on calculating the expense of a six months’ sojourn in the 
city, and considering the numerous temptations offering in the 
city to youths only partially employed, am at once deterred 
from sending him. 

I trust that the Pharmacy Board will see how extremely un- 
likely it is that the classes will be well filled under existing 
rules, and that ere long a course of two lectures a day (on 
different subjects), extending over a period of, say, six weeks 
or two months, will be available, in which case a youth at the 
end of his apprenticeship, or during the course of it, might be 
enabled to spare the time and money to attend the school. 

As it is, an up-country apprentice must obtain his master’s 
leave for six months ; whilst his expenses, at the least, will 
amount to — School of Pharmacy, £12 ; board and lodging, six 
months, £36 ; incidentals, £12— total, £60. 

Leaving the further consideration of the matter in your 
hands, I am, sir, yours truly, Chemist. 

2nd March, 1882. 


REMINISCENCES OF A PHARMACIST. 

(By J. B. Mummery.) 

It has often struck me whilst perusing the pages of this 
journal that a little light matter interspersed amongst the 
heavier and more valuable, would make its pages more interest- 
ing to general readers, without in any way diminishing its 
usefulness. 

Such matter has occasionally appeared in its columns since 
I have been a reader ; and I presume the reason we have not 
had more is that there are few articles of such a kind sent in. 
Under these circumstances, I have penned a few lines for in- 
sertion in the journal if you deem them suitable, and will con- 
tinue the same as opportunity may offer ; but as my time is 
pretty well taken up in attending to the requirements of my 
business, my moments of leisure are few and far between. I 
have been somewhat puzzled for a title, and have at last hit 
upon the one which heads this paper, which, if you think 
proper, you can retain, or alter to any one you may deem more 
suitable. 

I shall commence my recollections with the case of 
Tawell, the Murderer. 

The career of this individual is known, I dare say, to many 
of your readers ; but there are some amongst the younger 
members of our calling, I doubt not, who have never heard of 
the wretch whose infamous deed created a great stir in 
England at the time of its occurrence, not only from the 
heinousness of the crime and the social position of the 
murderer, but from the fact of its being the first instance in 
which the electric telegraph was brought into play for the 
purpose of arresting a criminal in his attempted flight. 

Somewhere about the year 1844 a man named John Tawell, 
who was, or pretended to be, a member of the universally 
respected Society of Friends, left Sydney with the intention 
of spending the remainder of his days in the mother-country. 
He had amassed a considerable fortune as a pharmaceutical 
chemist in Pitt-street, in the first chemist shop opened in 
Sydney. I am not quite sure whether he was the first phar- 
macist who practised his profession there ; but, considering 
the date of his departure, and the same of the establishment 
of the colony, it is quite within the bounds of possibility that 
he was. 

Amongst the passengers by the ship in which Tawell took 
his passage to England was a young and pretty widow, with 
two or three children ; and as the ex-chemist was either a 
bachelor or a widower, it is by no means wonderful that an 
intimacy should spring up between them, as it did — an inti- 
macy which ended in a union by no means creditable to either 
party. 

On reaching England, Tawell took a pretty little cottage at 
Slough, near Windsor, in which he placed his paramour and 
her children, and where he paid her frequent periodical 
visits. 

This state of things continued for some time, when Tawell 
fell in love with a young lady of good position, when, as a 
matter of course, his visits to Slough became less and less frequent, 
partly from the effect of counter attractions, and partly from 
a dread that they should become known to his intended, 
and be the means of breaking off the engagement, until at 
last this dread haunted him to such a degree that he formed 
the horrible resolve of putting his first love out of the way. Id 
furtherance of this design, he prepared himself for a last 
visit, taking with him a bottle of prussic acid. 

Tawell was received with more than usual kindness by the 
poor woman, who fancied that his love had been growing of 
late somewhat cold, and the heartless wretch, better to disarm 
any suspicion on the part of his inamorata, treated her 
with feigned increase of affection, and (as seemed to have 
been his wont) sent one of the children for some porter. 
This having been procured, the murderer managed, during 
the woman’s temporary absence, to introduce the fatal dose 
into her glass. Quite unsuspectingly, the poor victim 
swallowed the poison, and in a few minutes was stretched 
lifeless on the floor. 

The cottage in which this dreadful deed was accomplished 
was situated at about a quarter of a mile distance from the 
“ Slough” railway station, from which place to the metropolis 
an electric telegraph had just been erected. 

As soon as the wretched man saw that his foul deed was 
fully accomplished, he made at once for the railway station. 
In the meantime, the cries and screams of the children brought 
some of the neighbours on to the scene, and amongst these 
was a man who had a little knowledge of chemicals, who 


88 


March, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRtfGGlST. 


recognised at once the smell of prussic acid, and pronounced 
the case as one of atrocious murder. 

The male portion of the neighbours started off at once in 
pursuit of Tawell, but arrived only just in time to see the 
train in which he had taken his seat dash out of the station. 
On telling the station-master what had happened, that 
individual, with commendable promptitude, set the telegraph 
to work, and gave an account of the crime and a description 
of the murderer, and the result was, that on the arrival of the 
train in London, a detective was waiting for Tawell, whom he 
followed to a celebrated restaurant and arrested, just after he 
had finished a sumptuous tea, and whilst he was, no doubt, 
congratulating himself on his lucky escape. 

The assassin was, of course, locked up for the night, and 
fully committed, the next morning, to take his trial for wilful 
murder. 

# The trial took place at “ Aylesbury,” and as I was at the 
time serving a junior-assistantship not very far from that 
town, I have a lively recollection of the excitement it pro- 
duced. 

The prisoner, of course, employed the very best counsel his 
ample means could procure, and so confident was he of their 
ability to get him off (though on what grounds I cannot 
imagine), that he had engaged to meet and entertain a party 
of friends at dinner, and had his carriage and pair waiting at 
the court-house to convey him to his home; but instead of this 
he was taken back to prison and to the condemned cell. 

Tawell was executed in front of the Aylesbury gaol, in the 
presence of perhaps the largest concourse of people, out of 
London, who ever witnessed the carrying out of the law’s last 
dread penalty— a penalty, in this instance, I think all who 
read this account will deem fully deserved. 

( To l)e continued.) 


ftotes attb Abstracts. 


Simple Mode of Tempering Glass.— A Leipsic journal 
gives a method which it asserts will prevent lamp chimneys 
from cracking. The treatment will not only render lamp 
chimneys, tumblers, and like articles more durable, but may 
be applied with advantage to crockery, stoneware, porcelain, 
&c. The chimneys, tumblers, &c., are put into a pot filled 
with cold water, to which some common table salt has been 
added. The water is well boiled over a fire, and then allowed 
to cool slowly. When the articles are taken out and washed 
they will be found to resist afterward any sudden changes of 
temperature. 

Paper for Silverware.— The Archiv der Pharmacie 
gives the following formula for making paper for wrapping up 
silver. Six parts of caustic soda are dissolved in water until 
the hydrometer marks 20 deg. Baume. To the solution add 
four parts of oxide of zinc, and boil until it is dissolved. Add 
sufficient water to bring the solution down to 10 deg. Baume. 
Paper or calico soaked in the solution and dried will effectually 
preserve the most highly polished silver articles from the 
tarnishing action of the sulphuretted hydrogen which is con- 
tained in such notable quantities in the atmosphere of all 
large towns. 

Twin Half-Brothers.— Dr. J. G. Earnest, of Newman, 
Ga., reports the following unique case in the College- and 
Clinical Record.lbth July, 1881 : — Amelia, a coal-black negress, 
aged about forty years, was confined 20th November, 1880, 
giving birth to twins— one a very bright mulatto, the other 
perfectly black. The black child was born first, according to 
the midwife’s statement. The mother states that the children 
were begotten the same night, a negro man having inter- 
course with her first, and the white man about an hour 
afterward. 


SOME REMARKS UPON MODERN PHARMAOEUTIOAL 
STUDY. 

(By II. J. Moller.) 

( From Pharmaceutical Journal. ) 

Greece. 

The pharmaceutical course in Greece resembles that of Italy 
in many respects. The following communications I have 
obtained through a correspondence with Professor Xavier 
Landerer, of Athens, who formerly was pharmacist to the king 
and from 1835 to 1868 was a teacher of the Greek pharma- 
ceutical students. 


In the year 1837 the university in Athens and the pharma- 
ceutical school therewith connected were established, and from 
1837 to 1868 it was required that the student should have 
reached the third class* of the classical school. Then he was 
two years in a pharmacy as an apprentice ( [MadrjTifjs roti 
(pap/MKelov'), and afterwards he studied at the university for 
two years more, following the lectures at the pharmaceutical 
school in chemistry, pharmacy, materia medica, toxicology, 
botany and physics. After this he served as an assistant 
( BoTjdos ) for at least a year, and then passed a final and prac- 
tical examination. 

These rules were changed in the year 1868. The above- 
mentioned “ absolutorial” examination is now required before 
entrance upon the study of pharmacy, and the student com- 
mences immediately to follow the lectures at the university, 
without any foregoing practical education. Having studied 
for three years at the university, he spends a year in a pharmacy 
and then passes the “ Major.” This is quite the same as that 
demanded of the Italian “farmacista,” and I will, therefore, 
not tire the reader with a repetition of the whole plan of study, 
but will refer him to the plan A, given in my remarks on 
Italy. 

Professor X. Landerer, who is himself a German, says in one 
of his letters to me, that he considers the present standard of 
Greek pharmaceutical examinations to be quite as high as that 
of the corresponding ones in Germany. 

Belgium. 

The pharmacy of this country has, as so many other things in 
Belgium, a French form. On a journey in the spring of 1880 
I had opportunity to notice this myself, and to collect a part 
of the following notes, which I have made more complete 
through a correspondence with Professor A. Herlant, teacher 
in materia medica at the pharmaceutical institution in 
Brussels. 

In Belgium pharmaceutical study is made at four special 
pharmaceutical institutes, which are connected with the four 
Belgian universities in Brussels, Ghent, Louvain, and 
Liege. 

According to the “reglement organique pour la collation 
des grades academiques de l’universite libre de Bruxelles,” 
which I obtained at the questorship of the University of 
Brussels, the requirements at the pharmaceutical examinations 
are fixed by Articles 16 and 17 of the law of 20th May, 1876, 
as follows : — 

“(a) The ‘candidaturef en pharmacie’ requires only one 
examination, which embraces the elements of physics, general 
chemistry, general and medical botany, mineralogy, and 
geology, and also a practical test in chemistry. 

“ (b) The degree of ‘ pharmacien ’ ( i.e ., the ‘Major’) 
requires also one examination, but this may be divided in two 
successive parts if the candidate prefers. The first part 
embraces the elements of analytical and toxicological 
chemistry, drugs, posology, and theoretical and practical 
pharmacy. The second part includes : — (1) Two chemical 
preparations; (2) Two ‘galenical’ preparations; (3) A quali- 
tative analysis ; (4) A toxicological research (under this also 
quantitative analysis); (5) An analysis of a remedy and the 
determination of possible adulteration (by means of chemical 
and microscopical research); (6) An especial microscopical 
analysis (of a mixture of different sorts of flour, powder, &c., 
or of the micrographic characters of a drug).” 

After the apprenticeship in a pharmacy, the young man 
studies two years at the pharmaceutical institutes before he 
passes the examination for the “candidature en pharmacie,” 
and then two years more before the examination for the title 
of “pharmacien.” In the first two years the students are 
matriculated at the “ facultd des sciences,” in the last two 
years at the “faculte de mSdecine.” The pharmaceutical 
study at the university thus lasts in all four years ; in the last 
two years the students are instructed in applied micrography. 
When the diploma as “pharmacien” is obtained, the success- 
ful candidate may establish himself when and where he will. 
By this short communication one can see that pharmaceutical 
study in Belgium is very well arranged. 

(To be continued.) 


* The third class is the highest, but the final examination of this class 
(the so-called “ absolutorial” examination) was not formerly demanded. 
This “ absolutorial” examination corresponds thus to the German “ Matu- 
rities priifung,” and the French “ baccalaurdat.” 

tThis degree gives the possessor the right to he an assistant only, and 
thus corresponds to the German “ GehUlfe.” 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


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April, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


89 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Leading Article — M. Yvon on the Purity 


of Chloroform 89 

The Month 89 

Meetings— Pharmacy Board of Victoria . . 90 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 90 

Deputation to the Minister of Lands ... . . 91 
Warrnambool Police Court 91 


page 

Death of Mr. Chas. Kernot, M.L.A 92 

Remarks on a New Casu arina 92 

Review 93 

Interlopers 93 

Surgeon Druggists 93 

Economy of Fuel, and Smoke Abatement . . 93 
Correspondence 94 


page 

Reminiscences of a Pharmacist 94 

Pharmaceutical Notes 95 

Secret Remedies 96 

Inquest 90 

Victoria Pharmaceutical Society’s Medal 

in Gold 96 

Notes and Abstracts 96 


Cl)c Chemist aittr Druggist. 

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BIRTH. 

Longmore.— On the 29th March, at Kensington, the wife of Francis Long- 
more, chemist, of a son. b 


MARRIAGE. 

Cattach— IIews.— On the 5th April, at the residence of the bride’s parents, 
by the Rev. Thos Porter, Alexander M. Cattach, son of the late James 
wo^od 0 * 1 ’ t0 EllZa ’ fifth daughter of James Hews, Ryrie-street, Colling- 


DEATHS. 

Murray.— On the 3rd April, at the Alfred Hospital, Robt. D. Murray 
dispenser, son of the late Andrew Murray, Prince’s-street, Edinburgh 
Beloved and regretted. 6 

Cowl.— O n the 31st March, at Walhalla, of phthisis, Gertrude, the belovet 
wife of R. H. Cowl ; aged 23 years. 

K Clwle^ Kernot^ M?l!a. , M aged ’ 6^ye^s.^° n ^ 0USe ’ **** 


M. YVON ON THE PURITY OE CHLOROFORM. 
M. Yvon has suggested a new and delicate method of 
testing the purity of chloroform for anaesthetic purposes. 
At a meeting of the Paris Socidtd de Pharmacie he read a 
paper upon this subject, which has been published in the 
Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie , a resume of which is 
given in the Pharmaceutical Journal (pp 711, 12), and 
may be consulted with advantage. We transcribe the 
following as containing the proposed mode of testing, 
which would appear worthy of attention : — 

. Referring to the characteristics requisite for chloroform that 
is to be used for anesthetic purposes, as described by Professor 


Regnault — viz., that it should have a mild odour, be neutral to 
test paper, give no precipitate when shaken with solution of 
argentic nitrate, not acquire a brown colour when heated to 
the boiling point with caustic potash, not blacken when 
mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid, nor dissolve or con- 
sequently become coloured by certain aniline derivatives such 
as rosaniline or aniline blue— M. Yvon is of opinion that these 
characters do not constitute a sufficient guarantee of purity 
unless the boiling point of the liquid has previously been 
found correct. That he considers to be an absolute necessity, 
having examined many samples which were not quite pure, 
although they bore the tests above mentioned. In seeking for 
further tests of purity, M. Yvon first tried the determination of 
the boiling point, and by that means was able to classify the 
samples operated upon under two heads. The first commenced 
to distil about 59*4° C., the temperature rising gradually to 
60 4°, 61-2°, and 63*4° by the time three-fourths had passed 
over and then rising to 6P4° and even 65*5°. The samples of 
the second class began to distil at 61°, and nearly eight- tenths 
passed over at that temperature, after which the temperature 
rose up to 66®. 

Making due allowance for the difficulty of obtaining abso- 
lutely precise results by this means, M. Yvon nevertheless felt 
justified in concluding that the samples examined by him con- 
tained substances rather more volatile, and others rather less 
volatile than chloroform, without, however, affecting the reac- 
tions which are accepted as characteristic of the purity of 
chloroform. 

After some further trials of a mixture of bichromate of 
potash and sulphuric acid M. Yvon finally decided to employ 
permanganate of potash, as he found that salt was not reduced 
by pure chloroform. He first used an aqueous solution con- 
taining *025 per cent, of the salt, shaking half a cubic centi- 
metre with 5 cub. cent, of the chloroform to be tested and found 
that the greater the impurity of the sample the more rapid 
was the reduction of the permanganate. Subsequently a 
greater sensibility was given to the permanganate by applying 
it in the presence of a free alkali. A solution containing 1 
part permanganate with 10 parts caustic potash in 250 parts 
of water has a fine violet colour, which is instantly changed to 
green by contact with impure chloroform. In testing a great 
number of samples of chloroform from various sources, M. 
Yvon did not find any that were free from impurity. With 
ordinary commercial chloroform the passage from violet to 
green was almost instantaneous ; with chloroform described 
as pure it took place within ten or fifteen seconds, and with 
anesthetic chloroform within from thirty to fifty seconds. 


me Jttonth. 


We may remind our readers that the Royal Society of New 
South Wales offer a series of prizes, of the value of £25 each, 
for the best communication, the result of original research, 
upon eight subjects of colonial interest, one of which, “ The 
Chemistry of the Australian Gums and Resins,” must be sent 
in not later than 31st August, 1883. 

The Pharmacy Board have resolved to enforce the fourteenth 
clause of the Pharmacy Act, and to prosecute persons who 
neglect to comply with its provisions. The first case brought 
forward was that of W. F. G. Nettleton, at Warrnambool, who 
was fined £2 and £1 Is. costs. 


At the City - Police Court, Adelaide, on the 29th March, a 
woman was fined for selling milk after the Board of Health 
had ordered her to desist, in consequence of her having lost two 
of her sons by typhoid fever. She continued selling milk, and 
infected some of her customers. 


90 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


April, 1882. 


Mr. P. M‘Lean. of Bruns wick-street, Fitzroy, has added 
another to the many handsome shops that already exist in the 
suburbs of Melbourne. The premises, which adjoin the new 
building of the Bank of Victoria, are situated in Brunswick - 
street, Fitzroy, nearly opposite Mr. M‘ Lean’s old shop, and are 
built with the most approved modern conveniences. The shop, 
which is an exceedingly large one, is fitted in a very elegant 
manner, the window being specially attractive. 


The Government Gazette of 30th March announces that the 
erasure of the name of James Egan Wall from the Pharma- 
ceutical Register of Victoria has received the assent of His 
Excellency the Governor in Council. 

Letters patent have been granted to Mr. F. S. Grim wade, of 
Melbourne, for a new process for preparing phosphorus. 


The half-yearly meeting of the Health Society was held at 
the Town Hall on the 29th March ; his Honour Mr. Justice 
Higinbotham presided. Several interesting papers were read, 
the ventilation of the Melbourne Hospital, the use of stimu- 
lants, the art of cookery, and the suppression of the smoke 
nuisance being among the subjects discussed. In order that 
the general public may have the benefit of the valuable 
information which from time to time is laid before the society 
at its meetings, it is intended to publish a volume of the 
papers in a cheap form. 


Some interesting experiments with blasting gelatine have 
been recently carried out in the open air at the rear of the 
Technological Museum by Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery. Some of 
the material is exposed to the direct action of sunlight, to 
show how it decomposes. Another lot is placed in true shade 
with ventilation, and a third quantity is placed in cases with- 
out ventilation, but with a free circulation of air around the 
cases. The object of the experiments is to prove in what way 
these explosives are most likely to deteriorate and become 
dangerous. 


The ordinary meeting of the Microscopical Society was held 
on 30th March, at the rooms in Collins-street ; the Rev. J. J. 
Halley, vice-president, in the chair. The Rev. J. J. Halley 
gave a very interesting account of a visit to the zoological 
station at Naples, presided over by Mr. Anton Dohon, and he 
also described the magnificent work in course of publication 
there on the marine fauna of the Mediterranean. Mr. Bage 
read some notes on recent improvements in microscopy, giving 
a general resume of the principal changes in the construction 
of the microscope which have been generally adopted by opti- 
cians within the last few years. A number of interesting 
specimens were exhibited, among which some polycistina, 
from the “Challenger” dredgings, shown by Mr. Halley, at- 
tracted special attention. 


The death of Mr. Thos. Cox is announced. Mr. Cox was an 
old resident of Majorca. 

An examination was held on the 31st March at the School 
of Mines, Ballarat, for the certificate of the school in the 
subject of materia medica . 

Mr. Herbert Rocke left for England by the mail steamer 
“ Clyde.” Mr. Rocke proposes returning to the colony, via 
America, about October next. 

Mr. Bowen’s new premises in Collins-street are being 
rapidly completed, and he expects to occupy them in a few 
weeks. 


ifteetings. 


THE PHARMACY BOARD OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the board was held at No. 100 
Collins-street, on the 8th March, 1882. Present — Messrs. 
Bosisto, Bowen, Blackett, Lewis, Holdsworth, Brind, and 
Owen ; the president (Mr. Bosisto) in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Applications for Registration as Pharmaceutical Chemists . — 
The following were passed : — Christopher Harrison, Chapel- 
street, Prahran, certificate from Great Britain ; Edward H. 
Embley, Lonsdale- street, passed modified examination on 4th 
December, 1879 ; an interim certificate for six months was 
granted to Abel James, Geelong, to enable him to obtain his 
certificate from England. 

Removal of Name from Register. — It was resolved that the 
Governor in Council be asked to sanction the removal of the 
name of James Egan Wall from the Pharmaceutical Register. 

School of Pharmacy. — It was resolved that for this session 
(March to November, 1882), the board approve and recognise 
the School of Pharmacy, to be held at No. 6 Hanover-street, 
Fitzroy, the syllabus of which is submitted this day by the 
president of the Pharmaceutical Society, subject to the removal 
at any time to more suitable and convenient premises. 

Quarterly Examinations. — The Board of Examiners for- 
warded their report of the examinations held on the 2nd and 
6th March, which was approved. 

Several prosecutions were ordered, and it was resolved to 
enforce the 14 th section of the Act. 

The ordinary routine financial business brought the meeting 
to a close. 


PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting was held at the rooms, 100 Collins- 
street, on Friday evening, 3rd March, 1882. Present — Messrs. 
Bowen, Gamble, Nicholls, Thomas, Best, Baker, Huntsman, 
Jones, and Shillinglaw; the president (Mr. Bowen) in the 
chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Election of New Members. — The following new members, 
nominated at the last meeting, were duly elected : — Henry C. 
Macaulay, Euroa ; Edward Thorby Noakes, Rochester ; John 
Henry Reed, 67 Swanston-street ; Frederick Cherry, Russell- 
street, Melbourne. 

New Members Nominated. — John Opie, Melrose, S.A. ; A. E. 
Bilton, dispenser Police Depot ; Christopher Harrison, Chapel- 
street, Prahran. 

A large amount of general correspondence, of no special 
public interest, was dealt with, which, with financial and 
general business, brought the meeting to a close. 


Books, (kc., Received. — Treatise on Chemistry — Non- Metallic 
Elements , Vol. 1, Professor Roscoe ; Treatise on Chemistry — 
Metals , Part 1, Vol. 2, Professor Roscoe ; Treatise on Chemis- 
try — Metals , Part 2, Vol. 2, Professor Roscoe ; Treatise on 
Chemistry — Organic Chemistry, Part 1, Vol. 3, Professor 
Roscoe ; First Principles of Chemical Philosophy , Cooke ; 
Weinhold’s Experimental Physics, Loewy ; Popular Lectures 
on Scientific Subjects, Herschel ; The Neiv Chemistry, Cooke ; 
Beeton’s Complete Orator, Ward, Lock and Co.; Official 
Record of the Melbourne International Exhibition , 1880 and 
1881 ; Druggists' Formulary , by Kilner, 1881 ; Kilner’s 
Modern Pharmacy , August and November, 1881; Kilner’s Com- 
pendium of Modern Pharmacy, from W. H. H. Lane ; 
Australian Veterinary Journal, April ; Australian Medical 
Gazette , March ; Australian Medical Journal , April ; Euro- 
pean Mail, February ; Pharmaceutical Journal ; American 
Journal of Pharmacy, March ; New York Druggists' Circular, 
March ; New Remedies, March ; Therapeutic Gazette, February. 


In the British Medical Journal (7th January, p. 8), some 
cases of poisoning by chromate of lead are recorded, in which 
the patients were poisoned by inhaling the dust arising in the 
process of weaving an orange-yellow cloth. Although pre- 
cautions have been taken to prevent injury to the weavers, 
the use of the chromate is still continued, and the public 
therefore are just as likely to suffer in consequence. 


April, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


91 


DEPUTATION TO THE MINISTER OF LANDS. 

A deputation from the Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, 
consisting of Messrs. Bowen, Keogh, Huntsman, Atkin, 
Jones, Baker, Thomas, Swift, Gamble, George, Hooper, Ross, 
Best, Nicholls, Shillinglaw, and Messrs. Zox, Blackett, Oook, 
Macgregor, and Laurens, M.L.A.’s, waited on the Minister of 
Lands on the 22nd March. The deputation was introduced 
by Mr. Zox, M.L.A., who shortly placed before the Minister 
the desire of the society, and said that he felt sure that Mr . 
Madden would accede to the request of the deputation after 
he had heard what they had to say. Mr. C. R. Blackett 
endorsed what Mr. Zox had said. He also desired to point 
out that in other countries not only was land granted, 
but every facility given to foster scientific education. 
Some time since an application was made to the Govern- 
ment on a similar subject, and the deputation were informed 
that if a suitable site could be obtained the Minister would 
grant the application. A suitable place had been found, and 
they were there to-day to ask that the promise might be 
fulfilled. 

Mr. Wm. Bowen, the president of the society, said that they 
had previously received a promise of a portion of the site on 
the Eastern Hill adjoining the hospital for sick children, but 
they had not obtained that. An unnecessary valuable site was 
not desirable, provided it was central, and as the County Court 
was about to be sold, the society would suggest that that site 
be granted, and that they be allowed to take the building at 
a valuation. Mr. Bowen dwelt at some length on the 
necessity that existed for a properly organised school of 
pharmacy. The law obliged all persons to undergo a certain 
course of study, and there were at the present moment about 
two hundred apprentices who must attend the school, and this 
number would be annually augmented by from forty to fifty 
new apprentices. There was no instruction in pharmacy at the 
Melbourne University. 

Mr. Macgregor, Mr. Cook, and Mr. Laurens, M.L.A.’s, all sup- 
ported the application. 

Mr. Edmd. Keogh reminded the Minister that this was the 
only application of the sort likely to be made to the Govern- 
ment. It was necessary that persons desirous of becoming 
chemists should pass certain examinations, and they had to 
come from all parts of the colony to Melbourne to do so. 
Parliament having passed such a law, might fairly be asked 
in the interest of the public to supply a place for them to 
study in. 

The Minister said that when he granted a site to the 
Medical Society of Victoria he thought he was dealing with all 
branches of the profession. 

Mr. Bowen thought that such a combination would not be 
likely to work well. 

Mr. Madden suggested that a portion of the Exhibition 
buildings might, with the consent of the trustees, be utilised. 

Mr. Blackett said that the objection to this was that they 
could only have permissive occupancy. J 

After some further discussion the Minister agreed to grant 
the society a piece of land— sixty-six feet frontage— near the 
proposed Women’s Lodginghouse, which, he considered, would 
have the additional advantage of having a frontage to Bo wen- 
street. ° 

The deputation thanked the Minister, and withdrew. 


WARRNAMBOOL POLICE COURT. 

Tuesday, 28 th March. 

Before Messrs. L. Ogilby (chairman), J. A. Bromfield, and 
E. Elliget. 

Sergeant Hamilton proceeded against W. F. G. Nettleton 
for carrying on business as a chemist at Liebig-street Warr- 
n am bool, without being registered under the Pharmacy Act 
1876. Mr. D. Wilkie appeared on behalf of the board, Mr’ 
Higgins appearing for the prisoner. 

Mr. Wilkie said the defendant was charged under section 
26, sub-section 2 of the Pharmacy Act, with exhibiting the 
name or title of a chemist whilst not being a registered 
pharmaceutical chemist, as required by the Act. Section 16 
of the same Act provided that the board, in the month of 
January of each year shall cause to be printed, published, 
and sold a correct register of the names of all the regis- 
tered pharmaceutical chemists, and section 17 provided that 
such register should be accepted as prima facie evidence in 
all courts of justice. It would be proved that the defendant 
did exhibit the title of chemist over the premises in which 


he was carrying on the business of a chemist, and a copy 
of the register (produced) would show that his name was 
not upon it. 

Mr. Higgins required to know if this was a private or a 
public prosecution. 

Mr. Wilkie said the summons was served by the police. 

Mr. Higgins thought that, under the circumstances, the 
police would take action in the usual way. 

Mr. Wilkie said it was the customary practice for the police 
to lay the information in such cases. 

Mr. Higgins — Yes, and conduct the proceedings also. 

Mr. Wilkie did not think that was usual where a solicitor 
was employed for the prosecuting parties. 

Sergeant Hamilton stated that he knew the shop of the 
defendant in Liebig-street. It had been carried on for some 
time as a chemist’s shop, and the name “ Nettleton, chemist,” 
was exhibited over the door. In reply to Mr. Higgins, witness 
stated that he was prosecuting under instructions from the 
Pharmacy Board. He had seen defendant’s name on the 
board’s register of some years ago. Witness had never made a 
complaint to the defendant that he was acting illegally. 

Harry Shillinglaw, registrar to the Pharmacy Board of Vic- 
toria, produced the register of the board on which defendant’s 
name did not appear. The defendant’s name had not ap- 
peared in the register since the year 1878. 

Mr. Wilkie pointed out that section 26 showed the defendant 
to be liable to a penalty not exceeding £10, and imprisonment 
for six months. 

Mr. Higgins asked if the case was closed, and being in- 
formed that it was, he submitted that it must be dismissed. 
The very section last quoted by the solicitor for the prosecu- 
tion was fatal to it. The 25th section held that from and 
after six months after the date of the first appointment of the 
board any person committing any of the offences enumerated 
shall be liable to the punishment laid down. In this case 
there was not a particle of evidence to show that a board had 
been appointed. At the outset the existence of the board 
should have been established. That was the very groundwork 
of the action. 

The chairman did not see the objection. 

Mr. Higgins submitted that it was as plain as a pikestaff. 

The chairman was perfectly aware of the existence of the 
board. 

Mr. Higgins said that was not evidence. There was the 
proper procedure of the court to be observed. It should have 
been shown in evidence by the production of the Government 
Gazette that the board was duly appointed. 

Mr. Wilkie would put in the Gazette notice now if the bench 
would allow it. ( Gazette handed up.) 

Mr. Higgins submitted that the case for the prosecution 
was closed, and could not be reopened in this manner. 

The chairman said he and his colleagues were just as well 
satisfied that there was a Pharmacy Board as they were of 
there being a House of Parliament. 

Mr. Higgins persisted that the case had been closed for the 
prosecution, and, while it was highly necessary to prove that 
a Pharmacy Board existed, it had not been so proved. 

The chairman did not think it was necessary to prove a fact 
so well known. 

Mr. Higgins said there was another point. His client’s 
name was on the register for 1878, and he had received no inti- 
mation of its being taken off, nor was he aware that it had been 
taken off. 

The chairman said they were not there to inquire into that. 
How could section 17 be got over ? 

Mr. Higgins wanted to know how section 25 could be got 
over by the bench. ° 

The chairman said the bench had settled that matter. 

Mr. Higgins remarked that his client acted in entire igno- 
rance of the law. His name was certainly not on the register 
but he was not cognisant of its being off. Why had he not 
been interfered with before this? The most that he could be 
guilty of would be the sin of omission, not commission. He 
had simply neglected to see if his name was on the register or 
not, and he had received no intimation of its removal from the 
register. It was not necessary to register every year. It was 
only in certain cases, such as changing his address, that a 
member was required to communicate with the board on the 
subject of registry. Had he known that he was not on the 
register, he would have taken steps to have his name restored 
to it before. Perhaps the bench would inflict a nominal fine 
only, and allow defendant the opportunity of getting rein- 
stated on the register as early as possible. 


92 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


April, 1882. 


Mr. Wilkie said the board only asked for a nominal penalty. 
It would be understood that the defendant must shut his shop 
at once, and not re-open it until his name appears on the 
register of the Pharmacy Board, according to the Act. 

The chairman said there appeared to be some doubt in the 
matter as to whether the defendant was cognisant of his 
offence. The fine would therefore be mitigated to £2, with 
£1 Is. costs. 

The defendant said he considered it a very unjust decision. 
He would have to go to gaol, for he could not pay. 

The chairman said two or three times lately disparaging 
remarks had been made in that court concerning the decisions 
of the Bench. He had tolerated them hitherto, but he would 
do so no longer. If the defendant, or any one else, did not 
conduct themselves properly in this court, they would be 
committed for contempt. 

Defendant— And Bromfield on the bench too. What right 
has he there ? 

The chairman said another remark of that kind would get 
him quartered in gaol. 

The defendant having become silent, the chairman completed 
the order, recording that distress would follow in default of 
payment of the fine, and in default of distress, one month’s 
imprisonment. 


DEATH OF MR. CHAS. KERNOT, M.L.A. 

We regret to announce the death of Mr. Chas. Kernot, one of 
the Parliamentary representatives for Geelong, who died at 
his residence, in Aphrasia-street, Newtown, on the 26th 
March. His death was not unexpected — he had been ailing 
for more than twelve months. The deceased gentleman, who 
was sixty-two years of age, was born at Rochefort, Essex, 
England, where he carried on business as a chemist prior to 
leaving for Australia. Mr. Kernot came direct to Victoria 
about February, 1851, in the ship “ Duke of Wellington,” one 
of the vessels chartered by Dr. Lang to bring to these shores 
a desirable class of colonists. After stopping in Melbourne 
for a few weeks, he came to Geelong, which has been his home 
ever since. He first lived in Gheringhap-street, and then 
started in business as a chemist in one of the shops just above 
that occupied by Mr. Pardey, the chemist, in Moorabool-street. 
Being also a practical printer, he combined with his business 
that of a printer and stationer, in which occupations he 
succeeded in three years in accumulating considerable 
wealth, which enabled him to remove to premises at the 
top of Moorabool-street, and where he confined himself to 
chemistry. In 1859 his prosperity induced him to erect a 
comfortable residence in Aphrasia-street, Newtown, at which 
place he resided up to the time of his death. He was, 
in 1859 and up to February, 1865, in partnership with his 
brother, Mr. W. H. Kernot, as chemists and druggists ; 
but at the latter date he retired altogether from active 
business. From the time of his arrival in Geelong he took 
a deep interest in everything affecting the general public. 
He was one of the directors of the old Geelong and Mel- 
bourne Railway Company, in which capacity he proved him- 
self a very energetic member. To show that he was not nar- 
rovv-minded in his views, it may be stated that he was the first 
to join in the agitation for Sunday trains when the line was 
under the company’s management. Even in January, 1860, 
when it was proposed to resume the Sunday communication 
between Geelong and Melbourne, he spoke in support of the 
movement ; but, at his suggestion, the consideration of the 
subject was allowed to lapse, as the railway line was about to 
pass into the hands of the Government. He was the convener 
of the first meeting of the Geelong Gas Company, in which he 
retained a very large interest up to the time of his death. 
The deceased was also for many years a very active member 
of the directory of the Victorian Woollen and Cloth Manufac- 
turing Company. He proved himself a valuable member of 
the' Hospital Committee of Management. In municipal 
matters he was equally energetic, and on the 15th November, 
1859, he was elected one of the representatives for the Bar won 
Ward in the Geelong Town Council. He was raised, on the 
9th August, 1861, to the office of alderman for Thomson Ward, 
and on the 9th October, 1864, he became mayor-elect, and 
took his seat in the mayoraLchair on the 9th November of the 
same year. At the time of his death Mr. Kernot was a Par- 
liamentary representative for Geelong. He entered Parlia- 
ment about the 13th March, 1868, as a member for East 
Geelong, when the Darling grant question agitated the 


country. After remaining in Parliament as an unpaid member 
for three years he sought re-election ; but was defeated by the 
late Mr. J. M. Garratt. He was afterwards elected to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Richardson. In May, 
1877, he was re-elected ; but in February, 1880, he was 
defeated for Geelong by Mr. Chas. Andrews, whom he beat in 
the election which took place in July of the same year, and 
remained a member of Parliament up to the time of his death. 



REMARKS ON A NEW CASUARINA. 


By Baron Ferd. yon Mueller, M. & Ph.D., K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 

The order of Casuarineae is only a small one, restricted to one 
genus and comparatively few species. Bordering, as it does, 
alike on the Conifers and on the subordinal groups, which 
constitute the complex of Amentacem, it has great morpho- 
logic interest. Paleontologically forms of Casuarina are 
known from the tertiaries of Britain, pointing to the existence 
of this kind of tree in Europe prior to the glacier epoch. 
Utilitarian considerations lead us to value our Australian 
species for superior fuel, especially as their growth can be 
effected even in arid waterless wastes. Potash is yielded by 
them in fair percentage ; cattle like to browse on the foliage, 
and are occasionally sustained on it in times of severe drought, 
the acidulous taste of the branchlets being evidently pleasant 
to pastoral animals ; the organic acid, thus obvious, could by 
simple chemical means readily be isolated, and possibly be 
turned to special applications ; the remarkable structure of 
the wood and even the trachenchyma of the seedshell of the 
fruitlets, interests the anatomist ; while I have shown already 
at the International Exhibition of 1867, that the foliage of 
Casuarinse can easily be converted into pulp for paper-mills. 
As any addition therefore to our knowledge of the specific 
forms of this genus is of more than ordinary interest, the ac- 
count of a new species will be acceptable. It was obtained by 
Mr. F. M. Bailey, of Brisbane, and has been named by us 
Casuarina inophloia , F. v. M. and Bailey. 

Arborescent ; aged bark disintegrating into long narrow 
somewhat fibrous particles ; branchlets very thin, slightly 
streaked, not prominently angular, almost imperceptibly 
downy ; whorls of rudimentary leaves bearing 7-9 semi- 
lanceolar acute teeth ; fruit-amenta cylindrical-ovate, or some- 
times shortened to an almost globular form, constantly de- 
pressed at the summit ; axis densely beset with straight pale- 
brown hair ; bracts obliterated ; bracteolar valves of the 
fruitlets rather small, semi-ovate, nearly blunt, short-exserted, 
enlarged by a very thick dorsal rather angular appendage of 
vertical slight cleavage, and of nearly as much protrusion as 
that of the valves themselves j appendages and valves very 
slightly downy ; nutlets (when young) pale, the terminating 
membrane (then) about as long as the nucleus. 

In the southern portions of Queensland, near Roma, F. M. 
Bailey ; near Toowoomba, C. Hartmann. 

This species is nearest allied to the common southern C. 
distyla, especially to that variety which, on account of its 
slender branchlets and small bracteolar valves, was formerly 
distinguished as C. paludosa. Our new species is however of 
taller growth, the bark is less solid, the branchlets are neither 
prominently streaked nor conspicuously furrowed, the fruit 
axis is very hairy, the bract under each fruitlet is not dis- 
tinctly developed, the dorsal protuberance of the bracteolar 
valves is comparatively much thicker and by partial incision 
somewhat doubled. Furthermore, the fruitlets below their 
membraneous appendage are in age probably not almost 
black. The flowers of either sex (not yet seen) may also be 
different. From G. corniculata the species now described is 
already separated by wanting distinct bracts and by the 
dorsal appendage of the bracteoles not being long and sharply 
pointed. But there can be no doubt, that our new plant is 
identical with the one, which Dr. Leichardt passingly men- 
tions under the name of C. villosa, in the diary of his famous 
journey overland to Port Essington, p. 49 (1847), as occurring 
on Robinson’s Creek, at Expedition Range. Still, Mr. Bailey 
justly observes, that this appellation is misleading, the bark, 
though very fibrous, not being villous in the accepted scientific 
sense of that term. It is remarkable that this tree should 
have escaped notice since Leichardt’s time— a fact demonstrat- 
ing how much yet needs to be done for the further investiga- 
tion of the Australian flora, even in long-settled districts, for 
which researches pharmaceutical gentlemen more especially 
should render every local aid. 


April, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


93 



A compendium of Modern Pharmacy and Druggists' For- 
mulary , containing the recent methods of manufacturing 
and preparing elixirs, tinctures, fluid extracts, &c., &c. , and 
miscellaneous information indispensable to the pharmacist. 
Second edition. By Walter B. Kilner, pharmaceutist, Spring- 
field, Illinois. H. W. Bokker, printer, 1881. 

This work, which we have upon our table, has evidently been 
compiled with great care and much earnest labour; although 
written more particularly for the American pharmacist, it 
contains a mass of information, and a very large number of 
formulas, which will be found useful to British and Australian 
pharmacists. The author says in his preface, “Many of the 
working formulas have been kindly donated by eminently 
successful pharmaceutical chemists of great learning and wide 
experience.” Many works have been published making great 
pretensions to accuracy, but have been found, although costly, 
unreliable. We do not think that the same criticism can be 
applied to this work. 

In Chapter II., devoted to the comparison of the metric and 
United States measures, very simple rules are given for con- 
verting one denomination into the other, and we are glad to 
see that our American cousins are gradually preparing the way 
for the adoption of the metric system . Elixirs would seem to 
be great favourites in the United States. These compounds 
are very numerous, but the basis is the simple elixir, a sort of 
flavoured sugared spirit, and are doubtless of German origin. 
The formulas for these preparations are, as “ the sands upon the 
sea-shore, innumerable but our author has carefully selected 
the best. We notice one elixir of eucalyptus globulus contain- 
ing 2 oz. of the leaves to the pint, associated with cherry bark 
and liquorice. The therapeutical value of eucalyptus leaves 
is now well understood, and is lower than a few years ago, but 
in a compound containing cherry bark, it would be somewhat 
difficult to test its medicinal action and value. There are 
302 formulas for elixirs, many of which have appeared from 
time to time in the various pharmaceutical journals. It ought 
to be borne in mind by readers that nearly all the quantities 
given are in Troy weight. In concluding our notice of this 
work we cannot do better than quote the compiler’s remarks 
in the preface to the second edition. “ It is not the aim or 
intention of the author to supply the place of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, or text book of like character, but to furnish 
a work of ready reference, and compilation of unofficial 
formulas, as well as those of an official character, from the 
cream of the drug and medical publications of the world, that 
will be of use to the profession.” We have observed one or 
two typographical errors, such as “ startling ” for “starting” 
(page 5), and “ correct ” for “correctly ” (page 14). The book 
is well printed on good paper, and strongly bound. 


INTERLOPERS. 

One would have supposed the Pharmacy Act of Victoria 
encompassed the calling of a chemist and druggist sufficiently 
to guard it against all interlopers, but it appears such is not 
the case, and their representatives, be they the Board of Phar- 
macy or the Pharmaceutic Society, will have to be on the 
alert if they wish to keep the coast clear against the invasion 
of their rights and privileges. 

Representations have been made to the Board of Pharmacy 
on one or two occasions that shopkeepers of various denomi- 
nations have set portions of their premises apart for the sale 
of drugs, under the superintendence of some impecunious 
chemist (who, very likely, for some reason or other, cannot 
trade in the usual way), and thus not only doing an injury 
to the regular authorised pharmacist, but opens the door for 
a perversion of trade. 

If once such a deviation is allowed, then away must go all 
that we have been contending for during the last quarter of 
a century, and the Act becomes null and void. It was bad 
enough for the Pharmacy Board to be compelled, by the pro- 
visions of the Act, to register as pharmacists all those who 
before its passing had any pretentions to the sale of medi- 
cines, the which has in many instances legalised charlatans 
to keep an open shop. The Pharmacy Act, to a certain ex- 
tent, actually broke down under such circumstances ; and it 
is to be regretted the board were compelled to admit, as it 
were, to holy orders, such as were never intended. 


The framers of the Pharmacy Act also, no doubt, thought 
that every title under which a chemist could trade legally 
had been invoked to prevent false pretences ; but the cunning 
which is inherited specially by persons without knowledge, 
serves them also in this particular, and an evasion of the Act 
is practised by persons calling themselves “ professors.” This 
term has, unfortunately for the public, been omitted both in 
the Medical and Pharmacy Acts, and the consequence is that 
men such as Mr. Fisher (the boncheidist) practice medicine 
under this title. 


SURGEON-DRUGGISTS. 

We were perfectly surprised and equally disgusted to find that 
on one of the metropolitan goldfields the medical men are in 
the habit of making up their own medicines. Out of about a 
dozen surgeons only two are found who give their patients 
prescriptions to be made up by chemists. Each of the others 
have dispensaries and dispensers, and up to a very short 
period some of them also sold drugs and even patent medi- 
cines. Is it, then, to be wondered at if pharmacists resort to 
various means of obtaining a living outside their legitimate 
calling ? The profession of medicine should be above this 
double-dealing, and ignore it, as they are apt to do when they 
hear of a druggist prescribing over his counter. We know of 
one instance where the surgeon receives his fee for consulta- 
tion, hands his patients the prescription with a significant 
indication they can have it made up in the adjoining dis- 
pensary. They then find that another charge is made for the 
medicine, and the prescription is detained unless demanded 
by the patient. Actions like these on the part of medical men 
tend to generate a bitter feeling between the faculty and the 
chemist, which might be easily avoided if a course were 
adopted calculated to cement rather than estrange them ; and 
for the good of both it is hoped that a better understanding 
will be arrived at. We believe that a much better system pre- 
vails in Ireland, where the apothecary is to the physician what 
the solicitor is to the barrister, and the system is found to work 
well. 


ECONOMY OF FUEL, AND SMOKE ABATEMENT. 

( Read by C. R. Blackett , M.L.A . , before the Australasian 
Health Society , 29 th March , 1882.) 

At the present time this question is exciting a considerable 
and increasing interest among intelligent persons ; and I do 
not know any subject of more importance to us in Victoria 
than the economical use of fuel, more particularly coal. In 
England, Professor Jerons has long ago drawn public attention 
to the gradual exhaustion which is going on of the available 
coal supply as a reason for using the utmost care in consump- 
tion ; and in the present day, when the light of scientific 
knowledge is spreading more and more, it is to be hoped that 
the principles involved in the proper and complete combustion 
of fuel will be adopted as much as possible ; and when it is 
universally recognised that an economical use of fuel not only 
adds to the national wealth, but assists to abate the unhealthy 
and disagreeable “ smoke nuisance,” its importance cannot be 
over-estimated. Moreover, as the colony of Victoria, according 
to all the geological knowledge at present possessed, not 
having any very rich or extensive coal seams, and is depen- 
dent upon New South Wales for her supplies, ought to exercise 
a powerful influence over all who take an interest in our indus- 
trial progress. 

This question has its sanitary aspects, and our society, which 
has already done so much to spread the knowledge of the 
applications of exact science to the improvement of the health 
of the community, may do good service by again impressing 
upon the public mind this important matter. 

It may be considered by some that the smoke nuisance 
has not yet assumed a sufficiently aggravated form in our city, 
with its light and bright atmosphere, to cause the necessity 
for any active measures to be taken for its suppression. But, 
although at present the large towns of Victoria are, compared 
with London and other great cities, not greatly suffering, we 
have to remember that in a very few years the evil will greatly 
and rapidly increase, and so the health of the people will be 
affected ; and our public buildings, upon which we are spend- 
ing so much, will also be seriously disfigured and injuriously 
acted upon. Inside buildings the injury to pictures and 
works of art ought also to be taken into consideration, so great 
is the deleterious action of the corrosive gases given off during 


94 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


April, 1882. 


the combustion of coal, such as sulphurous acid. There are 
other products of combustion which have a prejudicial influ- 
ence upon health — namely, carbonic acid and oxide, carbu- 
retted hydrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen, sulphide of ammo- 
nium, bisulphide of carbon, phosphoretted hydrogen, &c. 

So great has the smoke nuisance become in England that the 
National Health Society have appointed a committee to 
examine the question. That committee, presided over by Mr. 
Ernest Hart, has brought up its report. Professor Chandler 
Roberts, F.R.S., chemist to the Royal Mint, undertook to make 
an examination of existing methods of combustion of coal in 
household grates and in furnaces. The committee also made 
complete arrangements for a smoke abatement exhibition at 
South Kensington, for the purpose of trials of apparatus and 
fuels, the objects sought being — 

1. A better utilisation of coal and coal products. 

2. To determine, practically and scientifically, the means 
which are actually available for heating houses as at present 
(and as may be constructed), without producing smoke. 

8. To enable the committee to examine the subject generally, 
and report for public information upon the relative adaptability 
of the various coals and appliances to the different require- 
ments of every class of the community. 

4. To afford reliable information upon which to base suf- 
ficient and equitable amendments of the existing laws regard- 
ing smoke. 

6. To enable the committee to ascertain and make known 
the comparative value of existing appliances for the utilisa- 
tion of gas for heating purposes, and generally bringing 
together the available material for determining how far smoke 
may be prevented, and to test numerous inventions, many of 
which are little known. 

The smoke abatement exhibition has taken place, . and judg- 
ing by the reports — extracts from which I shall give — it has 
been eminently interesting and successful. 

A few words upon the nature of fuel may, perhaps, be fit- 
tingly introduced here, as well as some remarks upon the 
subject of combustion and its products — smoke, &c. First — 

Fuel.— All substances chemically termed combustible maybe 
considered as fuel; but the term is usually applied to organic 
bodies, such as wood, coal, and peat. Now, all these substances 
are chiefly composed of carbon and hydrogen, Both these 
elements combine with great rapidity with oxygen, and the 
intensity of the chemical action is so great that heat and 
light are produced — the carbon producing carbonic dioxide 
and the hydrogen water, the oxygen of the atmosphere being 
the agent or supporter of combustion. Wood is the fuel most 
used in France. In Paris the use of coal is very restricted 
and generally objected to ; indeed, the bright, clean beauty of 
the buildings in that city could not co-exist with coal smoke. 
The French have, also, a great dislike to coal, on sanitary 
grounds. For cooking, charcoal is very generally used ; the 
lire is rapidly lighted, and when done with put out — so 
careful is the French housewife not to waste anything. Of 
peat we need not say anything, as it is not known here. Coal is 
by far the most valuable source of heat, and is compounded 
of chemically altered vegetal matter and mineral substances, 
such as arsenic, sulphur, iron, lime, &c., &c. 

Combustion, or burning, takes place when certain condi- 
tions are favourable ; and when coal, or wood, or gas is burnt, 
the oxygen of the air combines with the carbon and hydrogen, 
as above mentioned. If the oxygen of the air is supplied in 
the exact proportion to the carbon and hydrogen, we get per- 
fect combustion, and no escape of combustible gases could 
then ensue, nor of carbonaceous matters which we generally 
call smoke, and the greatest amount of heat would be 
obtained ; but these conditions are in ordinary grates and 
furnaces never or rarely approached. Coals are thrown on to 
the fire in thick layers, reducing the temperature of the fire, 
and causing at once the production of heavy volumes of 
smoke. This thick bed of superincumbent fuel also impedes 
,the draught of air. The heated air is deoxidised by the 
ignited fuel on the bars, and no oxygen is available for a con- 
siderable time to act upon the dense mass of fuel, although 
the temperature may be sufficient to distil off the hydro- 
carbons, which pass away into the chimney, and so much 
valuable heating power is lost. Smoke is a compound of 
various gases and solid particles in a very fine state of divi- 
sion — nitrogen, steam, carbonic oxide, carbon, and is the 
result of imperfect combustion. 

In early times the citizens of London had a great dislike to 
smoke, as they considered it injurious to health. In 1306 Parlia- 
ment petitioned King Edward I. to prohibit the use of coals, or, 


as it was then called, “ secole.” It was afterwards made a 
capital offence to burn ‘‘secole” within the city. A man was 
actually executed for the crime of burning “ secole” contrary 
to the law. 

Evelyn dedicated a book to Charles II., entitled Fund - 
fugium , in which he affirms his belief that Old Parr might 
have lived more than 150 years if he had not come to London, 
and had his digestion spoiled by “ smoahe" ( Westminster Review, 
January, 1882). Theodore Hook once spoke of London as 
“ that sink of sin and sea-coal.” 

Although Melbourne, as we have said above, is never likely 
to suffer to the extent complained of in London and other 
great cities of Europe, as dense fogs are rare in our warmer 
and lighter climate, yet many people find the prevalence of 
smoke particles very disagreeable indeed, and injurious to 
health ; and if it can be shown that by better methods of com- 
bustion and the more scientific utilisation of fuel, we can not 
only add greatly to our wealth, but render our cities and 
towns more healthy and pleasant to live in, we shall have the 
great satisfaction of knowing that a great public service has 
been rendered ; and although many difficulties may meet us, 
yet undoubtedly intelligent perseverance will ultimately 
triumph over all. 

(To be continued .) 


(Eotxcjspniienxe* 


KILNER’S DRUGGISTS' FORMULARY. 

To the Editor of the Australasian Supplement to the Chemist 
and Druggist. 

Dear Sir — On behalf of the publishers I beg to hand you a 
copy of Kilner’s Druggists' Formulary and supplements 
Nos. 1 and 2 for your review, and be kind enough to add same 
to your library. I bespeak for this work a careful perusal and 
a full review. I shall do myself the honour of handing you 
the other supplements as they are issued from time to time. 
Price, with supplements, as fast as issued, £2 2s. per copy. — 
Very respectfully yours, W. H. H. Lane. 

28th March, 1882. 

REMINISCENCES OF A PHARMACIST (Continued). 

(By J. B. Mummery.) 

Dr. Cronin’s Case. 

It is not my intention to rack my memory for every case of 
poisoning, by accident or design, which came under my notice 
in the old land, and dish them up as news for my readers in 
the new ; but there was one which occurred shortly before my 
leaving England, which caused a great commotion at the 
time, and, as it bears materially on a point which affects the 
interests of pharmacists all the world over, I shall be pardoned, 
I think, for narrating it. 

Dr. Cronin was a medical man in good practice in London, 
not far from Leicester-square, where I was then living. He 
was one of those practitioners (of whom, happily, we have few, 
if any, in the colony), who, though doing a rattling thing by 
the practice of their professions, covet the profits of the retail 
chemist, and yet affect to consider it infra dig. to openly keep 
a shop for the sale of drugs. 

This Dr. Cronin, did virtually keep such a shop, but borrowed 
a fictitious name, under which to carry it on ; and naturally 
desiring to have the dispensing of his own prescriptions, 
resorted to the questionable practice of writing them, in a 
character known only to himself and his assistant, and 
kindly intimating to his patients the fact that the shop round 
the corner was the only one where his prescriptions could be 
made up. This, they found, after presenting them at various 
establishments, to be the case, and were, per force, obliged to 
patronise the doctor’s dispensary. 

On one occasion, Cronin was called in to see and prescribe 
for a young lady of title, about eighteen or nineteen years of 
age, beautiful, accomplished, and on the point of being 
married. 

The prescription was written in the usual way, and the 
parents of the patient, disregarding the doctor’s advice, or 
order, to take it to his own shop, sent it, as a matter of course, 
to their family chemist. The young man into whose hands it 
came for compounding managed to make out, or guess, at all 
the components, except the menstruum, which was indicated 
as peach-water. This article taxed the wits of the dispenser, 
a young and somewhat inexperienced hand ; so calling the 


April, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


95 


shop-boy, he gave him a paper with the name of the required 
article written on it, and desired him to go to a well-known 
establishment in Oxford-street for the same. As the sender 
did not mention what the peach-water was for, and the 
messenger could give no information, the assistant, thinking 
it was for flavouring, sent the essence of bitter almonds. 
When the boy got back with the bottle, the sender, who was 
waiting for it, completed his task by filling up, without in any- 
way testing, or even tasting, the liquid, which had been 
supplied. The result may be guessed. The young lady died 
shortly after the first dose, a victim to cupidity on one part 
and stupidity on the other. 

I am not aware whether any punishment was meted out to 
either doctor or chemist ; but the former, as almost a matter 
of course, lost his practice and the name of Cronin, once 
famous was heard no more. He disappeared from London, 
and probably from England, to die in obscurity. 

“Farewell, Farewell to the Dear Old Land, 
Hurrah, Hurrah for the New !” 

If any one had told me at the time of TawelTs execution 
that it was probable that I should ever stand behind the 
counter in the very shop in which that notorious criminal had 
made his (to use a colonialism) pile, I should have given them 
very little credit for skill in fortune-telling. Yet this event 
did actually come to pass in the year 1853 ; but of this anon. 
Chemists in this colony, and those at the present day at home, 
know nothing, except by hearsay, of the direful drudgery 
which was the lot of those whose business it was to minister 
as assistants in chemists’ shops to the wants of those who 
suffered from any of the numerous ills to which humanity is 
heir. From earliest dawn to the latest hour of the night it 
was one continued round of toil. They were not allowed to 
sit down until the principal lights were turned out, at ten 
o’clock, and not even then until every drawer was filled to reple- 
tion with pennyworths of sticking-plaster, salts, magnesia, or 
rhubarb, as the case might be ; they were not allowed at any 
time during the long, long day to go to the door for a breath 
of fresh air, lest it should be thought by passers-by that there 
was a moment in the sixteen hours when the shop was without 
a customer. Not one holiday, or even half a one, from one 
year’s end to another ; two or three hours every alternate 
Sunday being about the amount of relaxation considered 
necessary for a chemist’s assistant in enlightened, anti-slavery 
England in the middle portion of the nineteenth century. 

I am afraid that my brother chemists in this land of freedom 
will think that I am drawing an exaggerated picture of the 
miseries of an assistant pharmacist in olden days. If they do 
so, all I can say is that their lot was a happier one than mine. 
I am writing my own reminiscences. 

This kind of life (irksome enough, no doubt, to all subordi- 
nates in the drug business) was particularly unsuited to my 
taste, which inclined in a remarkable degree to out-door 
exercise, and I yearned for adventure by sea and land ; for, as 
a boy, I had devoured Crusoe , admired Mungo Park, and 
perused Campbell’s Travels in Africa , until I fear they were 
more familiar to me than my “ catechism.” 

With such tastes and aspirations, it will not be wondered 
that the land of my birth became distasteful to me, or that I 
came to the determination to turn my back on it, and set my 
face towards other lands, where I could earn my bread literally 
by the sweat of my brow in wild and untried regions under a 
sunny sky. 

( To be continued l^) 


PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 

(By Robert F. Fairthorne, Ph.G.) 
Unguentum Aqu^e Ros^e. — The ointment of rose-water of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, prepared according to the direc- 
tions given in that work, is, in most respects, justly regarded as 
a satisfactory preparation. It is not, however, entirely unobjec- 
tionable, and the directions can be so modified that those 
engaged in the manufacture of it will be assisted thereby. The 
length of time required to produce an ointment such as the 
apothecary desires is often quite a serious tax upon his 
patience, and in order to lessen this I would recommend it to 
be made in the following manner : — All the ingredients 
employed are put into a wide-mouthed bottle, placed in a hot- 
water bath, and allowed to remain until the solid portion is 
melted, then the bottle is taken out, and, having tightly 
corked or stoppered it, the mixture is thoroughly shaken ; a 
uniform emulsion will result, which is to be agitated until 
solid. 


The resulting ointment will be found smoother and more 
uniform than that produced by stirring, and the operator will 
find less exertion required, and will have also the advantage 
of knowing exactly the right moment when it is proper to stop 
agitation by solidification taking place. If in making it, 
three times the quantity of the ingredients ordered by the 
Pharmacopoeia are used, an ordinary preserving jar, with a 
cover that screws on, will be found a very convenient vessel 
to use. 

Cold Cream, and a Cheap Substitute for Oil of 
Almond. — One of the objections to the rose-water ointment 
of the Pharmacopoeia is its unstable character. It seldom 
remains in good condition more than two weeks, by which 
time in many cases it will be found rancid and the rose-water 
often separated in globules, giving it an unsightly appearance. 
For these reasons it has been customary amongst the druggists 
to make a substitute for it which is called cold cream, either 
with much less rose-water or without any, or by substituting 
a small amount of glycerine for it. 

The use, however, of oil of sweet almonds has been almost 
universally retained. This oil is certainly unobjectionable, 
but can be replaced in making the unofficinal ointment by a 
much cheaper one, which is sold by the wholesale druggists 
under the name of nut-oil. This is obtainable at about one- 
fourth the price of the former, to which it bears a very close 
resemblance in colour, odour, and other characteristics I have 
used it, and found it quite satisfactory, and offer the following 
formula to those who would like to try it 
Take of Nut-oil 

Spermaceti . 


White wax 
Rose-water .. 
Oil of rose 


lb. avoirdupois 
3 oz. „ 

If oz. „ 

\ OZ. „ 

18 drops 


Make an ointment in the same manner as suggested above. 
If a very white cold cream is desired, the addition of 25 grains 
of borax will produce it. 

In this place I would remark that all, or nearly all, the 
ointments and cerates of the Pharmacopoeia can be advan- 
tageously made by agitation, and more expeditiously than by 
the ordinary method. 

A Solid Glycerine Preparation.— The very extensive 
application of glycerine renders it desirable to present it in 
many different forms, and two very convenient ones will be 
produced by the following formulas 

Take of French gelatine ... ... 120 grains 

Glycerine... ... ... fl. oz. 

Water ... ... ... |fl. oz. 

Cut up the gelatine in small pieces, and, having added it to 
the water in a wide-mouthed vial, melt it by means of a 
water bath, then add the glycerine, which must be warmed ; 
shake the mixture, pour into moulds, and keep in a cool place 
until solid. It can then be taken out and wrapped in either 
tin-foil or waxed paper. This makes a clear, elegant, ice-like 
preparation, and can be applied to the skin, which should be 
previously moistened with water. If used for toilet purposes, 
a drop of oil of rose can be added whilst the ingredients are 
fluid. 

An article having more resemblance to a cerate, or to stick 
pomade, in which glycerine predominates, can be made by 
taking — 

French gelatine ... ... 100 grains 

Starch ... ... ... 50 „ 

Glycerine ... ... ... 12 fluid drachms 

Water ... ... ... 4 ,, 

Add the gelatine to the water, and proceed as in the other 
receipt. Rub up the starch with the glycerine, and having 
heated the mixture on a sand-bath in a capsule, with constant 
stirring until it becomes translucent through the starch 
dissolving, add the solution of gelatine to it, and pour into 
moulds. If for toilet purposes, it can be perfumed and 
moulded of a cylindrical form by pouring it into wide glass 
tubes closed at the bottom with corks. In order to remove it 
from them, take out the cork, and, having warmed the tube 
by pouring a little hob water over it, blow through the tube, 
when the solidified gelatine will fall out. This is placed on a 
sheet of glass, and kept cool until the outside has become 
solid. This can be applied to the skin without previous 
wetting, and has a singular cerate-like consistence . — American 
Journal of Pharmacy. 

Syrups for Soda Water — Orange and Lemon.— Very 
superior syrups can be made in the following manner : — Take 
the peels of six oranges or lemons ; cut them very thin ; make 
a tincture of them by macerating in 6 fluid ounces of alcohol 


96 


April, 1882. 


THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 


for three days. Having filtered it, pour it on 1 lb. (avoirdupois 
weight) of sugar contained in an evaporating dish or other 
suitable vessel, and allow the alcohol to evaporate spontaneously. 
When dry dissolve in half-pint of water in which, if orange 
syrup is to be made, ounces of citric acid — if lemon, 2 
ounces of the acid and 2 drachms — are to be dissolved. This 
mixture, added to 11 pints of simple syrup, will produce fine 
flavoured syrups, which keep well. 

SECRET REMEDIES. 

In considering the subject a distinction should be made 
between “ secret remedies” and “ specialties.” A “ specialty” 
may be defined as any substance or product which, prepared 
according to an official formula, realises an improvement in 
the art of pharmacy, and presents special therapeutic advan- 
tages. A “secret remedy” is any simple or compound 
substance or medicine employed in the treatment of disease, 
which has not received official sanction or publication, and 
which has not been prepared for a particular case upon a 
medical prescription. One is the product of the professional 
skill and practical sense of the pharmacist, and is generally 
met with in competitions and industrial exhibitions. The 
other is a product of charlatanism and an inordinate desire to 
acquire a fortune rapidly ; it makes itself known especially 
by advertisements in the public prints. Even if the remedies 
of which neither the basis nor the proportions are known 
ought to be rejected from therapeutics, genuine specialties, 
which mark a progress in the pharmaceutic art, or are intended 
to facilitate the administration of certain medicines, might, 
up to a certain point, be admitted. The distinction between 
a specialty and a secret remedy is not, however, always easy 
to establish. 

The public has acquired a taste for secret remedies, and will 
continue to take them ; secret remedies eDjoy a prestige that 
imposes upon the public, and it will be difficult to fight against 
this infatuation. The word public is here used in the widest 
sense, as including the learned as well as the ignorant. And 
it is certain the public will have secret remedies as long as it 
has incurable invalids haunted by the hope of being healed or 
having their pains assuaged. The medicine that would appear 
without any value if it were given simply under the cover of 
the pharmacist, with his label, becomes a panacea, and imposes 
upon the public as soon as it is noisily advertised and covered 
with a stamp and a specious prospectus ; if, in addition, it be 
prescribed by a medical man, the confidence becomes un- 
limited . — Pharmaceutical Journal. 


INQUEST. 

Mr. Maunsell held an inquest on 6th March, at the Travel- 
lers’ Rest Hotel, Gerogery, on the body of William Francis 
Wilkes, chemist. The following evidence was taken : — James 
E. Britton deposed : I first met the deceased in Albury on the 
20th February, when he informed me he was hard up ; that he 
was a chemist by profession, and had been managing a shop in 
Chiltern. He told me his father was a medical man in Eng- 
land, and that he was expecting money from home. I saw the 
deceased the last time alive about a quarter of a mile from 
Brown’s Springs Station. He used to eat large quantities of 
salt and drink a great deal of water. He had a good appetite. 
Jesse Young, boundary rider, deposed : I found deceased lying 
dead on a rock about a mile from the station on Tuesday last. 
He was lying on his face, and there was no appearance of any 
struggle. There was no blood on him. Henry Lucas, manager 
of Brown’s Springs Station, corroborated the evidence of last 
witness. His hat and clothes were found half a mile from the 
place where he was found. Deceased had only his trousers on ; 
no shirt. Dr. J. Leonard, duly qualified medical practitioner, 
deposed : I find nothing to account for death, but from the 
evidence given I believe him to have died from exhaustion 
consequent on exposure. I think he must have had delirium, 
and, probably, had been drinking heavily recently. The jury 
found the cause of death was exhaustion and exposure. 

VICTORIA PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY’S MEDAL IN 
GOLD. 

School of pharmacy prizes presented by the Council — 
Chemistry (“elementary and practical”), botany, materia 
mediea, and pharmacy. 

At the end of each term a gold medal will be offered for 
competition. Students who have attended more than one 
term will be ineligible to compete. The medals can only be 
taken by students who have worked in the laboratory for not 
less than 75 per cent, of their period of study, and who are 


connected with the Society as registered apprentices of the 
same. On receiving the report of the examiners, the Council 
will award the prizes. 

jflotcs anb Abstracts. 

Fowler’s Solution. — Dannenberg does not regard the 
algaceous growth, occasionally observed in this liquid, as 
being of any importance concerning the arsenic present ; but 
he directs attention to the gradual oxidation, in partly filled 
bottles, of the arsenious to arsenic acid, as was shown by 
Fresenius many years ago. According to Frerichs and 
Wcehler arsenic acid is far less poisonous than arsenious acid, 
and it is obvious that it cannot be immaterial which of the 
two compounds is present. Fowler’s solution should be pre- 
pared only in small quantities and preserved in well-stopped 
vials. — Phar. Centralhalle, 1881, p. 319. 

Preparation of Sodium Ethylate. — Hager gives the 
following directions : — 100 grams absolute alcohol are placed 
into a glass flask of 350 ccm. (about 12 ozs.) capacity ; small 
pieces of the metallic sodium of the size of a pea or bean are 
then gradually added, and the flask is closed with a cork, 
through which a long open glass tube passes for the purpose 
of condensing the alcoholic vapours evolved during the reac- 
tion. The addition of sodium is continued, until 12 grams of 
the metal have been used, repeated agitation being required 
towards the end of the process. The hot thickish liquid is now 
poured into a porcelain dish, the flask is rinsed out with a 
little hot alcohol, any undissolved sodium is carefully removed, 
and the liquid is heated until, after cooling, it will completely 
solidify, when the mass is rubbed into a fine powder and care- 
fully preserved. Thus prepared, it contains some alcohol in 
combination, which may be expelled by heating it to 200° G. In 
contact with water it is decomposed into alcohol and sodium 
hydrate. Its action is milder than that of caustic soda, and it 
is more conveniently applied than the latter. Richardson’s 
sodium ethylate is a clear solution of 1 part of the above com- 
pound in three parts of absolute alcohol. Freshly prepared it 
is colourless ; but brown yellow if made from old ethylate. — 
Ibid., p. 359. 

Elastic Adhesive Plaster. — Dr. W. P. Morgan, in a 
communication to the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal , 
states that he has been trying to obtain an elastic adhesive 
plaster that, when attached to the skin, should yield to the 
movement of the muscles and parts beneath without the sen- 
sation of stiffness or an uncomfortable wrinkling. Not being 
able to obtain an article of this description, he procured some 
india-rubber, and, giving it a coat of plaster such as is recom- 
mended in Griffith’s Formulary under the name of “ Boyn- 
ton’s Adhesive Plaster” (lead plaster 1 lb., resin 6 drachms), 
he found the material he wished. After using it as a simple 
covering for cases of psoriasis, intertrigo, &c., he extended its 
use to incised wounds, abscesses, &c., and found it invaluable. 
Placing one end of the strip of plaster upon one lip of the 
wound, and then stretching the rubber and fastening the 
other end to the opposite lip of the wound there is perfect ap- 
position of the several parts, the elastic rubber acting con- 
tinually to draw and keep the parts together. When unable 
to get the sheets of rubber, one may use broad letter-bands 
(sold by stationers), by giving them a coat of plaster. — Ohio 
Medical Journal, September, 1881, p. 136. 

A valuable paper, by M. Paul Bert, on the administration 
of anaesthetics, has recently been read before the Academy of 
Sciences ( Comptes Rendus, Yol. xciii., p. 768). M. Bert finds 
by experiment that if an anaesthetic be mixed with variable 
quantities of atmospheric air there comes a point at which an 
animal made to breathe such an atmosphere exhibits anaes- 
thesia, and that this point bears a definite relation to the 
point at which the anaesthetic proves fatal. In experiments 
made upon dogs, mice, and sparrows, using chloroform, ether, 
amylene, and bromide and chloride of ethyl, it was found that 
the fatal dose was double that required to produce insensi- 
bility. In the case of protoxide of nitrogen the ratio is one 
to three. The result shows that chloroform acts not by the 
quantity inhaled, but by the amount of air mixed with it. 
This important result, although the experiments had not then 
been made upon mankind, shows that in all probability care- 
ful observation made by those who have the administration 
of chloroform in their hands may reduce its use to a minimum 
of risk and that in the future it may be employed with scien- 
tific precision. An instrument by which the amount of ad- 
mixture of air and chloroform could be easily regulated 
before inhalation seems therefore to be a desideratum. 


* / / 1 j/ Ac . 


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INDEX 


Attstahstaii Supplement to Chemist anh Jraggist. 


YOL. IV. 


FROM MAY, 1881, 


TO A R RIL, 18 8 2. 


All letters to the. Editor will be found arranyed under the head of Correspondence. 


Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society 

of New South Wales, The 3 

Awards. Medals at the Melbourne Exhibition 6 

Asparagus. How to Cook 23 

Artificial Carlsbad Salt . . 23 

Ancient Alum Well at Harrowgate . . . . 24 

Amended Regulations to the Pharmacy Act 

1876 28 

Adelaide Exhibition, The.. 32 

Adulteration of Food and Drink— a lecture, 

by R. W. E. M'lvor .. 38 

American Leech Farm 45 

Annual IHnner of the Pharmaceutical Society 

of Victoria 50 

Absorption of Gases by 8olida 62 

Accident to Mr. Alfred Felton . . 02 

Accident with Blue Fire .63 

X Australian Plants, Some New— by Baron F. 

von Mueller . . 68 

Accident with Liquor Ammonias . . . . 70 

Australian Veterinary Journal, The . . 71 

Annual Cricket Match, The . . 72, 79 

Appointment of Lecturer to School of Phar- 

«**c> 74 

X A New Palm from Queensland— by Baron F. 

von Mueller ' .77 

Adulterated Spirits, Sales of . 79 

Annual Meeung of the Pharmaceutical Society 

of Victoria . .83 

Analysis of a Sample of Water— J. Kruse ! . 80 


i Duboisina 
( Disinfectants 


PAGE 

8 

13 

Drug Adulteration . . . . . . . . . . 23 

^Definition of a New Tree from East Australia 

— by Baron F. von Mueller 53 

Device for Marking Poisons . . . . . . C3 

X Definition of some New Australian Plants— 

i by Baron F. von Mueller 68 

I Death of Mr. A. J. Cooley .. . . ..71 

Death of Mr. Chas. Kemot . . . . . . 92 

' Examinations .. .. 1 

• Errata 12 

! Economy of Fuc* and Smoke Abatement— a 
Lecture, by < R. Blackett, M.P. .. 93,103 

Elastic Adhesive Plaster . . 96 

First Practical Pharmaceutical Examination 5 
French Association for the Advancement of 
' Science . . . , , . , . . . 18 

Failure of Justice, A .49 

Fomentations, Ready Method of Preparing . . 80 

Fowler’s Solution 


96 


; Glass, To Powder .. .. .. .. ..16 

l Glucose as an Excipient for Pill Masses .. 40 

i Glycerine 45 

■ Gold Medal of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Victoria gr, 


Books Received .. .. 27, 40, 48, 58, 75, 

Bailey. E L., The Late 

Botanical Sources of Tonga 

Ballarat Chemists’ Association . . . . ’ ’ 

Breach of the Pharmacy Act 

Correspondence .. 8, 11, 22, 30, 37, 71, 80 

Colouring for Tooth Powder 

Compromise between the Physicians and 
Pharmacists of Antwerp 
Cultivation of Arrowroot in Australia 
Careless Bottle-washer, A , . ’ 

Gibbon Points for Splitting Glass ! ' ” 

Colour of Flowers 

Catgut lor Ligatures . . ’ ’ 

Charge of Murder against J. E. Wall . . " 

Charge of Manslaughter against E. Kilpatrick 

Clarifying Shellac Solutions 

Charge of Manslaughter 

Cure by Imagination . . , . ’ ] ’ ’ 

Choral, Prosecution for Selling . . . ! ' ’ 

Colouring White Flowers 
X Cycas, Notes on a hitherto undefined species 

of— by Baron F. von Mueller 

X Casuarina, Remarks on a New— bv Baron F. 
von Mueller 


g2 : Home of Calderon, The 22 

2^ Homoeopathic Chemist Charged with Larceny 78 

International Pharmaceutical Congress 10, 34 
yy j Impartial Justice in Germany .. .. ,.23 

International Medical Congress and Vivisection 64 

jjfJasmine, A New, from Samoa— by Baron F. 

| von Mueller ..29 

22 Kasner v. Poulton.. 29 

23 Kilpatrick, E., Charged with Manslaughter . . f>9 

24 ! Kernot, Death of Mr. Chas: .. u2 

24 | Kilner ’ 8 Druggist’s Formulary, Reveiw of , 93 
35 i 

54 ; Legal and Magisterial .. 29, 37, 54, 69, 70, 77 

59 ! Lead against Corrosion, To Protect 64 

56 ; Liquid Starch Gloss 66 

59 j Lecture by C. R. Blackett, M.P., Economy of 
63 | Fuel and Smoke Abatement .. .. 93,103 

70 ! 

80 : Meeting of Chemists and Druggists . . . . 5 

Modified Examinations, Candidates Passed at 30 
84 ; Melbourne International Exhibition .. ..6,14 

Meeting of Suburban Chemists . . .. .. 11 

92 Melbourne Milk Supply Company .. .. 31 


Masters and Apprentices 33 

Modified Examinations, Papers Used at .. 38 

! Mosquito Fumigating Pastilles 66 

1 Malic Acid, A New Test for .. .. ..63 

Medicated Fumigating Pastilles .. .. 64 

Modern Pharmaceutical Study— by II. J. 

| M oiler 69, 88 

Metallic Oleates and Oleo-palmitates .. .. 80 

Modern Pharmaceutical Study, Some Remarks 
I on ‘ 88 

.Notes and Abst racts, 8, 16, 23, 35, 50, 63, 80, 88, 96 
A New Jasmine from Samoa, Remarks on— by 

Baron F. von Mueller 29 

Jfc'New Orchid of Victoria — by Baron F. von 

Mueller 44 

Non-explosive Keroscenc 48 

Note on Glyccrinum Acidi Galliei .. .. 72 

; Notes on the Year 1881 85 

N’ettleton, VV. F. G., Prosecution of, for Breach 
of the Pharmacy Act .. .. ..91 

X New Casuarina, A— by Baron F. von Mueller 92 

1 Organic Chemistry .. 6 

i Obituary Notices 16, 31, 38 

j Obtaining Money by False Pretences .. ..30 

I Oat-phosphorus Rabbit Poison .. .. .. 3fi 

Orchid, A New— by Baron F. von Mueller .. 44 

I Only American Leech Farm, The .. .. 45 

| Pharmaceutical Education and Pharmaceuti- 
cal Examination .. .. .. ..81 

I Paper for Silverware .. .. .. ..88 

| Pharmacy Act, Prosecution of J. E. Wall for 
i Breach of . . . . . . . . . . 77 

j Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, Annual 

! Meeting of ..83 

: Prosecution of an Unregistered Chemist at 

Warrnambool , . . . 91 

Pharmaceutical Society in London .. .. 2 

Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, 3,10, 19, 27, 42, 

60, 67, 75 

' Pharmacy Board of Victoria . . 3, 19, 28, 34, 43, 

; 58, 07, 74, 86 

Preliminary Examination, Candidates Passed 

; at 5, 30, 62, 86 

Preliminary Examination, Papers Used at, 6,38,62 

i Patent Medicines 

! Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand .. 10 
! Pharmacy in New South Wales . . . . li, 53 

! Pharmaceutical Society of New South Wales. 20,67, 

X. . 77, 84 

1 Poisoning Cases .. .. . .. 21, 28 45 

, Pharmaceutical Education, Mr. Douglas Camp- ’ 

bell on . , 26 

Presentation to Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery ’* 26 





INDEX — ( Continued ). 


PAGB 


Penberthy v. Grace . . , . 30, 37 

Poisoning- Case at Launceston, The late .. 31 

Phylloxera Vestatrix 39 

Pharmacy in New Zealand .. .. 43, 84 

Pharmacy in Fiji 44 

Plants in their Relation to Health— a Lecture 

by C. R. Blackett, M.P 46 

Pharmaceutical Education 57 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 71 

Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties . . 71 

Preparation, What is a 73 

.XTalm from Queensland, A New— by Baron F. 

von Mueller . . . . . . 77 

Pormanganate of Potassa as an Autidote for 
Snake Poison . . . . . . . , 80 

Qualification of Assistants and Apprentices, 

The 17 

Queensland Pharmacy Bill 35 

Quack Medicine . . 46 


PAGB ! 

Refrigerating Mixtures 10 

Removal of Freckles 63 

Remarks upon Modern Pharmaceutical Study 69 

Reminiscences of a Pharmacist — by J. B. 
Mummery 87,94 

Scientific Summary . . 0, 11, 21, 28, 69, 68 

Scale of Charges for Dispensing .. .. 13 

School of Mines, Ballarat . . . . 20, 61 

Sale of Poisons, The 26, 65 ; 

St. Arnaud County Court . . . . 30, 37 i 

Sponge Culture . . . . . . . . . . 35 i 

Suppositories 63 - 

Suicide of the Rev. A. F. Harding . . . . 70 ' 

Suicides by Poison 71 j 

School of Mines, Sandhurst 70 j 

Stain for Mahogany Cherry 80 

School of Pharmacy, Examination for the i 

Certificate of the 86 

Sale of Poisons in Open Surgeries, The . . 87 | 


I Simple Mode of Tempering Glass .. .,88 

! Surgeon Druggists 93 

Secret Remedies , . 96 

Sodium Ethylate, Preparation of . . . . 86 

Thomson v. Poulton 30 

Tree, A New, from East Australia— by Baron 

F. von Mueller 53 

Troches of Borax 72 

Transatlantic Offences against Pharmacy Laws 72 

Unqualified Assistants 41 

Vaccination, The Discoverer of 35 

Varnish for Preventing Rust 48 

What is a Preparation? 73 

Wall, J. E., Prosecuted for Practising Surgery 77 
Wilkes, Wm. Francis, Inquest on . . 96 





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THE CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST. 97} 


INDEX TO LITERARY CONTE 


PAGE 

Leading Article— Exchange of Certifi- 


cates 97 

The Month 98 

Meeting— Pharmaceutical Society of Vic- 

.! toria 99 

School of Mines— Ballarat 99 

Country Druggists 100 


PAGE 


The Russian Jewish Relief Fund 100 

Occurrence of Bassora-Gum in Cycadete 100 

Chinese Method of Manufacturing Ver- 
milion 100 

Correspondence 101 

Poisonous Cases 101 


NTS. 

PAGE 


Fires 102 

Reminiscences of a Pharmacist 102 

Economy of Fuel, and Smoke Abatement . . 103 

Notes and Abstracts 104 

Impure Water 104 

Rules for the Care of the Eyes 104 


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